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Scientific production about night shift work in nursing: a review of literature

Scientific production about night shift work in nursing: a review of literature

Objective: recognizing the scientific productions that approach night shift work carried out by the nursing staff in hospitals. Method: this is a bibliographic, narrative, exploratory and descriptive research. The search was developed in the Virtual Health Library, from July to August 2012. Results: studies point to the fact that most workers are married women with spouses and/or children, who have to do housework and deal with their profession, in one or two jobs. Despite of the negative repercussion of the night shift work upon the health of the workers, they often do this shift because of their choice/personal need or professional and not by imposition of the institution. Conclusion: there is a growing interest in this topic, mainly in terms of repercussions of this work shift for the health of nursing professionals. It should be highlighted that it is fundamental to reduce these repercussions, as well as to diminish the hospitalization rates in a way to contribute for the promotion of health and satisfaction at work. Descriptors: Nursing, Night shift work, Circadian rhythm, Worker’s health.
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Life Quality: The Night Shift Work Challenge To Nursing Team     /      Qualidade de Vida: O Desafio do Trabalho Noturno Para a Equipe de Enfermagem

Life Quality: The Night Shift Work Challenge To Nursing Team / Qualidade de Vida: O Desafio do Trabalho Noturno Para a Equipe de Enfermagem

Objective: Our goal herein has been to gain further insights regarding the life quality and its association with sociodemographic characteristics of nursing professionals working at night shift. Methods: It is an analytical research type with quantitative approach. The research was performed in a hospital of Montes Claros city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, over the year of 2014 and had 145 workers participants. The survey has been done by applying a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Abbreviated Instrument for the Assessment of the Life Quality (WHOQOL-bref) in August 2014. The descriptive analysis and student’s t-test was used in order to check for possible associations. Results: The majority of the workers were female, aged up to 35 years old, having intimate partner and children. The following dimensions had shown the worst scores: environment and physical. The comparison of average scores within the four dimensions has revealed that the most significant covariates were as follows: sex, physical activity, additional job, civil status and working time. Conclusion: In the present study was observed that the workers require greater attention to the environmental and physical dimensions, and also in the sociodemographic characteristics that interfered in their life quality.
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Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation Resulting from Night Shift Work on Young Doctors

Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation Resulting from Night Shift Work on Young Doctors

Material and Methods: Eighteen physicians aged 26 - 33 years were divided into 2 groups: non-sleep deprived group (with no night work) and sleep deprived group (minimum 12 hour of night work/week). We applied Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to screen the presence of sleep pathology and Epworth Sleepiness Scale to evaluate subjective daytime sleepiness; we used actigraphy and sleep diary to assess sleep hygiene and standard sleep-wake cycles. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation, we applied Toulouse- Piéron’s test (concentration test) and a battery of three reaction time tasks after the night duty.
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Rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for overweight Italian workers: a cross-sectional study.

Rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for overweight Italian workers: a cross-sectional study.

dent contribution of night shift-work to overweight and abdominal obesity among Brazilian factory workers of both genders. More conflicting evidence emerge from longitudinal studies; although a crude relationship between shift-work and body weight changes has been consistently reported, such relation was not always confirmed when relevant confounders were taken into account. In a retrospective study on Italian male workers employed in a municipal enterprise for street cleaning and waste collection [15], night work was associated to higher BMI and more risky lipidemic profile; two prospective studies on Japanese male blue-collars found larger BMI increase in shift workers, relative to daytime workers, after 1 year [16] and 10 years follow-up [29]; more recently, Zhao and colleagues [30] reported that Australian female nurses that changed from shift- to day-work schedules decreased their BMI over follow-up period, whereas shift-work maintainers and day-to-shift changers increased their BMI. Different, incon- sistent results were instead reported by other studies: no significant effect of night work on body weight changes was found after 5 years follow-up in a group of French female nurses [31]; even more surprisingly, results pointing to the opposite direction were reported on a mixed population of nurses and other employees, with shift workers losing - and day workers gaining - body weight and BMI [32].
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Rev. Gaúcha Enferm.  vol.34 número1

