• The logic for a market based on contract carriage. The typical example is the U.S. gas sector. It is organized around private companies that are in charge of deciding on up- stream production, transportation, storage, and downstream delivery of gas (while distri- bution to consumers can be regulated or public). In this context, market participants man- age both investment and operation of the transmission network. The central elements of the U.S. market design are bilateral, long-term contracts between producers and suppliers. Additionally, transmission rights are also contracted long in advance. In such transactions, producers and suppliers sign contracts that provide the right to use the (vast) network to transport gas from one point to another. The counterparties are the owners of the infra- structure involved in the path between both points. In this regard, shippers decide on the physical path that the gas will follow and pay for the use of the associated infrastructure. Under this design, investment in network infrastructure is largely driven by those long-term contracts. Nonetheless, gas supply and demand patterns are highly volatile, and the bal- ance of flows in the gas system must be coordinated in shorter terms. Hence, in the short run, shippers will face frequent imbalances, which must be dealt with through complex combinations of gas trading arrangements and the associated changes in transmission rights. Consequently, the wholesale markets are typically associated with the definition of a place where the physical delivery of the commodity takes place—the physical hub (the most important one is the Henry Hub). Serving as marketplaces, hubs have often been seen as a prerequisite for gas pricing through gas-to-gas competition.
In the last years, naturalgas has unfolded as a feasible energy alternative for the Brazilian economy, attracting great interest from several major market players. However, its insertion in the energy sector has not been occurring in a consistent way and at the expected pace. New prospects for naturalgas projects are appearing in all market segments due to growing economic needs and its environmental appeal. The insertion of naturalgas is a reality, but the lack of concrete policies jeopardizes its long term development. This work aims at investigating different views related to the issue of naturalgas introduction in Brazil and the resulting impacts on CO 2 emissions, the energy sector and the national economy. The index decomposition analysis (IDA) methodology was chosen to conduct the study. The objective is to determine the impacts of naturalgas on carbon dioxide emissions, through its significant explanatory factors, such as economical dynamics, sector composition and energy efficiency. Possible scenarios were compared. Also, applications of the same methodology in countries with similar economies are reported. The results obtained showed the model assertiveness and, also, brought important contributions for development of naturalgasmarket policies among the scenarios considered here. Additional results indicate the importance of naturalgas for Brazil, in particular for its economic and environmental future, as a means to achieve sustainable development.
LÓPEZ SUÁREZ, Lizett Paola. The role of the Oil Companies in the development of the energy integration: The formation of the naturalgasmarket in the South America. Mechanical Engineering Faculty, State University of Campinas, 2006. 138 p. Dissertation (Masters). The objective of the present work is to show the context of the energy integration process in function of the main oil companies in the formation of the naturalgasmarket in South America, being had as methodological structure to the identification and analysis of the performance of the regional and international oil companies ones in the naturalgas industry in the Region, in function of the positioning of this front the energy integration. The gotten results of the meticulous analysis had shown the perspectives of said process integrator in the Region, with active participation of the oil companies ones, as also the contribution and resurgence of the public oil companies of the Region in the formation of the naturalgas markets arrives in its native countries and the development of the energy integration. Finally, one concludes that the oil companies ones look for to optimize their businesses diversifying its sources of supplying in the countries of the Region, which contributes as well in the development of the gas markets and in the initiatives of energy integration. Thus, one expects that this research can collaborate in the studies carried through on energy integration, showing a panorama more clearly of the performance of the oil companies in this process.
Equity Indexes based funds category is composed by smaller ETFs that despite of some absolute performance improvements, did not achieve the same improvements on active returns as futures based ETFs. It is important to have in mind that some funds such as FRAK and DDG follow mixed Oil and Gas indexes, so the performances of these do not rely only on the evolution of the naturalgasmarket. Average active returns improvements are mixed; more than half maintained their negative performances and generally the risk adjusted measures are negative. Exception is made for GASL, the only big winner of this category, so we can say that in general they performed worse than the futures based ETFs. GASX on the other end performed badly as it is the opposite strategy of GASL, ideal for Bear markets. These two funds distinguish themselves from the others in terms of return’s volatility because they are not purely based on indexes replication. Derivatives-based strategies are included and so the relationship with prices is more similar to the previous category. All this funds replicate relatively well their benchmarks and the presented historical volatilities are high, similarly to futures based ETFs, especially on the derivatives based funds and ISE-REVERE benchmarked.
