Conservation managers recognise that public support can be critical to the success of the activities they undertake . Public opinions concerning one conservation issue, managing non-nativespecies in the environment, are generally determined by the perceived ecological benefits, the financial costs and ethical issues associated with the management actions [2,3]. As the management of non-nativespecies often includes eradication programs, it can be ethically challenging , especially when it involves the culling of species that the public find appealing . Consequently, public opinion is frequently used to underpin the management of non- nativespecies with, for example, conservation managers in Australia and New Zealand using public surveys to help them understand the current attitudes of people to non-nativespecies generally and the likely reaction of the public to proposed management schemes specifically [6,7]. Where public attitudes are not considered in management programs, the consequences can be far reaching, such as in California, USA, where an eradication of pike Esox lucius proceeded with inadequate public consultation and resulted in lawsuits being taken out against the regulatory authorities responsible .
In summary, our study indicates that non-nativespecies possess a common set of phenological traits that have likely facilitated their success in the face of recent climate change. As climate change accelerates, non-nativespecies’ ability to respond favorably will likely exacerbate the ecological and economic problems that result from their success. Moreover, because climate change affects large geographical regions in a similar manner, its impact on non-nativespecies naturalization and invasion could be more pervasive than other global change factors that act more regionally (e.g., increasing nitrification, habitat disturbance, and underground microbial species compo- sition) [5,6]. To what extent non-nativespecies have exhibited similar climate change responses in other communities, however, is limited by the rarity of long-term community datasets that document species’ phenological responses . Future efforts should be focused on expanding the documentation of species’ phenological response data through direct observation of phenology [19,20], historical records , observations of pollinators , experimental manipulation , quantitative genetic techniques  and comparative studies [10,25,26]. These data will likely be essential for assessing and managing the future impacts of invasive species in the face of continued climate change.
This work aimed to perform a comparative study of leaf anatomy, trichome frequency and essential oil production of some Lippia nativespecies of the semi-arid region of Bahia State, Brazil. Leaf samples were analyzed with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to describe the leaf structure and to quantify the trichome frequency. Six types of glandular trichomes were identified: unicellular, bicellular and tetracellular, as well as three types of tectorial trichomes. L. bromleyana presents an ornamented epidermis and no tectorial trichomes on the abaxial surface. L. thymoides has glandular trichomes with irregular contours on both leaf faces, with a higher frequency of tectorial trichomes on the adaxial surface and peltate glandular trichomes on the abaxial surface. L. insignis and L. lasiocalycina are anatomically similar, and present a higher tector trichome frequency on the abaxial
Abstract: Brazil has an important role in marine ornamental trade, exploiting nativespecies for both international and domestic market. A few works have previously assessed wild species exploited by the Brazilian marine aquarium industry and most of them focused solely on fish. Hence, the present paper intends to address an information gap regarding the species currently traded in the country, as well as concerning their conservation statuses. Thus, different sources of information were investigated and each species was categorized in accordance with existing lists of threatened species. A wide variety of nativespecies was identified in Brazilian marine aquarium trade, including not only fish but also invertebrates, seaweeds and macrophytes. Some of these species were legally protected, but are still commerced anyway. Such illegal exploitation of nativespecies causes increasing concerns about the sustainability of the activity. Therefore, in order to reduce environmental impacts caused by marine ornamental trade, Brazilian authorities should encourage the implementation of eco-fees, the purchase of eco-labeled aquarium products, the development of sustainable ornamental aquaculture and ecosystem-based management initiatives. Keywords: Marine aquarium fish, marine invertebrates, seaweeds, marine macrophytes, illegal trade, threatened species.
Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk., belonging to the family Sapotaceae, is a speciesnative to the Cerrado. It is an arboreal species with great potential for biomonitoring of herbicide action in the Cerrado since it has wide distribution (Perfeito et al., 2005), which increases its exposure to the drift process of pesticides. This species is popularly known for “guapeva”, “curriola”, “açá ferro”, “abiu do cerrado” and “grão de galo” (Perfeito et al., 2005). It is a lactescent plant, with 8 to 14 m tall, and it has a fluted trunk with a diameter of 30 to 40 cm. It annually produces an abundant fruit load, which is used for human consumption and the peel is used as an anti-dysentery medicine (Perfeito et al., 2005). Its seeds have rapid emergence and also antifungal and insecticide activity (Boleti et al., 2007). Therefore, this study evaluated the hypothesis that P. torta is sensitive to
The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis of presence of Wolbachia infection in the nativespecies Atlantoscia floridana and Circoniscus bezzii, and in the introduced species Burmoniscus meeusei. Atlantoscia floridana occurs in the United States, Ascension Island and St. Helena, and from northern Brazil to La Plata in Argentina (2). It is a generalist species in terms of habitat (19), occurring in diverse environments, often in abundance (1, 3). Circoniscus bezzii is a little-studied species that occurs in Brazil (in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará) and Paraguay (15). Burmoniscus meeusei is an introduced species from Asia, with records in England, Hawaii, Brazil and Taiwan (21).
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant dry material of two conifers, Pinus taeda, an exotic species, and Araucaria angustifolia, a nativespecies in the activity of the respiratory electron transport system (ETS) of Hyalella castroi. Amphipods and leaves of A. angustifolia and P. taeda were collected in summer and winter, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After seven days of exposition, animals were used for determining the ETS. The radical scavenging activity of the plant aqueous extracts was also evaluated. The results of this study allow us to suggest that hydrosoluble compounds produced by extract of coniferae species have different antioxidant potentials and affect the amphipods in a divergent form in terms of the ETS. This pattern of response can help to explain how exotic species of conifers such as P. taeda, modify the natural environment and cause severe alterations in freshwater ecosystem.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the volumetric lumber yield of four nativespecies of the Amazon Region: Cedrinho (Erisma uncinatum Warm), Cumaru (Dipteryx odorata Aublet), Garapeira (Apuleia leiocarpa Voguel), and Cambará (Qualea paraensis Ducke). Twelve logs of each species with different diameters were randomly selected from different sawmills in northern Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Additionally, the influence of diameter on the yield of each species was evaluated through regression analysis. Among the evaluated species, Cedrinho obtained the highest yield values, followed by Garapeira. Cumaru and Cambará showed the lowest yields, and did not differ statistically. Log diameter negatively influenced lumber yield, except for Cumaru wood, which did not present a clear relation between these parameters.
The first of these four variables is the invasiveness ability of each species, assessed by four parameters: thermal range, dissolved oxygen tolerance, type of diet, and parental care or fecundity (representing reproductive attributes). The attributes assumed to facilitate the invasion of ornamental fish were the ability to tolerate changes in water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, omnivorous diet (feeding on at least two items among organic debris, micro- or macrophytes, micro- or macro-invertebrates) and either parental care (by male, female, or both) or high fecundity (high numbers of oocytes). These are important prerequisites for the establishment of ornamental non-nativespecies in any freshwater body (Moyle & Marchetti, 2006). The second variable is the history of worldwide invasions, adapted from Drake (2007), defined as H = Pe/Pi ×100, where H = history of invasions, Pe = number of countries where the species has successfully established itself, Pi = number of countries where the species was introduced. The third variable is propagule pressure, estimated by the number of individuals released, a primary factor in establishment success (Vander Zanden & Olden, 2008). Assuming that popular species (i.e. hardy and easy to feed) sold in considerable numbers (> 100 specimens per month) have a greater probability of being released in the environment by hobbyists, we used the annual frequency of occurrence in stores, and number of specimens of each species available monthly for sale as measures of commercial success. The fourth variable is invasibility of the recipient river, assessed as the compatibility of its water temperature range (mean autumn-winter and spring-summer, Table 1) with the thermal ranges tolerated by the invading species, as proposed by Chang et al. (2009). Dissolved oxygen was also assessed because urban portions of most Brazilian rivers are usually polluted by domestic and industrial sewage and would be less suitable for fish survival (IGAM, 2009). All these variables are important steps in successful biological invasions by aquatic species according to Lockwood et al. (2007). To be considered a potential invasive species in any of the six rivers, a species had to fulfill rigorously the cutting values of all four variables and nine parameters described above (Table 2).