Rev. Gaúcha Enferm. vol.34 número1

The aim of this study was to analyze short-term memory, attention and sleep patterns of the nursing staff working night and day shifts. Study participants were 109 subjects in a hospital in Minas Gerais working on the day shift (n = 68) or night shift (n = 41). Data collection was performed using the Sleep Diary and WAIS-III Test Battery. The results showed a significant difference for the quality of sleep of those on night shift work (p <0.0001; ANOVA). The subjects on the day shifts performed better on the Digit Symbol with a significant difference (p = 0.0008; Mann-Whitney test). In conclusion, the quality of sleep of the group on the night shift showed lower averages compared with those on the day shifts, although they had greater total sleep. The level of attention showed to be best for the group on the day shift work.
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FENÓTIPOS PARA A SÍNDROME METABÓLICA EM TRABALHADORES DE TURNOS ALTERNANTES DE UMA MINERADORA NA REGIÃO DOS INCONFIDENTES-MG

FENÓTIPOS PARA A SÍNDROME METABÓLICA EM TRABALHADORES DE TURNOS ALTERNANTES DE UMA MINERADORA NA REGIÃO DOS INCONFIDENTES-MG

Synergy between CD14 and C-reactive protein in endothelial cell activation (Abstract). Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Prospective Cohort Studies [r]

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Dement. neuropsychol.  vol.5 número3

Dement. neuropsychol. vol.5 número3

Inter-individual differences in tolerance for shift work have been studied primarily in terms of external factors affecting alertness on the job or the ability to rest and sleep while at home. However, there is increasing evidence that neurobiological factors also play a role, particularly the ma- jor processes involved in the regulation of sleep and wake- fulness. These include a sleep homeostatic process seeking to balance wakefulness and sleep and a circadian process seeking to promote wakefulness during the day and sleep during the night. Shift work is associated with a temporal misalignment of these two endogenous processes. 18
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Rev. esc. enferm. USP  vol.43 número1

Rev. esc. enferm. USP vol.43 número1

demanding continuous night shift work, the common night- time sleep pattern is monophasic, and efficacy could often be compromised when there is an accumulated debt of sleep. The analysis of the sleep patterns of nurses with rotating shifts in the morning, afternoon and night shifts reveal the existence of three different types related to sleep logistics. The most important characteristics in each group of this study were: 1.) Monophasic sleep: all nurses were shown to be capable of sleeping the usual nighttime sleep, as much as possible at the same time (23h24). However, there were dif- ferences in the time of awakening, with differences between the subjects according to their work shifts; 2.) Fractioned sleep – the group of nurses working alternated night shifts had fractioned or split daytime sleep patterns, especially af- ter a night shift working day, occurring in the morning, be- tween 8:00 AM and 12:00 AM. In theory, it could be said that this sleep strategy could benefit the health of the indi- vidual more – however, despite the proven effects of alter- nating sleep periods, the underlying effects of lack of sleep are still evident (11) . By adopting the prophylactic sleep, named
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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.23 número1

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.23 número1

Objective: To analyze the association between the length of napping during the night shift and the recovery after work among nurses. Method: Cross-sectional epidemiological study involving 1940 nurses from 18 public hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro. A multidimensional and self-applied questionnaire was used with information about health, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, health-related behaviors and housework. Multiple logistic regression was applied to identify the association, adjusted for confounding variables. Results: The gross analyses showed 44%, 127% and 66% higher chances of a high level of recovery after work for nurses who sleep up to two hours, between 2.1 and 3 hours and 3.1 hours or more, respectively, when compared to the nurses who do not sleep. After adjusting for confounding variables, the association only continues significant for the group that sleeps 2.1 to 3 hours during the night shift (OR=1.79; 95%CI=1.33-2.41). Conclusion: The association between the length of napping and the high level of recovery after work, confirmed in the present results, can be included in the studies that aim to support more appropriate policies aimed at improving the workers’ work, life and health conditions, not only in nursing, but night-shift workers in general.
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Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.20 número6