ráveis. Genericamente, após a perfuração e selagem do poço, este é fraturado recorrendo à injeção a alta pressão de areia, água e produtos químicos, fazendo com que o gás exis- tente na rocha seja encaminhado para a superfície, onde poderá ser então objeto de tra- tamento, armazenagem e distribuição. Releve-se que tal processo, dado a formação geo- lógica impedir o seu fluxo natural em direção à superfície, requer um elevado dispêndio de energia e atividade industrial, sendo igualmente gerador de uma considerável disrup- ção subterrânea e de outras implicações de génese ambiental. Adicionalmente, nas fontes de gás não convencionais existe uma significativa menor concentração de gás do que nos depósitos convencionais, o que obriga à perfuração de maior número de poços, natural- mente aumentando os custos de exploração, e consequentemente a um maior esforço, dimensão e diversificação nos processos industriais associados à sua exploração, de que naturalmente poderá resultar um maior impacto ambiental.
Naturalgas is a fossil fuel that can be used in industry, trade, residence and vehicles, among others. An important application of naturalgas is as a primary source for electricity generation in thermoelectric power plants. In the Brazilian Electric System this source increase the system stability, once it is less dependent of the water level in tanks to serve the demand for power. As naturalgas storage it is more complex and expensive, the amount of gas directly affects the production and transportation stages, once the entire amount that is produced and transported must be consumed. Thus, the operation of the supply system of naturalgas is strongly dependent on decisions of their consumers. The thermoelectric power plants are among the largest gas consumers, so the dispatch of thermoelectric plants affects strongly the gas system operation. On the other hand, restrictions in the gas supply system may also affect the operation of thermoelectric plants. This strong operative dependence between these two kinds of systems, requires a coordinated operation with the aim of obtaining a more efficient and safer operation. This thesis presents a model of economic dispatch applied to thermoelectric power plants that use naturalgas as a primary energy source, considering the costs of production, transportation of the naturalgas and electricity generation. The mathematical modeling results in a nonlinear mixed problem. For resolution was used a hybrid approach that combines a model based on Linear Programming and a nonlinear. The nonlinear problem is solved by the Newton’s method.
Received: 24 April 2019; Accepted: 19 July 2019; Published: 9 August 2019 Abstract: Due to the declining of oil reserves in the world in the coming decades, gas hydrate (GH) is seen as the great promise to supply the planet’s energy demand. With this, the importance of studying the behavior of GH, several researchers have been developing different systems that allow greater truthfulness in relation to the conditions where GH is found in nature. This work describes a new system to simulate formation (precipitation) and dissociation of GH primarily at natural conditions at deep-sea, lakes, and permafrost, but also applied for artificial gas hydrates studies (pipelines, and transport of hydrocarbons, CO 2 , and hydrogen). This system is fully automated and unique, allowing the simultaneous work in two independent reactors, built in Hastelloy C-22, with a capacity of 1 L and 10 L, facilitating rapid analyses when compared to higher-volume systems. The system can operate using different mixtures of gases (methane, ethane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, ammonia), high pressure (up to 200 bar) with high operating safety, temperature (−30 to 200 ◦ C), pH controllers, stirring system, water and gas samplers, and hyphenated system with gas chromatograph (GC) to analyze the composition of the gases formed in the GH and was projected to possibility the visualizations of experiments (quartz windows).
Quantidades consideráveis de gás natural foram recentemente encontradas nas regiões norte e oeste da Pensilvânia, aumentndo os incentivos econômicos, sociais e políticos para manter este gás natural nos Estados Unidos, bem como encontrar alternativas para seu uso que não somente a sua queima para geração de energia. Após considerar diferentes possíveis produtos e rotas de produção, definiu-se o objetivo deste trabalho como sendo simular e projetar uma planta para produção de etileno e propileno a partir do gás natural através da rota metanol a olefinas. Este processo é dividido em três passos: reforma do gás natural, síntese de metanol e posterior conversão a olefinas. Decidiu-se que a reforma do gás seria contratada. O gás de síntese da reforma do gás natural é então reagido sobre catalisadores Cu-ZnO-Al 2 O 3 -12.5% CNTs a temperatura e pressão de
STUDY OF NITROGEN IN THE COMBUSTION OF NATURALGAS. Nitrogen content in naturalgas was studied in experimental and computational investigations to identify its influence on the emission level of exhaust gases from combustion facilities. Changes in naturalgas composition with different N 2 concentrations may result from introducing a new source gas into the system. An industrial burner fired at 75 kW, housed in a laboratory-scale furnace, was employed for runs where the naturalgas/N 2 proportion was varied. The exhaust and in-furnace measurements of temperature and gas concentrations were performed for different combustion scenarios, varying N 2 content from 1-10 %v. Results have shown that the contamination of naturalgas with nitrogen reduced the peak flame temperature, the concentration of unstable species, the NO X emission level and the heat transfer rate to the furnace walls, resulting from the recombination reactions.
