Abstract: The effects of the reduction of international trade costs on the internal economicgeography of each country have been very scarcely studied in empirical terms. With data for Portugal since its adhesion to the European Union, we test the hypotheses put forward by the neweconomicgeography concerning the evolution of the spatial concentration of the manufacturing industry as a whole and of the different industries individually considered. We consider alternative concentration concepts and data disaggregated both at the level of NUTS III (28 regions) and concelhos (275 regions). Results show a dispersion of total industry as a consequence of the reduction of international trade costs, in line with Krugman and Elizondo (1996)’s prediction. Individual industries show a similar tendency, in contrast with the theoretical hypothesis.
Abstract: The effects of the reduction of international trading costs on the internal economicgeography of each country have been very scarcely studied in empirical terms. With data for Portugal since its adhesion to the European Union, we analyze the hypotheses put forward by the neweconomicgeography concerning the evolution of the spatial concentration of the manufacturing industry as a whole and of each individual sector. We use four alternative concentration concepts and data disaggregated both at the level of NUTS III (28 regions) and concelhos (275 regions). Results show a dispersion of manufacturing industry, in line with Krugman and Elizondo’s (1996) prediction. Individual sectors show a similar tendency, in contrast with the theoretical hypothesis.
(that was tricky with the delicate shading required for natural history plates), and so the artist would colour a pattern plate and a team of colourists at the publishers or booksellers would copy this as exactly as possible for the subscribers, and subsequently as further orders came in. William Leach, curator of zoology at the British Museum in London, had encouraged him in his project of lithographic illustration; and in 1822 Swainson hoped to become Leachs successor. This was not to be. Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society and a Trustee of the Museum, had a friend J. G. Children who was a mineralogist and banker down on his luck: and he was appointed, and in the event turned out well (Knight, 1998b, pp. 146-7). Swainson , a much younger man (born 1789) was embittered by his rejection; but he turned to authorship, writing numerous volumes for Lardners Cabinet Cyclopedia a series which was published by Longman. Such publications were a feature of the March of Mind of the 1820s and 1830s, where increasing literacy went with cheaper books as wood-pulp or esparto- grass paper, steam-presses, and cloth case-bindings were introduced. Wallaces copy of the volume on the geographical distribution of animals is in the Linnean Societys library, fully annotated. Disillusioned with what he saw as only moderate success, and overworked by his editor, the tyrannical Dionysius Lardner, Swainson emigrated in a huff to New Zealand.
10 Institute of Geographical Sciences, Free University Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin, Germany 11 Department of Geography, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen, Germany 12 School of Geography and Oceanography, Nanjing University, Hankou Road 22, 210093 Nanjing, China 13 Centre for Arid Environment and Paleoclimate Research, School of Resources and Environmental Sciences,
One highlight was the evolution of methods and databases. For example, one of the pre- congress mini-courses featured the new R library (The R Foundation for Statistical Com- puting, Vienna, Austria; http://www.r-project.org) for spatial data modeling. The other mini-course focused on Google Earth Engine, with free access, which allows tweaking and combining information obtained from remote sensing on a planetary scale, allowing stud- ies that would be impossible in an isolated computer environment. Innovative approaches in the field of health surveillance provided the focus for thematic sessions and numerous posters. Statistical modeling, traditionally the strongest point of the congress, was also full of new approaches: spatially dependent survival analysis, spatial-temporal models capable of identifying trends and clusters, both in space and in time, e.g., epidemic outbreaks, as epidemiologists would say 1 .
Even though the general direction of the organization of economic life is set firmly in the 1945 Constitution, does not automatically mean that Indonesia has system of national economy agreed nationally. Organization of economic life which are not continuous between the old order with a new order on the one side and to order reforms on the other side shows that Indonesia does not have a national economic system as well as creating an economic crisis of 1998. As a result, the problems of poverty, hunger and unemployment continue to be the actual issue at every government regime. Similarly, the number of laws promulgated by the House of Representatives that ultimately foundered because its entry violated the constitution so that the enforceability canceled by the Constitutional Court 55 reinforced the view that Indonesia does not have a national
Abstract The article discusses the influence of organic fertilizer of new generation - multi-purpose compost (KMN) on agrochemical parameters of sod-podzolic soil in the fifth year of its use. The observations were made taking into account the actions and aftereffects KMN in bilateral regulation of the water regime. Studies have shown that the incorporation into the soil in the first year of a multi-purpose compost at 15 t / ha in the fifth year of observations showed a damped effect that led to the alignment of agrochemical parameters. The fertilizers were applied, taking into account the removal of nutrients for the planned harvest, while maintaining the original soil fertility. In all cases, except for the control, marked by non-deficit balance of humus.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɜɢɤɨɪɢɫɬɚɧɨʀ ɥɿɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɢ. 1. Wen, J., "Working Together for a Promising Future." Address by the Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China at the Second China-Central and Eastern European Countries Economic and Trade Forum, Hilton Hotel, Warsaw, Poland, 26 April 2012 (official tr.). 2. Zhu, C. And Lague, D., "Special Report: China's Other Power Struggle." [Online]. Quezon, Philippines: InterAksyon, 17 October 2012 http://www.interaksyon.com/business/45718/ special-report--chinas-other-power-struggle 3. World Trade Organisation, "Dispute Settlement: Disputes by Country." [Online]. http://www.wto.org/ english/tratop_e/dispu_e/dispu_by_country_e.htm 4. Kanargelidis, G. And Narayanan, P., "WTO Complaints Against China On The Rise." Blakes. 09 November 2007. [Online]. http://www.blakes.com/english/ view_disc.asp?ID=1872 5. "Railroad Gauge Width." [Online]. http://parovoz.com/spravka/gauges-en.php 6. Markusen, J. and Venables, A. "Multinational Firms and the New Trade Theory," Journal of International Economics, vol. 46, issue 2, pp. 183-203. December 1998. 7. Shahbaz, M. and Leitao, N., "Intra-Industry Trade: The Pakistan Experience," International Journal of Applied Economics, vol. 7, issue 1, pp. 18-27, March 2010. 8. Breuss, F., Egger, P., Pfaffermayr, " Structural funds, EU enlargement, and the redistribution of FDI in Europe," Review of World Economics, vol. 146, issue 3, pp. 469-494, 2011. 9. Yoshida, Y., Leitao, N., Faustino, H., "Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and Foreign Direct Investment Between Japan and European Countries," Atlantic Economic Journal, vol. 37, pp. 351-365, 2009. 10. Wahwha, Vivek, "Why It's China's Turn to Worry about Manufacturing," The Washington Post. [Online]. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/on-innovations/why-its-chinas-turn- to-worry-about-manufacturing/2012/01/10/gIQAoRVJpP_story.html