Molecular analyses have reported that the presence of the first generation of hybrid parental (F1) and genetic introgression of the hybrids Post-F1, resulting from the crosses of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and P. reticulatum, compromise the pure parental lineages in the Upper Paraná River Basin (Prado et al., 2012; Vaini et al., 2014). According to the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, 2012), the production of hybrids stands out for its acceptance among those in the production sector, based on competitiveness and legal liberation, which occurs in some Brazilian states through specific and local legislation: Amapá, Law No. 0066/09-AL, Mato Grosso, Law No. 8464, and São Paulo, Law No. 60582. One way to mitigate the impacts of aquaculture in fish cages is through cultivating pure nativespecies, whose potential has been discussed previously or using lineages of sterile fish. However, further studies need to be conducted to determine how to increase the competitiveness of these nativespecies in relation to the species with the highest current production in Brazil, which is Tilapia. It is important to highlight that the Tilapia lineages used in Brazil are the result of intense genetic improvement, while for the nativespecies a selection process for cultivation does not exist, but wild individuals are randomly chosen. Additionally, as discussed by Zaniboni-Filho (2010), the wide natural distribution of several South American fish species may have promoted distinct populations in different regions or river basins, a condition that allows variation in the zootechnical performance of fish from different populations. This variation, according to the author, serves as the basis for genetic selection of the lineages to be produced under aquaculture conditions.
Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems are known as hotspots of biodiversity threatened by human activities leading to the habitat frag- mentation and disruption (Clavero et al., 2004; Collares-Pereira & Cowx, 2004). In Iberia, river regulation is responsible for dramatic habi- tat modifications affecting the potamodromous reproductive migration of several endemic species. Non-physical barriers to guide fish move- ment can contribute to the conservation of these nativespecies. With respect to S. trutta, several studies have described their behaviour, including their reaction to anthropogenic noise (Nedwel et al., 2006), but none has focussed on southern European populations, including the Iberian Peninsula. For these reasons, the success of these tech- niques implies the knowledge of specific behavioural responses namely of the endemic species, like P. duriense and L. bocagei, since the reac- tion and response effects to other stimuli remain unknown.
In addition, there are an alarming number of cases of species introduced by stocking, sport fishing, live bait use, control of mosquitoes, and fishkeeping (see Daga et al. 2015; Ribeiro et al. 2017). For instance, curvina (Plagioscion squamosissimus), a species introduced for stocking purposes, poses a threat to the other piscivorous species in the Piquiri River basin because it feeds on the same sources and is, most likely, a strong competitor (Pereira et al. 2015). The excellent visual predator, Cichla piquiti, has been illegally introduced throughout the country mainly for sport fishing and represents a threat to the diversity of native fish (Pelicice & Agostinho 2009; Pelicice et al. 2015) in the Piquiri River basin. All Gymnotus species are often used as live bait, which might cause releases between basins by ill-informed fishers. Although only G. pantanal is considered allochthonous, the other species of the genus have truly uncertain origins (Júlio Jr. et al. 2009). In addition, morphometric data show no differences among populations of G. inaequilabiatus from various sites of the upper Paraná River (Frota et al. 2014). Poecilia reticulata has been widespread worldwide as an ornamental animal and mosquito larvae control agent (Dussalt & Kramer 1981, Azevedo-Santos et al. 2016). This species is considered to be one of the most abundant in rural and urban streams at present (Oliveira & Bennemann 2005, Cunico et al. 2012, Pereira et al. 2014) likely because of its high resistance and resilience (Gomiero & Braga 2007, Daga et al. 2012) in addition to its high competitive efficiency against competition from invasive and nativespecies (Pompeu & Alves 2003).