The authors have tried to remove the observed disadvantages suggesting a construction of a new sepa- rator [14,15], which in their opinion will not only remove the observed disadvantages, but will also enable a continual separation of the naturalgas with a continual discharge of pure gas and products (impu- rities) of separation. While working on the develop- ment of a prototype of this separator, the authors face various theoretical and technical problems. Some of these problems the authors represented in their paper that analyze the separation of the liquid-liquid, liquid- solid mixture .
Being part of the BRICS group and the 7th largest economy in the world, Brazil nowadays is one of the most attractive markets for FDI. Especially the oil & gas industry, driven by recent discoveries of massive offshore petroleum and gas reserves, generates plenty of business opportunities. For the next two decades, the exploration of Brazilian offshore sources will require huge investments in infrastructure including the shipbuilding-, down- and upstream sector. According to experts, until 2020 half of the worldwide subsea equipment will be produced in Brazil. For that reason, international suppliers of business-related services and products increasingly focus on this dynamic market in which the demand for offshore technology, equipment and know-how is tremendously high (AHK; GTAI, 2014, p. 16).
for a non-market asset. Some have thought they were asked to pay from their own pockets to repair something they were not directly responsible for damaging. While we sympathetically recognise their feelings, after all no one can discard its part of responsibility due to the simple fact that all of us belong to the society and society is driven by our wishes and consuming preferences; we are all self-interested homo œconomicus. Ethical consumers hoping to minimize their carbon footprint should be able to ask about not only the provenance of, - saying - his/her new pair of sneakers, but also should be able to capture the process in which it was produced. At the end we need to take into account the life cycle of economic goods and products, from the raw material extracted, the manufacturing stages and usage until its final disposal on a landfill as by-product (or worst, in the Oceans, while keeping the intention, whenever possible, that this waste can be recovered, reused or recycled). Those considerations were already present at the time the pilot-study was conducted and it was relatively simple to explain to the interviewee what those concepts and questions meant. Inversely to personal interviews, the online survey does not allow the detailed description of what is at risk, despite the effort spent to accomplish that task.
Naturalgas is a growing fuel, as well as contributing to the preservation of the environment, it represents the so-called clean and non-polluting energy. Its use contributes to increased production, reduced losses, improved quality of the finished product and reduced energy costs. Naturalgas is an important source of primary energy that, under normal production conditions, is saturated with water vapor. Considered as fuel naturalgas contains some contaminants, of which the most common undesirable impurity is water. The objective of this work is to simulate the moisture absorption present in naturalgas, using ethylene glycol as a solvent. At the top of the absorption column was a 97.63% naturalgas fraction, showing how effective the solvent was. Through the simulation was obtained a naturalgas that is an energy resource that represents one of the main alternative sources for the expansion of the energy matrix. Keywords: Absorption; Naturalgas and Simulation.
