Nowadays, based on the amount of available data, there are situations in which the information visualization becomes fundamental for the understanding and interpretation of the data. In this context, the study aims to relate and explore, through visualization techniques, open educational data in a multidisciplinary context. For that, a Web application was developed for data visualization of the Brazilian nationalhighschoolexam (ENEM). In this study, the ENEM microdata was used, from the Brazilian open data portal. As a result of the comparative analyzes performed on the data, by states, regions and types of schools, it was observed which states obtained the highest and lowest averages of ENEM in relation to national averages. For example, in the state of Santa Catarina, students from private schools obtained 12.70% above the national average for that type of school and the lowest average age of enrolled students corresponding to 21.6 years old. The visualization Web application made possible a comparative analysis on the large dataset and the exploration of visualization possibilities that would be difficult to perform through traditional representations.
This paper aims to analyse understanding of the concept of contextualization in Science teaching implicit in questions for the ENEM, from the perspective of those involved in creating theoretical and methodological texts for this exam, and with the intention of drawing attention to support frameworks for teaching practice and pedagogical and curricular considerations in Science teaching and evaluative processes. To this end, five semi-structured interviews on the theme were conducted with educators connected with the field of the Natural Sciences and Mathematics and involved with the ENEM, and were analysed guided by the precepts of Text Discourse Analysis. Based on this analysis there appears to be a need to go beyond perspectives that reduce the context to a pretext of purely conceptual approaches and ideas that limit the context merely to aspects of the students’ environs. However, there are also possibilities that emerge for a contextualized approach connected to using historical perspectives and a multiplicity of contexts.
The regular practice of PA in adolescents has been widely discussed in the literature, generating consensus about its benefits. However, at school, this understand- ing does not support the prioritization of PA, besides the class periods for physical education. School man- agers and teachers from other disciplines, often con- cerned about the exam evaluations of educational in- stitutions, such as the Basic Education Development Index - IDEB and the NationalHighSchoolExam - ENEM, prioritize increasing workload of subjects like Math and Portuguese, over the periods for physical education, which is sometimes the only time that the students have the opportunity to perform PA.
Regarding these reforms, Bonamino and Sousa (2012) observed a tendency to use centralized evaluations to measure the students’ school performance, under the same curricular parameters to which all students considerably should have access. This movement would be leading the States to define their curricular proposals based on the ref- erence grids used in external evaluations, such as the Prova Brasil (Bra- zilian Test) or the Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio – ENEM (NationalHighSchoolExam) and, in some cases, at risk of teaching for the test, which happens when the teachers gather their efforts preferably in the items that will be evaluated and disregard other important aspects in the curriculum (Bonmino; Sousa, 2012; Sousa, 2013; Bauer et al., 2015; Bauer; Sousa, 2015; Oliveira, 2016; Melo; Cirilo; Pinto, 2016).
This work had as main objective to observe the existing differences between the performance of Brazilian public and private schools in the main program of access to higher education in the country, the ENEM, based on the sociology developed by Pierre Bourdieu. Qualitative (Deslauriers, 1991) and quantitative (Fonseca, 2002) research were adopted as methodology, and data were collected based on information presented by INEP regarding the results of schools at ENEM, specifically in 2017. As contributions theorists use the sociology presented by Bourdieu in the book Reproduction (1970), which in general states that the school is an institution that legitimizes inequalities by disregarding factors such as family and cultural heritage in the analysis of educational problems. The results of the survey reinforce the gap between public and private schools, with nine out of ten schools with the best performance of a private nature. Another relevant fact is that 90% of the best schools in terms of income are concentrated in the southeast region. The gap between income increases the influence of economic, social and cultural issues on the good academic performance of students, dialoguing in such a way with Bourdieu's thinking.
