Objective: Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis. The Brief Repeatable Battery of NeuropsychologicalTests (BRB–N) was developed to assess cognitive functions most–frequently impaired in multiple sclerosis. However, normative values are lacking in Brazil. Therefore, we aimed to provide continuous and discrete normative values for the BRB–N in a Brazilian population sample. Methods: We recruited 285 healthy individuals from the community at 10 Brazilian sites and applied the BRB–N version A in 237 participants and version B in 48 participants. Continuous norms were calculated with multiple–regression analysis. Results: Mean raw scores and the 5 th percentile
The results of this cross-sectional study with a well- characterized sample of euthymic patients with BD and remitted patients with SZ, suggest that these diagnoses are associated with cognitive impairment compared to healthy subjects. Although the neurocognitive dysfunction may be quantitatively different in SZ, the changes were qualitatively similar between both diagnostic groups. Nonetheless, we report here similar neurocognitive performance in HPS+ and HPS- patients with BD on all neuropsychologicaltests, suggesting that past psychotic features in BD do not seem to be associated with a more severe cognitive impairment during euthymia.
Level II requires a complete group of batteries and neuropsychologicaltests of cognitive disorders, including behavioral impairments, in those patients with severe mo- tor limitations, where the author deemed the ability to self- administer medication as a criterion of autonomy in PDD. The clinical diagnosis of PDD remains controversial. The concept of a pathological “continuum” in the alpha- synucleinopathies with different degrees of lesion and distri- bution of Lewy lesions often hamper phenotype identifica- tion and confounds the clinician in diagnosing LBD or PDD.
Abstract – The differential diagnosis between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is sometimes difficult. Objectives: To verify the accuracy of neuropsychologicaltests and a behavioral disorders scale in the differential diagnosis between FTLD and AD. Methods: Retrospective data on 12 FTD patients and 12 probable AD patients were analyzed. The scores on neuropsychologicaltests (MMSE score, reverse digit span, delayed recall for drawings, semantic fluency of animals) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) in both groups were compared. Results: Both groups had similar performance on neuropsychologicaltests. All FTD patients and 50% of AD patients had neuropsychiatric abnormalities. The NPI score was 58.0±19.3 for the FTD patients, and 3.6±4.7 for the AD patients (p<0.01). Using a NPI cut-off score of 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% in this sample. The four most common neuropsychiatric disturbances in FTD patients were: apathy, aberrant motor behavior, disinhibition and eating abnormalities. Apathy and dysphoria/depression were the most common behavioral symptoms among the AD patients. Conclusions: In this study, NPI was found to be a useful tool for the differential diagnosis between FTD and AD. The neuropsychologicaltests commonly used in the medical office were unable to distinguish between the two groups.
In a recent review of the influence of formal school- ing on intelligence and its cognitive components, Ceci (1990) suggested that the level of formal schooling cor- relates with performance on IQ tests, reflecting an in- fluence of education on the cognitive processes sup- porting task performance on these tests. Ceci implied that this influence can be conceptualized in two ways: students acquire general knowledge and processing strategies important for task performance, and formal education provides students with attitudes, values, and motivation that are important in testing situations. It has also been suggested that literate people acquire skills to organize and process information in less idiosyncratic and more efficient ways compared with illiterate people (see e.g., Luria, 1976; Manly et al., 1999). Thus, edu- cated literate people have, in addition to basic literacy (the skills of reading and writing, i.e. orthographic knowledge), acquired cognitive skills and strategies for efficient processing of information. Among other things, this entails that literacy and level of education can influence the outcome on specific psychological and neuropsychologicaltests. Consistent with this sug- gestion, several behavioral studies have demonstrated that literacy level influences the performance on tests commonly used in neuropsychological assessment (Ardila, Rosselli, & Rosas, 1989; Lecours et al., 1987; Manly et al., 1999; Ostrosky-Solís, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1999; Rosselli, Ardila, & Rosas, 1990), including visuospatial (Ardila et al., 1989; Matute, Leal, Zarabozo, Robles, & Cedillo, 2000; Ostrosky, Efron, & Yund, 1991; Reis, Guerreiro, & Castro-Caldas, 1994; Reis, Petersson, Castro-Caldas, & Ingvar, 2001), arith- metic (Deloche, Souza, Braga, & Dellatolas, 1999) and language tasks (Adrian, 1993; Castro-Caldas, Petersson, Reis, Stone-Elander, & Ingvar, 1998; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Reis & Castro-Caldas, 1997). Taken together, this shows that literacy and for- mal education provide cognitive skills in addition to mastery of reading and writing.
