nature of science (NOS)

Top PDF nature of science (NOS):

A NATUREZA DA CIÊNCIA: DAS VISÕES DEFORMADAS À REJEIÇÃO / The Nature of Science: from the warped views to the rejection

A NATUREZA DA CIÊNCIA: DAS VISÕES DEFORMADAS À REJEIÇÃO / The Nature of Science: from the warped views to the rejection

Abstract: This research allowed to attend our main objective: to determine the relationship between "contemporary vision" of teachers and high school students about the nature of science and the rejection phenomenon (unpleasant physiological, cognitive and behavior reactions) during the learning-teaching process of Science and Mathematics; with 44 students as subjects from different undergraduate courses in higher education institutions of the city of Manaus-AM. The methodological procedures has a qualitative approach, including content analysis, questionnaires, etc. The results show that the rejection to Mathematics (and science) "traumatically" takes place in a teaching and learning environment which emphasizes a rigid and algorithmic view of the nature of Science. Based at the results found in this research, those involved in Science and Mathematics teaching process should not only be concerned with the understanding of natural phenomena, with the development of logical reasoning, among others; but also provide the student the acquisition of an adequate view, more humane about the nature of Science and Mathematics, encouraging students to overcome previous ideas.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

A novel look to old problems: teaching science through the nature of science / Um novo olhar para problemas antigos: ensinando ciências por meio da natureza da ciência

A novel look to old problems: teaching science through the nature of science / Um novo olhar para problemas antigos: ensinando ciências por meio da natureza da ciência

CIMEAC: In Brazil most of the educational reforms happen in a “top-down” manner from official (governmental) documents, having teachers and managers put into practice ideas with which they are often unfamiliar, such as interdisciplinarity, resulting in unsuccessful applications of good ideas. This could happen to the inclusion of aspects of Nature of Science since it could be seen as just a list of more items to be taught instead of a novel approach to teaching science. In your opinion, what is the best way to implement this curriculum change effectively?
Mostrar mais

15 Ler mais

The First Step in Nature of Science Teaching: New Society Activity and Arguments on Its Implemantation

The First Step in Nature of Science Teaching: New Society Activity and Arguments on Its Implemantation

In “New Society” activity, four scientists discovered a new society living with its own rules and these rules characterized this society. The scientist team was arranged to consist of smiling vs. unsmiling and female vs. male participants to meet the requirements of the rules described below. Neither the scientists nor the members of the new society knew about this arrangement. The rules are: Rule 1: The society members’ only vocabulary is either “yes” or “no.” Rule 2: If the scientist is smiling when he/she asks them a question, then the answer is always “yes,” and if the scientist is not smiling when asking the question, the answer is always “no,” regardless of the question and the accuracy of the response. Rule 3: Depending on which outstanding characteristic we used among our scientist group (e.g. gender) the society members can only speak, that is, say yes or no, to the scientists who have the opposite characteristic. At the beginning of the activity, the scientist team was asked to wait outside of the classroom for a while. Then the rules were explained to the participants remained in the class and these participants were asked to take notes about scientists’ activities during the discovery of characteristics of the new society. The scientist team was told that they had just found this new society and they were to find out as much as they could about this society without mentioning existence of the rules. Then, the scientists entered the class and began their inquiry. Following the completion of discovery, we conducted a whole class discussion on inquiry process in an explicit reflective manner to help the participants deeply understand several NOS aspects.
Mostrar mais

24 Ler mais

The Place of Humans in Nature

The Place of Humans in Nature

10. There is a great body of literature on “Social Darwinism.” See for example, John Greene, “Biology and Social Theory in the Nineteenth Century,” in Marshall Clagett ed., Critical Problems in the History of Science (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1962), 416-446. Richard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought, Rev. ed., (Boston: Beacon Press, 1955). Greta Jones, Social Darwinism in English Thought (London: Harvester, 1980). Robert Young, Darwin’s Metaphor. Nature’s Place in Victorian Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Idem., “Darwinism Is Social” in David Kohn, ed., The Darwinian Heritage (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985),609-38. For a critique of Young’s approach see, Ingemar Bohlin, “ Robert M. Young and Darwin Historiography,” Social Studies of Science 21 (1991): 597-648. Jim Moore, “Socializing Darwinism: Historiography and the Fortunes of a Phrase,” in Les Levidow ed., Science as Politics (London: Free Association Books, 1986), 38-75. 11. Robert Young, Darwin’s Metaphor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 3. See also, R.C. Lewontin, “The Concept of Evolution,” in D.L. Sills ed., International Encyclopedia of Social Science vol 5 (New York: Macmillan, Fress Press, 1968), 2002-10. Idem.,The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change (New York: Columbia University Press), 1974.
Mostrar mais

15 Ler mais

J. Appl. Oral Sci.  vol.20 número4

J. Appl. Oral Sci. vol.20 número4

!"# $%&"'(&)%# *+"%(,-'&%# .&/,0,1# 2$%&*.345# 6&(!# the support of the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), has given the opportunity for journals indexed in this database to use a more powerful online, electronic submission system. Therefore, soon the Journal of Applied Oral Science will use ScholarOne.