Kaken naj bo skupen izraz za omenjene pojave v slovenskem jeziku? Nedvomno bi se vsakdo strinjal, da svenja mnenj, preprièanj, sodb, predstav, opisov in staliè, ki jih imajo mladostniki o lastni storilnostni motivaciji, o lastnem uèenju za olo in o oli na splono, ni mogoèe opredeliti kot priblianja, blianja ali dostope do olskega dela, kot je razvidno iz dobesednega prevoda izraza approaches to school work. Verjetno je najbolji izraz pristopi k olskemu delu. Drugaène monosti pa ponuja prevod izraza dispositions to school. Grad (1965) prevaja disposition kot razporeditev, nagnjenje, èud, temperament; razpolaganje in oblast ukrepanja. V angleko-anglekih slovarjih (Manser, 1990; Sinclair, 1987; Tulloch, 1993) pa najdemo sinonime kot so: znaèaj, navada, upravljanje, razpoloenje, pripravljenost, tenja, duh, odloèitev, stalièe itd. ter razliène angleke izraze za nagnjenje. Glede na vsebino vpraalnikov, ki jih uporabljam v raziskavi, bi najbolj ustrezal izraz nagnjenja uèencev do olskega izobraevanja. Ker pa tega izraza v taknem kontekstu v slovenskem jeziku ne uporabljamo, je bilo potrebno poiskati izraz, ki ima soroden pomen, a je ire rabljen. Tako sem se odloèila za izraz odnos uèencev do olskega izobraevanja, cenjena recenzenta pa sta ga spremenila v odnos do ole in uèenja. Zdi se, da je s to sintagmo mogoèe poiskati skupni imenovalec mnoici mnenj, preprièanj, sodb, predstav, opisov in staliè, ki jih imajo mladostniki o lastni storilnostni motivaciji, lastnem uèenju za olo in o oli na splono, saj so predmet te raziskave predvsem ta podroèja, ne pa sami procesi miljenja, uèenja in motivacije.
From the results reported by the USA National Sleep Foundation (2006), some data suggest that the de- velopment of puberty may be more strongly associated with high rates of sleep disorders; the results show a significant link between sleep disturbances and phys- ical, psychological or social difficulties. In summary, this study suggests the importance of evaluating the qual- ity of sleep, for it may be a way of detecting psycholog- ical difficulties in adolescents.
The outcomes of these studies reiterate the need to promote biotechnology education, by drawing a picture of superficial knowledge and misperceptions amongst the younger population segments (Dawson, 2007; Prokop et al., 2007, Uşak et al., 2009). Although data in the 2009 Flash EB Series #239 report (The Gallup Organization, 2009) point towards young European’s increased awareness and interest about science and technology in general, in various countries and at different instructional levels, students’ knowledge about biotechnology-related concepts and procedures has been classified as limited and often erroneous. For instance, in 2007, Dawson reported that Australian highschool students, specially the younger ones, had difficulties in defining and providing examples of biotechnology and were particularly unaware of agro-food applications (Dawson, 2007). Prokop and colleagues noticed that Slovakian students’ knowledge about the meaning of genetic engineering was poor (Prokop et al., 2007). Turkish students, although relatively aware of practical applications, have been shown to possess an insufficient understanding about basic biotechnology processes involved in DNA manipulation (Uşak et al., 2009). These and other studies have also looked into students’ attitudes and how they might relate to knowledge, providing varying results (Dawson, 2007; Klop & Severiens, 2007; Lamanauskas & Makarskaitė-Petkevičienė, 2008; Prokop et al., 2007; Uşak et al., 2009). To some extent mirroring what has been observed in adult populations, students’ attitudes towards biotechnology, mostly measured as acceptance and approval of applications, are known to vary from skeptic responses and utter dismissals to an outright support, according to features such as age, gender, or level of education (Dawson, 2007; Klop & Severiens, 2007; Sáez et al., 2007; Prokop et al., 2007; Uşak et al., 2009). In addition, these variations have not been univocally associated with the level of understanding about the underlying concepts (Dawson, 2007; Prokop et al., 2007; Uşak et al., 2009).
O outro ponto que temos que tomar cuidado ´ e quando damos valor aos subitens. Por exemplo se fa¸ co uma quest˜ ao com dois subitens, a quest˜ ao valendo 1 ponto e cada subitem 0,5 ponto, para que a pontua¸ c˜ ao da quest˜ ao n˜ ao seja contada duas vezes devemos usar os comandos \addpoints e \noaddpoints. Para tal, antes de iniciar o ambiente subitem usamos o comando \noaddpoints, para n˜ ao contar os pontos dos subitens, e logo ap´ os o fechamento deste ambiente usamos o comando \addpoints para voltar a contar os pontos (caso esteja se perguntado onde esses pontos s˜ ao contados, isto acontece na tabela do cabe¸ calho, chamada de gradetable pela classe exam, mas como n˜ ao ´ e foco deste material n˜ ao iremos abord´ a-la, caso sinta-se interessado sugiro a apostila).