ABSTRACT. The relationship between depression and cognitive impairment, frequent after stroke, is complex and has not been sufficiently elucidated. Objective: To review the relationship between post-stroke depression and cognitive impairment. Methods: We performed a PubMed database search spanning the last ten years, using the terms post-stroke depression, cognitive dysfunction, cognitive impairment and neuropsychologicaltests. Our target studies were original quantitative studies that investigated the relationship between post-stroke depression (PSD) and cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Articles published in English, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese were considered. Selection criteria were the use of neuropsychologicaltests to assess cognitive function, and of either instruments to diagnose major depression, or scales to assess depressive symptoms, within the first three months after stroke. Results: Six original quantitative studies fulfilled the criteria. The prevalence of PSD within the first three months after stroke ranged from 22% to 31%. Incidence ranged from 25% to 27% and was evaluated in only two studies. PSD was associated with increased cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment was reported in 35.2% to 87% of the patients. Post-stroke cognitive deficits were reported mostly in executive function, memory, language, and speed of processing. Conclusion: Executive dysfunction and depression occur in stroke survivors, are frequently coexistent, and also associated with worse stroke prognosis. Healthcare professionals need to address and provide adequate treatment for depression and executive dysfunctions in stroke patients early in the first three months after stroke. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of programs evaluating the early detection and treatment of PSD and executive dysfunction in stroke survivors.
Abstract – Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia, accounting for 55% of all cases. AD patients gradually lose functional capacity, manifesting deficits in attention, language, temporal and direction orientation, mood, socialization and visuospatial function. The visuospatial function entails identification of a stimulus and its location. AD patients can present deficits in visuo-spatial skills during initial stages of the disease, but in the course of clinical evolution this function can become severely impaired. One of the neuropsychologicaltests indicated to evaluate the visuospatial function is the VOSP (The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery). Objectives: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect visuospatial dysfunction in early AD patients using the VOSP, and assess its sensitivity in a Brazilian sample. Results: Controls outperformed AD patients on all neuropsychological evaluations, except the Corsi block tapping task and cancellation task-errors. The AD patients performed significantly worse on all object perception and two space perception (Number Location and Cube Analyses) subtests of the VOSP. Conclusion: The AD patients demonstrated impaired visuospatial function in several aspects. The subtests of the VOSP were found to be sensitive for detecting this impairment in mild cases. Key words: dementia, early Alzheimer disease, visuospatial function.
To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using the Rao’s Brief Repeatable Battery of NeuropsychologicalTests (BRB-N). Method: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. Results: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47) showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39) was worse than that of the healthy controls. Conclusion: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.
participants, has been argued to produce underestimates of cognitive decline and to limit the interpretability of cognitive change (Ritchie & Tuokko, 2007). On the other hand, however, the poorer fit of the proposed structure to the data obtained in the last year may be due to other variables which may have influenced the participants’ performance on neuropsychologicaltests, such as motor slowing (Baezner et al., 2008). Finally, the fit of the longitudinal invariance measurement models was only modest. Hence, while supporting the dimensions of executive functioning, memory, and processing speed, the results still warrant some caution regarding the assumption that these latent constructs reflect the same meaning over time.