This study investigated the isotopic niches of two fish species, one exotic and one native. It was hypothesized that these species would show little or no isotopic niche overlap. This hypothesis was tested with the isotopic niche concept and the trophic Layman’s metrics. A considerable isotopic niche overlap was observed between the species, mainly for the exotic that showed the greater percentage of overlapping, indicating an interspecific competition for food resources. Layman’s metrics also showed this species probably exploits a more specific array of food resources when compared with the nativespecies. The nativespecies probably has the ability to exploit a wider array of resources, highlighted by the higher values given for the Layman’s metrics. The juveniles and adults of nativespecies showed minor overlapping between the isotopic niches. This indicates that they have probably adopted different foraging strategies, minimizing intraspecific competition. Evidences that the exotic species explores a narrower range of resources and that the nativespecies has a greater isotopic niche and possibly suffer less intraspecific competition, indicates that the nativespecies can tolerate the presence of the exotic species and promote survival and maintenance of its population even under possible competition effects imposed by the exotic species.
Native medicinal species have been used for decades by Brazilian pharmaceutical companies to create commercial products. These companies are represented by small laboratories that evaluate their products on the basis of traditional formulas (Ferreira, 1998; Brandão et al., 2010). However, very often the eficacy and safety of these products is not measured and they might not meet the minimal standard of the WHO recommendations for products for traditional use (WHO, 1998). In 1995, the Ministry of Health, following the recommendations of World Health Organization, established a set of herbal regulations in order to improve the quality of commercial herbal products (Ministério da Saúde 1995). According to these rules, the complete acceptance of an herbal medicine by Brazilian governmental agencies can occur only after the eficacy and safety of the product has been scientiically determined (Carvalho et al., 2008). Some effort has been made by the companies to develop standardized phyto- medicines from nativespecies with proof of quality, safety and eficacy. In the present study, we have investigated the herb-combined product João da Costa e Associações ®
ABSTRACT – Colonization in the State of Paraná has culminated in the devastation of large forest areas in the entire State. Degraded area recovery programs have emphasized the utilization of nativespecies, but often the species indicated for local reforestation areas are unknown, as those areas are little known floristically. This study aimed to survey nativespecies indicated for reforestation of areas in the Western region of the State of Paraná, classify those species as pioneer, secondary, or climactic, and indicate places of occurrence of matrices where seeds of those species could be collected. Bibliographic surveys in the specialized literature and research in the Herbarium Museu Botânico Municipal de Curitiba (MBM) and Herbarium of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNOP) were conducted to identify potential species for degraded area recovery in the study of Western region of Paraná. In all, 115 species were selected, of which 22 are pioneer, 73 are secondary, and 20 are climactic. The bibliographic surveys suggests that pioneer species are the most indicated for the initial processes in the degraded areas recovery, while secondary and climactic species play a major role in area enrichment.
The Physalis peruviana is native to the Andes, widely cultivated in Peru (Zapata et al., 2002). The Physalis pubescens, better known as “camapú”, is a nativespecies of the Amazon - Brazil. The Physalis angulata L., known as “mullaca” or “juá-de-capote”, is also native to Brazil, specifically the North and Northeast regions (Lima et al., 2013). Physalis minimum L. is a purple-tinged plant with great medical importance in the Indian Tradicional System of Medicine (Chothani & Vaghasiya, 2012; Xu et al., 2016). The Physalis ixocarpa known as tomatillo, Mexican husk tomato, green tomato, berry compote, miltomate or jamberry, is a solanaceous fruit vegetable used to prepare the green sauces of Mexican and Central America cooking.