157 quick as possible. For a LNG fuelled fleet in the future, governments and European authorities - as well as local authorities - must cooperate and be committed with shipping and energy industries to ensure the transition to a more sustainable fleet. The European Commission supports the introduction of LNG, including by expanding the filling infrastructure. Nevertheless, private and semi-public initiatives are needed and welcome as well. All industrial sectors need to contribute with their share for energy transition. In shipping, it is now demonstrated that LNG can be an efficient end-use fuel to assure that transition; to reduce polluting gases emissions and thus promoting people’s health and minimising shipping footprint. People are willing-to-pay for to breathe a better air and are concerned about environmental damages and climate-related challenges. Our questionnaire had the merit to make them aware of and the results are the living proof of their will when facing those challenges. For Portugal as a Nation with such knowledge and experience at sea, LNG as ship fuel, associated technologies and ancillary and subsidiary industries can contribute to the further development of maritime clusters. By another way around, LNG as a substitute fuel contributes for a process of creative destruction in the form this concept was originally enunciated by Schumpeter (Schumpeter, 1942). It means that, and first, at GDP level, this innovation will have a net value added or, at least, a neutral impact since those who work within the traditional bunker supply chain and eventually lose their jobs, can find employment at the new LNG infrastructure, as long as an initial training period is provided. Secondly, for firms, as the LNG turns into a widespread market is assumed that do not bankrupt firms, as they can operate a switch to this new market by itself; the old product as a consumption good simply turns itself obsolete. Finally, if in the future hydrogen technology in the form of fuel cells replaces the LNG, built infrastructure including tanks and pipelines can be used for the storage and transportation of hydrogen due to its adaptability for distribution and transportation of other fluids. LNG can also be used as raw material in the methane steam reforming process (or thermocatalytic decomposition), a method of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons (Muradov, 2003). The present thesis identifies a promising perspective for LNG application as an alternative fuel in shipping. The following recommendations address the establishment of a foundation for the introduction of LNG in the Portuguese seaport of Sines:
O responsável da empresa Afaco - Luís Antônio Mendonça Reis trabalhava apenas com instalação de GNV. Com a crise do GNV (Gás Natural Veicular) em 2009 teve a necessidade de atender a outros segmentos na área automotiva, para continuar no mercado, e manter seus funcionários e clientes. A Afaco Gravação e Instalação Automotiva LTDA fundada em 13 de maio de 2003 e está situada na Av. General Edgar Facó, número 1189, no Bairro Piquiri em São Paulo. Após todos os problemas econômicos, um dos sócios deixou a empresa, porém seu nome consta legalmente no contrato pelo Simples Nacional, mas este inativo ate conseguir uma resolução, que seria uma nova parceria, porem que entenda e acredite nos serviços e produtos e a garantia de acrescentar em sentidos únicos (produtividade, liderança), para a empresa e seus colaboradores, injetando monetariamente com o intuito intelectual do capital humano.
Este artigo tem como objetivo geral apresentar os resultados positivos com a utilização do gás natural oriundo da província petrolifera de Urucu no município de Coari/AM, promovendo a mudança damatriz energética no Estado do Amazonas com redução de emissões de Gases do Efeito Estufa e fomentando o desenvolvimento regionalcom a disponibilidade do novo combustível. Para tal, estabeleceram-se os seguintes objetivos específicos: apresentar a demanda de geração e transmissão de energia elétrica em Manaus e nos municípios da área de influência do gás oduto com a alteração na matriz energética no período de transição dos combustíveis de 2010-2015, demonstrar a redução de emissão de dióxido de carbono (CO2) e por fim estabelecer as tendências de desenvolvimento regional com o consumo do Gás Natural nos mais diversos segmentos.
The functioning of a gas microturbine is simple, the fuel is burned in a combustion chamber, and the proceedings gases of this burn are directed by the compressor to inside of the turbine, where its energy is converted to mechanical energy, that can be used for electric energy production via an alternator, as for prime mover of bombs and compressors, etc. In some case, if
Portanto, devido ao aumento da capacidade de geração termo- elétrica programada para os próximos anos, e considerando pelo menos a estabilização ou mesmo uma diminuição da área anual de queimadas, espera-se um aumento nas emissões de Hg pela quei- ma de combustíveis fósseis e biomassa. Neste cenário são necessá- rios o monitoramento e controle dessas fontes emissoras. A emis- são de Hg para a atmosfera por queima de gás natural é pequena em relação às demais fontes de Hg, incluindo a combustão de ou- tros combustíveis, não resultando em impacto ambiental ou de saúde pública significativo. A geração de energia pela queima de carvão, óleo combustível e biomassa geram 1.200, 250 e 2 vezes mais Hg para o meio ambiente, respectivamente, que a queima de gás natu- ral, por unidade de energia gerada. Portanto, este último é, real- mente, uma opção “limpa” em relação ao Hg entre os diferentes combustíveis potencialmente utilizáveis. Cabe ressaltar, entretan- to, que grande parte do Hg presente no gás natural é retida pelas diferentes etapas de refino e transporte, como sugerido pela dife- rença entre a concentração de Hg nos poços de produção e após o