In the analysis of the aspects evaluated, it was noted that boys had worse visual-spatial performance, a non-characteristic result. Additionally, they showed a higher percentage of words written incorrectly. In most of the other neuropsychologicaltests, the boys’ performance was similar to that of the girls. Most of the children reproduced the story of three episodes that was told and understood it, making summary inference and reproducing it adequately in writing. The majority of children showed adequate intellectual performance on the logical thinking test, called the intellectual test. Most also demonstrated having the notion of “more than.”
among the groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney Test, and Spearman’s Correlation was performed to verify the relation- ship between ADLs and the neuropsychologicaltests. he level of signiicance was set at 0.05. A forward stepwise logistic regression analysis (diagnosis of yes/no cognitive impairment as dependent variable) was performed to establish the independent predic- tive ability of tests that presented p values less than 0.05 after the Mann-Whitney test. In order to perform the logistic regression analysis, we used the Mann-Whitney test to compare groups (yes or no cognitive impairment), to determine which tests could be elected for the regression model. To this, it was considered that a variable could be eligible if p<0.200. We applied the logistic regres- sion analysis in function on the dependent variable ‘group’. Once we found the variables (neuropsychologicaltests) eligible to the modeling process through the application of logistic regression analysis, we constructed a regression model with four variables, which achieved the balance of the regression model.
ABSTRACT. Patients with migraine often report cognitive complaints, especially regarding attention and memory. Objective: To perform a systematic review of the studies available on cognitive evaluation in patients with migraine. Methods: We evaluated all articles containing the key words: “Migraine”, “Cognition” and “Cognitive Impairment.” Results: The search strategy resulted in 23 articles. Fifteen out of the 23 studies (65.3%) retrieved reported abnormalities on neuropsychologicaltests in migraine patients, notably tests of memory, attention and information processing speed. Most of the studies showing cognitive changes in migraine were carried out in neurological care facilities. Conversely, among community-based studies, migraine patients were less likely to present cognitive changes. Conclusion: Patients with migraine, especially those followed at neurology clinics, show an elevated risk of mild changes in several cognitive domains. Further studies with greater methodological refinement are warranted in order to clearly establish whether this cognitive dysfunction is associated with an underlying migraine pathophysiological process.
All participants were selected in the same hospital envi- ronment and met all inclusion criteria. They were introduced to the study’s protocol, which had been approved by the com- mittee on ethics and research at the HUCFF/UFRJ. They signed the written informed consent and received a copy of it. On the first medical visit, all participants underwent clinical examination after general and specific anamnesis for physical and psychiatric changes. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism were assessed by use of the Zulewski score, which was considered compatible with thyroid dysfunction when ≥ 3 and normal when < 3. On that occasion, blood was collected for thyroid hormone (TSH and FT 4 ) and TPOAb measurements. The neuropsychologicaltests were per- formed within 30 days of the initial clinical assessment.
Some limitations to this study must be acknowledged. This study was an observational cross-sectional evaluation, and a cause/effect relationship among neuropsychological dysfunction, vitamin E and SOD cannot be established. The present evidence is important because it has potential implications for future therapies; however, these data only provide initial evidence, and more experiments to assess the relationship between antioxidants and neuropsychologicaltests in OSA patients are warranted. In this study, a wide sample of neuropsychologicaltests and several antioxidant biomarkers was examined. It should be noted that all of the study subjects were male, and the results may not be generalized to women. These results are unique and have not been previously shown. The evidence described here could be corroborated by prospectively studying the effects of administering vitamin E and other antioxidants on neuropsychological test scores in OSA patients.
Abstract – The neuropsychologicaltests of spatial span are designed to measure attention and working memory. The version of the spatial span test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) evaluates these functions through the recall of sequences of spatial locations presented to the subject. Objective: The present study investigated how age, gender and educational level might affect the performance of the non- verbal system. Methods: A total of 60 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years were assessed (25 males and 35 females). Results: The results showed no gender differences in test performance. Children with six or more years of education showed better performance than children with less than three years of education. Older children had more schooling and thus were able to recall a greater number of items. Span length values proved similar to a previous large normative study which also employed the CANTAB Spatial Span (De Luca et al., 2003). Conclusion: The similarity in performance of the Brazilian children and adolescents studied and the group of Australian participants examined by the cited authors, despite the socio-cultural and economical differences, points to the suitability of the task for the assessment of attention and working memory in Brazilian children. Key words: neuropsychologicaltests, CANTAB, spatial span, working memory, children, educational status.