Biological invasions by exotic species are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity driving losses in the biological diversity of nativespecies and populations (Lodge 1993, Vitousek et al. 1997a, b, McGeoch et al. 2010). The enormous impact of non-nativespecies is often irreversible, especially when invaders are biotic disturbance agents, altering the ecosystem structure and function (Vitousek 1990, Mack & D’Antonio 1998). The clear effects on ecosystem-level properties are related to differences in resource acquisition and/or use efficiency, the alteration of trophic structure of the area invaded, or the alteration of disturbance frequency and/ or intensity (Vitousek 1990, Crooks & Soulé 1999).
ABSTRACT: A Pilot Reclamation Project (PRP) was developed in 1982 by the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Santa Catarina-Brazil, with the objective to evaluating the adaptation of woody species to a land degraded by coal mining. After a full topographic reconstitution of the landscape, addition of nutrient load and sowing of herbaceous species, the area was split into 12 plots in which seedlings of 12 tree species were planted: three native trees [Bastardiopsis densiflora (Hook. & Arn.) Hassl., Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) Blake] and nine exotic species [Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. viminalis Labill., E. citriodora Hook., Grevillea hilliana F.Muell., Hovenia dulcis Thunb, Melia azedarach L., Pinus elliottii Engelm., P. taeda L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels]. After 22 years, from the beginning of the PRP, the exotic species presented higher percentage of survival than nativespecies; the plots which received either B. densiflora and S. parahyba or were covered only with herbaceous vegetation associated with solely a few shrubs. Conversely, the plots which received seedlings of M. scabrella displayed clear evidence of restoration in progress. The study conducted in plots that have received M. scabrella indicate an improvement of nutrient load (N, K, organic matter) in the substrate, a diversified composition of tree coverage (very similar to the nearby remnants of the Atlantic Rainforest) and other life forms, with prominent establishment of native trees with predominance of zoophilous and zoochorous species. Some characteristics of M. scabrella that could explain its outstanding capacity to enhance the restoration of the Atlantic Rainforest are also discussed along this paper.
During the past centuries, humans have introduced many plant species in areas where they do not naturally occur. Some of these species establish populations and in some cases be- come invasive, causing economic and ecological damage. Which factors determine the success of non-native plants is still incompletely understood, but the absence of natural en- emies in the invaded area (Enemy Release Hypothesis; ERH) is one of the most popular ex- planations. One of the predictions of the ERH, a reduced herbivore load on non-native plants compared with native ones, has been repeatedly tested. However, many studies have either used a community approach (sampling from native and non-nativespecies in the same community) or a biogeographical approach (sampling from the same plant spe- cies in areas where it is native and where it is non-native). Either method can sometimes lead to inconclusive results. To resolve this, we here add to the small number of studies that combine both approaches. We do so in a single study of insect herbivory on 47 woody plant species (trees, shrubs, and vines) in the Netherlands and Japan. We find higher herbivore diversity, higher herbivore load and more herbivory on native plants than on non-native plants, generating support for the enemy release hypothesis.
Of the 95 identified species, 48.4% (46 species) are absent in the main nurseries in the state of São Paulo (Barbosa et al., 2003), 35.8% (34) are consid- ered low-frequent (up to 25% of frequency), 7.4% (7) are frequent species (25-50% of frequency), and only 8.4% (8) are high-frequent species that occur in more than 50% of seedling nurseries in the state of São Paulo (Table 1). Only three species in the seedling commu- nity, Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae), Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae) and Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), were included in the list of the 30 species most used in restoration projects in the state of São Paulo (Barbosa et al., 2003). Such data illustrate that the sampled seedling community is very different in terms of floristic composition as compared to the re- gional forest nurseries, and confirms that seedlings from several nativespecies are not being produced. This is a striking result with respect to the potential of the seedling community as a source of seedlings for transplant into forest restoration projects. However, not all species sampled can be removed from the seed- ling community. Several species occur in very low den- sity in the forest (Foster & Hubbell, 1990; Pitman et al., 1999; Kageyama & Gandara, 2004; Comita et al., 2007), and the removal of these seedlings, even for forest restoration purposes, is not recommended.