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.20 número6

It is exactly in extreme situations that indi- vidual differences become most evident, as in night work. Inversion of the work schedule, which acts as a social synchronizer, generates a change in the phase relationships among the rhythms. This change occurs subsequently to a sudden change in the environmental synchro- nizer. This is exactly what happens with night workers or shift workers. In other words, a change in the temporal reference responsible for the entrainment of biological rhythms takes place. The result is disruption of the internal temporal order, as the resynchronization of the several rhythms does not occur at the same speed. Thus, differences between individuals in such disruption and the subsequent reestab- lishment of the internal temporal order be- come quite clear. Therefore, for the morning chronotype, staying alert during night shifts is more difficult than for the evening chronotype. As for gender differences and adaptation to work, some studies have demonstrated that women’s social role exerts an influence on the magnitude of their adaptation. This is because in many countries women are responsible for both household tasks and the children, thus bearing a double burden (work plus domestic chores) 25 . However, there is strong evidence of
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Ciênc. saúde coletiva  vol.23 número2

Ciênc. saúde coletiva vol.23 número2

Studies with nursing workers corroborated this study, since a higher frequency of workers in the passive work and high demand categories was identified among subjects of this research, non-graduates and those with lower per capita income. This is to say that both categories involve work with low control. In the study, low-control workers were 1.67 times more likely to develop minor psychiatric disorders when compared to high-control workers, showing how low-control work is harmful to health 34 .

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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.19 número6

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.19 número6

In these counterpoints that situate the leadership practices between two seemingly contradictory poles of the management team, one that focuses on dialogue, on the supervision that supports the work and strengthens the relationship and the other in which the practices are based on the control and the demands, emerged the stereotypes of being “being a good girl” or “being a witch”. In deepening the discussion of such contradictions, the group was faced with a moment of insight, indicating a course for the dissolution of these stereotypes, as revealed in the following statements: [...] The measures that you adopt, you do not adopt alone, because once an opinion is given by someone, they commit themselves. This somewhat dilutes that power of the witch, because everyone is together in the caldron, everyone puts in a pinch of salt, we’re together in that decision (P8). I think we need to stop and think a little, why are we using this jargon of the witch? We are stigmatizing a good leader [...]! One that follows the rules of the hospital, one that does everything they can and more, one that solves the problems, that explains things to the group, that everyone wants to work with [...] (P2). Source: Focus Group, Meeting 3.
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Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

Several limitations of this study should be considered. First, it did not examine the direction of causality in the association between sleep problems and cardiovascular outcomes; a reverse causality is possible. Barone and Menna-Barreto (35) described the interaction of diabetes, which is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk, and sleep as a vicious cycle. Second, although the analyses performed in this study were adjusted for potential confounding factors, the possibility of residual effects or those of uncontrolled variables cannot be excluded. Third, because CVDs were evaluated on the basis of self- reported medical diagnoses, the data were subject to reporting bias. However, this bias was not expected to differ between day and night workers. Metabolic diseases, immune system disorders, and depression, all of which could influence the relations between the studied expo- sure and the outcome were not investigated. Also, the prevalence of both CVD and insomnia complaints observed in this study may have been influenced by the ‘‘healthy worker effect’’, in which there is a selection of those more tolerant to work and who tend to be healthier (15). Finally, the data collection instrument used in this Table 3. Association between insomnia complaints and self-reported physician diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases among nursing professionals.
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Rev. Col. Bras. Cir.  vol.42 número4

Rev. Col. Bras. Cir. vol.42 número4

Objective: to assess the impact of the shift inlet trauma patients, who underwent surgery, in-hospital mortality. Methods: Methods: Methods: Methods: Methods: a retrospective observational cohort study from November 2011 to March 2012, with data collected through electronic medical records. The following variables were statistically analyzed: age, gender, city of origin, marital status, admission to the risk classification (based on the Manchester Protocol), degree of contamination, time / admission round, admission day and hospital outcome. Results:

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Evaluation of the  profile and its relation with the nutritional state of night shift industrial workers

Evaluation of the profile and its relation with the nutritional state of night shift industrial workers