In contrast with the fact that federal resources must be used only for food purchasing, the school resources are not used to fund any part of the schools’ food bill. If needed, the counterpart transfer must complement the federal resources to afford the food expenses, but it is also commonly used for other costs related to the entire process of student feeding, such as food transportation, food preparation, human resources with food production and managerial staff, among others. Thus, for the sake of illustration, dividing the PNAE cost structure roughly into two major parts, namely Food and Infra-Structure & Other Inputs, Figure 3 below illustrated the distribution of each resource type among the two cost categories.
Another serious obstacle on the road to establishing a HCNM was the fear among several countries of involvement of the new High Commissioner in cases of terrorism. It was a nightmare scenario for countries like Spain, Turkey, and the UK that an independent international personality could potentially interfere in the ongoing violent problems in these States. The whole issue was highly controversial, as many States seriously opposed establishing a link between minorities and terrorism and they suspected some countries would be using this argument as a way to cover up their problems with national minorities by simply opposing the HCNM proposal. The final result was a compromise in the form of a clause th at excludes “organized acts of terrorism ” (paragraph 5(b)) from the HCNM mandate as well as the prohibition of communication with groups which practice or publicly condone terrorism or violence (paragraph 25). This has become a “useful” tool for several States to ban the HCNM from dealing with their minority problems, such as Turkey. Also the UK has resisted HCNM involvement at the time of the conflict in Northern Ireland.
Interestingly, the behaviours individuals reported engaging more while in bed were to watch videos on YouTube, watch movies, listen to music and send texts. These findings are consistent with those reported by the National Sleep Foundation (2006). This report indicated that all adolescents used at least one electronic device in bed, particularly: 57% television, 90% music players, 43% computers, and 64% phones. Additionally, the study by Calamaro, Mason, and Ratcliffe (2009) reported that adolescents were sending texts, making phone calls, playing computer games or were online after 9:00 p.m.; and the study by Van den Bulck (2007) using a Belgian sample reported that 62% of adolescents used their phone in bed, with the lights off, and consequently reported more tiredness during the following day.
Figure 1. The social network in the junior class of Maine-Endwell HighSchool at three different levels. Top: Visualizations of networks. Nodes (blue dots) represent individual students. Links (thin red lines) represent their friendships reconstructed from results of the online survey administered in January 2011. Directions of links are omitted for clarity. These plots show the entire network (i.e., there were no disconnected nodes or components in our data). Bottom: Complementary cumulative degree distributions and other network metrics. Red solid lines are for out-degrees, while blue dashed lines for in-degrees. Densities and transitivities were calculated using directed links, while average clustering coefficients were calculated after converting all the links into undirected ones. (A) A network made of all levels of links (acquaintances, friends, and best or close friends). (B) A network made of links for friends and best or close friends only. (C) A network made of best or close friends only.
There were other relevant findings concerning the enablers and barriers for using LMS platforms reported by participating schools, related with structural and macro- organizational definitions, i.e., beyond schools. Thus, as enablers schools reported the ERTE/PTE (then CRIE) initiative “School, Teachers and Laptops”, held during school year 2006/2007and the implementation of the “Technological Plan for Education”, as well as its follow-up by the ICT Competence Centers. Such findings show that schools notice the positive impact of some of the initiatives centrally developed to modernize and promote the integration of technologies into school activities.
favorite textbook in use, but there are mixed preferences; (ii) content is the most important aspect for them in the textbooks, whereas price and special offers are not aspects highly considered; (iii) all the teachers declared that they are used to complementing the textbooks bringing a diversity of extra-material and resources to the classroom; (iv) the majority of the textbooks used by these teachers present literature; (v) even though vague, the approach to literature mostly used is presenting activities connected to it; (vi) teachers are interested in different aspects of students’ development – both language fluency and personal growth are important; and (vii) most of these teachers’ highschool students are said to dislike working with literature. It was a good revelation for this researcher to observe that so many teachers declared they consider bringing literary texts into the EFL classroom, and believe in their importance in the foreign language teaching/learning. Is spite of that, according to the survey the preferred extra-activity used by 100% of the EFL teachers interviewed is music (100%), against 63,15% of the teachers who reported using literary texts.