Measurement and reporting of economic performance is an objective. Assigned traditionally and preponderant in accounting. If this is not done directly by traditional financial statements, accounting also provides numerous data for derived indicators. Users of financial statements would certainly want a unique and relevant indicator for expression of performance, but this is not and will never be possible because with different economic interests and positions to the company information they will have different objectives. The diversity of approaches and indicators often confuse practitioners and put those who deal with the normalization in difficult situations.
In that context, the Work Group for the Development of the Northeast (GTDN) was created. Following the orientation of Celso Furtado, the GTDN deepened the analyses in search of the real problems and solutions which would be implemented through a new organization, the Superinten- dence of the Development of the Northeast (SUDENE) at the end of the 1950s. One can see that new needs led to institutional changes and according to North’s (1990) view, the institutions and organizations would become stronger according to their adaptation to the new institutional reality. When industrialization is added to national strategies for development, as an economic alter- native, energy must be consolidated and suitable to the regional developmental process. Through SUDENE, the transfer of part of the industrial capital of the Southeast to the Northeast should have been incentivized. Activities which would certainly lead to industrial growth should have been moved to the latter region to allow for more dynamism in the area.
out how to survive in the competitive world and how to become better and stronger. The article, which draws from marketing, economic and information disciplines, intro- duces the main principles in the technological and economic environment of libraries and finds the knowledge about these disciplines to be most crucial for successful management of modern libraries, especially on the pretentious publishing market and on the market of information suppliers. Within the technological and economic envi- ronment, the cooperation is the only logical solution, which benefits the producers of information services and products as well as libraries. The following text finds that libraries will achieve long-term success and will be proactive in developing partnershi- ps only by using relationship marketing. This relatively new approach offers libraries new ways for successful and long-term management of alliances between partners.
The 4 studies in the dossier were selected by the Geosaúde 2014 Scientific Committee and the Saúde e Sociedade Editorial Committee from the 954 scien- tific studies submitted to the Congress. They portray different foci of current Health Geography and were produced by researchers from Portugal and Brazil.
Comments made by respondents offer insight into the reasons given for not offering an online physical geography course in Table 1 and provide a basis for solutions to address their concerns. The respondent comments fell into two broad categories 1) faculty and institutional resources and interest, and 2) pedagogical concerns. Though faculty resources and interest topped the list of reasons for not offering online physical geography courses, few of those responding in that manner followed up with comments directed at these issues. Those who responded with comments indicated a lack of need for developing online course due to current high enrollment in conventional face-to-face courses. The majority of respondent comments addressed three areas of pedagogical concern, 1) how to address classroom concerns like delivering “lecture” content to potentially large enrollment classes, 2) logistics of handling lab activities, and 3) how to accomplish field study.
proactive in addressing some of the redundancies in the system and recently implemented a simplified process. A pharmaceutical company needs only to submit the protocol to the coordinating site’s CEP for ethics approval. Once approved by the coordinating site, the protocol is simply agreed to be implemented at the other sites and is sent to CEP for national approval. In addition, ANVISA has started to issue a special communique and import license to the coordinating site, which can then be implemented by each site upon approval by their ethics committee, all in an effort to decrease approval timelines. Recently, new measures were sought to reduce timelines even more, particularly for foreign managed trials. If the clinical research has been approved by the FDA, the European medicines agency (EMA), Japan’s Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency, Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration, Health Canada, or the study has recruited patients in other countries, the simplified procedure can be used. Pharmaceutical companies can use this single step process and send the clinical research application directly to ANVISA and have it evaluated within ninety days.
The central concept in all transport analysis has been desire to ‘save travel time’. Transport appraisal is almost totally (80%) dependent on the user benefits resulting from travel time savings and hence the overwhelming desire to speed up traffic. This in turn reinforces the comments made in the previous section on the social and environmental problems that are created. In the past, when there were clear objectives about the merits of a car owning soci- ety, with cheap energy and unlimited space, the imperative of fol- lowing the industry led view of high levels of cheap travel seemed to be very attractive. Current concerns over the limits of mobility and the much greater awareness of the social and climate changes costs, together with new issues relating to peak oil, energy secu- rity, high and volatile prices, and fuel poverty, all suggest that these priorities should change.