1 Ler mais

Fuzzy Philosophy of Science

Fuzzy Philosophy of Science

Scientific consequences are dependent on premises that are logical proportions of the phenomena concerned. These proportions are verbal and linguistic statements, and therefore, at the initial philosophical thinking they all include vagueness and imprecision. As more and more scientific evidence becomes available either rationally or empirically the validity degree these statements increases, or vagueness proportion decreases. In the philosophy of science so far scientific statements are either assumed as absolutely correct but more often they are accepted with some probability. However, objective probability attachment to scientific statements is a difficult task, and therefore, subjective (Bayesian) proportions are attached to these statements in practice. After a detailed account of what were the advocators and opponents to scientific absolute correctness and probability, a fuzzy thinking and consequently membership degree attachments rather than probability are presented by considering fuzzy subsets in this paper.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Using bibliometric maps of science in a science policy context

Using bibliometric maps of science in a science policy context

Within the context of science policy, we also see an increase of bibliometric mapping. More software is available to create maps of science (fields) and to use them as an interface to explore. For that reason, this seems to be a good time for some kind of standardization of method and application. Because in this area method and application are so intermingled, it is hard to treat them separately. In this paper I will try to contribute to the stan- dardization of the application of bibliometric maps in the science policy context. Although I will try to deal with this aspect only, I realize that a reference to technique and method is often needed. The method I use in this paper is developed at Erasmus University and Leiden University by Nees Jan van Eck and Ludo Waltman (ECK ; WALTMAN, 2009, 2011 ; WALTMAN et al., 2010). The Visualization of Similarities (VOS) as a method to structure data and the VOSviewer as an application have proven to be very powerful but will not be discussed as such in this paper. Only the output of the method and technique will be used in this study.
Mostrar mais

13 Ler mais

The Poetic Prism: personification of nature and vegetalization of humans in the poetry of walt whitman and Eugénio de Andrade

The Poetic Prism: personification of nature and vegetalization of humans in the poetry of walt whitman and Eugénio de Andrade

While nature is personified, humans are seen as possessing characteristics belonging to the vegetal world. In the American bard’s poetry, chest hair is compared to grass; strong arms are “branches of live oak”; and, not surprisingly, Whitman advises: “Grow as the flower grows, unconsciously, but eagerly anxious to open its soul to the air”. In Eugénio’s oeuvre, lovers are frequently compared to penetrable forests; hands are “open flowers”; mouths are roses; children are associated with blackberries and other woody plants, symbols of renewal; and the poet confesses he wants to “become, one day, a tree”. It is of little wonder that humans are “vegetalized”, since both Andrade and Whitman share a telluric love and a strong belief in the unity of humans and the cosmos.
Mostrar mais

21 Ler mais

PERSPECTIVAS DA EDUCAÇÃO EM CIÊNCIAS EXPRESSAS NOS PERIÓDICOS SCIENCE E NATURE.

PERSPECTIVAS DA EDUCAÇÃO EM CIÊNCIAS EXPRESSAS NOS PERIÓDICOS SCIENCE E NATURE.

Buscando algumas categorias que pudessem possibilitar um olhar ana- lítico para o conjunto dos artigos publicados, identificamos pesquisas existen- tes relacionadas ao estudo de publicações científicas. Cachapuz et al. (2008), com o objetivo de contribuir para uma melhor compreensão do estado da arte da pesquisa em Educação em Ciência, realizaram um trabalho de análise crítica de artigos mais citados publicados ao longo de uma década (1993-2002), em três das revistas de maior circulação internacional na área citada (SE – Science Education, JRST – Journal of Research in Science Teaching e IJSE – International Journal of Science Education). Os autores fazem um levantamento temático e centram-se na análise qualitativa em artigos com foco em “estudos de Ciência- -Tecnologia-Sociedade (CTS)”, considerando que nessa linha se enquadram as pesquisas incidentes na dimensão social e cultural da ciência e da tecnologia e estudos que evidenciam como se relaciona tal dimensão com a alfabetização científica e com a compreensão pública da ciência. Entre as considerações finais de seu estudo, os autores destacam o desafio “de uma profunda e conti- nuada reflexão da comunidade de pesquisadores em educação em ciência para acompanhar a evolução das principais linhas de trabalho” (p. 46).
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Laws of Nature and Explanatory Circularity