In daily life, patients with hyperthyroidism often are nervous, irritable and impulsive. They can not timely recognize the adverse impact of their behavior on their life, work or family, and control their inappropriate behavior and negative emotion. Jablkowska’s  study has showed disturbances of executive function, involving impaired prefrontal cortex in patients with hyper- thyroidism. Executive function generally refers to a variety of cognitive processes involved in planning, resolving conflicts and controlling behavior . The Stroop Color-Word Test is a simple and frequently used tests to assess the executive control function. Impairment in the Stroop Color-Word Test has been described in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity dis- order (ADHD), patients with anxiety disorder, and patients with alcohol dependence [12–14]. Decision making is also considered to be associated with cognitive processes of executive func- tions. The processing steps for decision making are supported by specific brain areas and neu- rotransmitter systems. These brain areas may refer to amygdala, prefrontal cortex, cingulated cortex, and striatum [15–18]. Several studies have showed that the dopaminergic system is crit- ical to decision making process[19, 20]. Animal experiment have also provided some evidence for disturbed reward circuitry function, related to hyperthyroid state . Consequently, pa- tients with hyperthyroidism are prone to making disadvantageous decisions. However, no studies have been published regarding decision making in these patients to date. The principal aim of our study was to bridge the knowledge gap, since decision making is an essential compo- nent of the neuropsychological characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism.
Estimation of cognitive functioning of depressive patients is made additionally difficult because their poorer achievements at certain tests may be the result of the influence of many unspecific factors, and not only the consequence of dysfunction of some brain region. The most obvious deficiency does not necessarily imply a basic cognitive disorder in a disease (Totić-Poznanović, 1999). Such reasoning may be applied on the results of our investigation. They indicate that the most obvious deficiency is found at the tasks of delayed recollection. Analysis of the remaining functions excluded primary memory disorder, but indicated instead that the basic disorder is that of attention and executive functions.
T(rk eğitim bilimleri alanyazınında yeni olan bu terim, T(rkçeye eğitimciler ve öğrenciler için önemli sonuçları olan Y(ksek Çıtalı Sınavlar ‛aşaran, , Kader Sınavı ‛aşt(rk, olarak çevrilmiştir. ‚ncak stake sözc(ğ( bahis, tehlike, direk, kazık, hisse, şansa bağlı olan şey, tehlikeye atmak, riske atmak, desteklemek anlamlarına gelmektedir ‚rıkan, Yenal & Taşpınar, OED, . Stake sözc(ğ(n(n hem sözl(klerde yer alan anlamı nedeniyle hem de dil bilimcilerden alınan gör(şler doğrultusunda, risk sözc(ğ(ne karşılık geldiği kabul edilmiştir. Risk sözc(ğ(, zarara uğrama tehlikesi olarak tanımlanmaktadır TDK, . ‛u açıdan high stakes tests kavramı için y(ksek risk içeren sınavlar karşılığı kullanılmıştır Kumandaş & Kutlu, 2010). 5ğrenciler için y(ksek risk içeren sınavlardan bazıları, özel akademik gerekliliklerinin kazanılıp kazanılmadığının belirlenmesi, bir (st sınıfa ya da bir (st öğrenime geçişi, diploma almayı diğer bir deyişle iş d(nyasına ya da y(kseköğrenime geçişi ve yaşam için gerekli bazı bilgi ve becerilerin kazanılması anlamında bir şeyler ifade eden sınavlardır ‛aşaran, . Y(ksek risk içeren sınavlar, öğrencilerin bir okulu bitirebilmesi, bir öğretim programına kayıt olabilmesi, (niversiteye girebilmesi, burs alabilmesi ya da bir uygulama için yeterlik alabilmesi için geçmesi gereken sınavlar olarak tanımlanmaktadır Cizek, Resnick, . ‚ynı zamanda bu kavram, bireyler için sonuçları çok önemli olan ve onlarda kaygı yaratan sınavlar için de kullanılmaktadır Casbarro, .
The data collection to evaluate the process of registration of tests was carried out during three months in the stage of conference of the documents of outpatient clients, in the period of greater service flow: from 7:30 to 9:00. We considered nonconformities of the requisitions and the registration of the tests: registration of tests not required, exchange of registered tests, tests required and not registrated, incomplete name of the client, incorrect registration of the client, unreadable requisition, as well as abscence of clinical data, of specification of the material to be examined, the medical record number, date, stamp and/or signature of the ordering physician.