Laws of Nature and Explanatory Circularity

The transitivity principle is the main difference between these problems. The transitivity principle is not required to articulate the problem of circularity SE. This is an important difference because the transitivity principle is problematic. For example, the transitivity principle encapsulates the “big” problem of induction and the reference problem of the term “explanation”. The first problem is on the justification of the transition between observed FGs to unobserved FGs. Basically, in the problem of induction there is a bottom-up step from observed FGs to the law statement; and then there is a top-down step from the law statement to the observed (and unobserved) FGs. The transitivity principle connects these two steps. The second problem is on the correct reference of the term “explanation” in the transitivity principle. For example, Loewer (2012) argues for two references of the term: on the one hand, the Humean mosaic (i.e. “the distribution of fundamental categorical properties/quantities and relations instantiated by fundamental entities (particles, fields etc.) throughout all of space–time” (Loewer 2012, p. 116)) metaphysically explains the laws; on the other, the laws scientifically explain the Humean mosaic. 2 In light of the structure of the problem of circularity SE, these two difficult problems can simply be bypassed.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Incorporating Agent Technology for Enhancing the Effectiveness of E-learning System

Incorporating Agent Technology for Enhancing the Effectiveness of E-learning System

IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol... IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol..[r]

7 Ler mais

Redpath on the Nature of Philosophy

Redpath on the Nature of Philosophy

and-restrained efficiency of will, what had been real science becomes essentially separated from natural pursuit of the human good, human happiness, and becomes essentially subordinated to the arbitrary social agreements of utopian socialists: to sincere, enlightened, feelings that some self-appointed intellectual elite (like university presidents and politicians) agree they share. In such a situation, by nature, human beings no longer incline to pursue science. Science must be imposed upon us against our natural inclination, by collective political fiat, collectively determined, mathematically-regulated technologies of violence. 64 Redpath, through his many books and articles on the nature and history of philosophy and its relation to modern science, has put us all into his debt. Like a voice crying out in the desert, his message is an important one; and time will tell if the West heeds the call. If it does not, then, as MacIntyre has warned, we must try to preserve what wisdom we can in these new dark ages which are already upon us. 65
Mostrar mais

21 Ler mais

Birds of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

Birds of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

7KHUHVXOWVIRUWKHQXPEHURIQHVWLQJVSHFLHVLQWKHGLIIHUHQWKDELWDWVLVDOVRQRW VXUSULVLQJ$PRQJWHUUHVWULDOKDELWDWVIRUHVWVDUHULFKHURIELRGLYHUVLW\DVDUXOHHVSHFLDOO\ FRPSDUHGWRRSHQJUDVVODQGKDELWDWVDVL[r]

17 Ler mais

NATURE OF ELECTORAL MARKETING IN ROMANIA

NATURE OF ELECTORAL MARKETING IN ROMANIA

An aspect that highlighted from the simple reading of the study conclusions is that the majority of the subjects have not been influenced to come to the election. Before taking the decision to vote, some of them ask their family, others ask their friends, but they mostly rely on their personal favorite. When they want to choose a certain political product about they have a positive impression, they use additional information, but above all, they maintain their option to vote.

4 Ler mais

On the nature of information technology

On the nature of information technology

Tomada a informação como fundamento de organização das coisas, a sua expressão sintática é o dado, a sua expressão semântica é a relação significativa para um sujeito e sua expressão [r]

10 Ler mais

Children of time: The extended synthesis and major metaphors of evolution

Children of time: The extended synthesis and major metaphors of evolution

The sender is unintentionally broadcasting and observ- ers in the environment are not intentionally receiving a par- ticular signal. Regardless of intention, perceiving the signals produces an additional level of selection, one in which receiv- ers become agents of selection. The fate of the organism’s un- intentional signal is determined by a complex balance of costs and benefits associated with the three response categories listed above. So long as total benefits outweigh the total costs to the sender, the signal will persist through continued reproduction, having a net cohesive influence on its genealogical system. Organisms are simultaneously in the environment and part of the environment (M AYNARD S MITH 1976), so it is only a small step to move from the emergence of mutual signaling systems - produced unintentionally - to a transitional dynamic in which another level of cost-benefit considerations emerges, one in- volving enhanced cohesion and functional integration accom- panied by more constraints through mutual inter-dependence. Organisms are both signals and signal-bearers, because some of their attributes may be perceived by other organisms in their surroundings. If external signals are by-products of internal signaling, then the effects of such ‘internal conversa- tions’ may have more than one meaning to observers in the environment. The evolutionary fate of signal bearers will be an outcome of the ways in which other organisms perceive the signal bearer. In addition, if the signals that selection can act upon are only a subset of all the internal signaling, which se- lection can affect only indirectly, we must assume that various selection pressures, operating on different levels of biological
Mostrar mais

18 Ler mais

Nature and main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms

Nature and main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms

Schizophrenic Disorders as an Example In the following, I will provide a deliber- ately simplifi ed example of psychopathological mechanism drawn from contemporary research fi ndings on the pathophysiology of delusion- formation in acute psychosis (Howes and Kapur, 2009). Several and numerous causal factors- exerting their action through only partly under- stood pathogenetic mechanisms, underlie indi- viduals’ vulnerability to acute psychosis. These factors- physical, biological, psychological, social, or mixed ones- include genes, obstetric complications, urban birth and upbringing in ex- treme poverty, migrant status, chronic cannabis use, social isolation and lack of support. Their common fi nal effect, grounding individuals’ in- creased psychological vulnerability to acute psy- chosis, is presumed to consist in a sensitization of individuals’ striatum (Broome et al., 2005). This endogenous or exogenous previous sensi- tization of acute psychosis-prone individuals’ striatum is expressed by a strong propensity to increased pre-synaptic dopamine elevation and release in striatal regions of their brains. More- over, these pre-synaptic dopamine elevation and release are psychologically experienced by pa- tients as increased salience or subjective signifi - cance assigned to normally innocuous external or internal stimuli, or rather to their perceptual representations of the latter. In turn, these striatal regions activate cortical association areas which perform the psychological function of think- ing-via their strong anatomical connections to them-activate cortical association areas via their strong anatomical connections to them, cortical association areas which perform the psychologi- cal function of thinking. By the same token, pa- tients undergo the psychological process of ex- planation-seeking for their abnormal perceptual experiences, a process eventually culminating in delusion-formation.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

The interdisciplinary nature of <i>SOIL</i>

The interdisciplinary nature of <i>SOIL</i>

Abstract. The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, ge- ologists, and physicists, amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. In more recent years this list has grown to include anthropologists, economists, engineers, medical professionals, military professionals, sociologists, and even artists. This approach has been strengthened and reinforced as cur- rent research continues to use experts trained in both soil science and related fields and by the wide array of issues impacting the world that require an in-depth understanding of soils. Of fundamental importance amongst these issues are biodiversity, biofuels/energy security, climate change, ecosystem services, food security, human health, land degradation, and water security, each representing a critical challenge for research. In order to es- tablish a benchmark for the type of research that we seek to publish in each issue of SOIL, we have outlined the interdisciplinary nature of soil science research we are looking for. This includes a focus on the myriad ways soil science can be used to expand investigation into a more holistic and therefore richer approach to soil research. In addition, a selection of invited review papers are published in this first issue of SOIL that address the study of soils and the ways in which soil investigations are essential to other related fields. We hope that both this editorial and the papers in the first issue will serve as examples of the kinds of topics we would like to see published in SOIL and will stimulate excitement among our readers and authors to participate in this new venture.
Mostrar mais

13 Ler mais

Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

Recording of fungal species in the wider zone of the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve during the 2006 (Table 2), another 60 species of macromy- cetes have been noted, most of them for the first time in the Zasavica region. Howewer, most of them belonged to the ecological group of wod-decaying fungi, which confirmed our earlier findings (M a t a v u l y et al., 2001). Ligni- colous species were numerous in Lug and Valyevac Shume localities as ex- pected since these two localities have been the most densely forested with the richest diversity of tree and shruby plant species.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

DNA Computer; Present and Future

DNA Computer; Present and Future

The question is: are the problems facing practical, controllable, and reliable DNA computing insurmountable? There are indications that the design of oligonucleotides and molecular biology protocols for error-tolerant computing is as difficult as the original combinatorial problems for which the technique first showed such promise. If this turns out to be the case, then, success may depend on compilation of oligonucleotide collections and protocols which enable successful applications. Current protocols were not developed for computational applications. It may be that with current technology and understanding, a precise enough characterization of DNA chemistry and physics is not possible for building DNA computers. On the other hand, continued exploration of current protocols and techniques may eventually result in a new body of methods that are specifically adapted to computing with DNA. Another problem is the lack of a ―killer app‖. Part of this is certainly associated with the problems that DNA computing has experienced, and the hope is that once the problems are resolved, the applications will come. It has already been suggested that the ―killer app‖ might be the application of DNA computing to problems in molecular biology [7, 8].
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...