Chronobiology is responsible for studying the temporal properties of living matter, including all levels of organization, and the study of circadian rhythms that are biological rhythms that oscillate around 24 hours and can be biochemical, physiological or behavioral events which are essential for survival (Schimitt, 2013). Sleep is more then just a basic physiological need, and its deprivation can cause disturbances to the human health (Lins, 2017). Human being has an internal timing system, the biological clock, which is responsible for the number of times that the individual wakes up without the alarm clock or when they feel hungry even without visualizing food. This facts, that occur exactly at the same time, are called biological rhythms (Mendoza, 2007). Work in shifts is a social condition with irregular hours that usually differs from the hours practiced throughout the evolution of the human being. This condition deregulates the biological rhythms, since they alter the synchronization with the environment, interfering in the periods of sleep and wakefulness, temperature and release of some hormones. These alterations can potentiate some diseases, such as metabolic and cardiovascular, gastrointestinal pathologies, cancer and some mental disorders, increasing morbidity and mortality (Pereira, 2009). Each individual is regulated by their own internal clock and the endogenous factors, such as the preference of a certain time to sleep and wake up. According to this context, humans can be classified in morning (individuals who sleep and wake up early), evening (individuals who sleep late and wake up late) and intermediaries, those who have greater flexibility of schedules, from which, they can adapt better according to their routine (Padovani, 2011). Over time, night works favors gastrointestinal, psychological, and sleep disturbances. Modifications in the schedules and sequences of meals during the night period leads to the appearance of these problems. The body does not support the same amount and type of meals that are normally consumed during the day, which can cause peptic ulcer and gastroduodenitis (Li et al., 2012). Given this context, the objective of this study is important because it reveals the chronobiological profile (morning, evening or intermediate) of the industrial night workers, detecting the level of work conditions and its influence on the nutritional status and health of those involved, evidencing factors that are determinants and extenuating of the expected complications.
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Saude soc.  vol.19 número2

Saude soc. vol.19 número2

The modern society’s demand has intensified unin- terrupted work among several professional catego- ries. Besides that, the society’s organization, with activities that are predominantly mechanized, has contributed to unhealthy life habits, such as lack of physical activity. This study aims to verify the association of occupational, social-demographic, anthropometric and food intake data with insuffi- cient practice of physical activities and if there are any differences in this association between day and night truck drivers. The 470 truck drivers who parti- cipated in this study answered social-demographic, physical activity and food frequency questionnaires. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to verify the association between insufficient physical activity and the other variables. Additionally, multi- ple logistic regression was tested to obtain models that show the association between sets of variables related to insufficient physical activity. The results indicated that practice of physical activities is as- sociated with high educational level (OR=1.84; CI = 1.22-2.76) and low alcohol consumption (OR = 1.59; CI = 1.04-2.45). High intake of whole grains (OR = 1.63; CI = 1.08-2.46) was associated with regular practice of physical activity. Among the night workers, we found association between regular practice of phy- sical activity, high consumption of whole grains (OR = 2.02; CI = 1.13-3.60) and low consumption of simple carbohydrates (OR = 1.91; CI = 1.08-3.37).
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Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

parameters can be adjusted to fit the particular set of subjects in the experimental study, thus allowing quantitative predictions for this group. This can be done with a number of different parameter sets, but these parameter combinations lead to similar predictions. Further, using the adjusted model, we have demonstrated its utility for prediction of shift times resulting in lower sleep drive and faster adaptation in lower light conditions. For example, we find that treatment light intensity can be reduced to 3000 lux, while still leading to similar adaptation as observed at 12 000 lux, and that starting shifts on this schedule at 21:00 instead of 00:00 significantly decreases sleep drive in both control and treatment cases. Finally, we have demonstrated that the model parameters can be adjusted to fit the dynamics of specific individuals on this protocol, and that individuals with the same baseline sleep characteristics can have drastically different response to shift work. Due to the low number of subjects in the experimental study [25] to which the model was fitted the predictions cannot be generalized to the population at large. However, it can be expected that the predictions will hold qualitatively, especially since the findings reported in [25] were further confirmed by other groups, e.g. [5–32]. The predictions made in the present paper can and should be examined experimentally. In particular the estimation of optimal and worst shift start times can be examined in a study where subjects first undergo a protocol similar to that of Czeilser et al. in order to fit the model to the individuals knowing their baseline activity and response to perturbation. Second, predictions for response to other (optimal or worst) shift times should be made using the adjusted model and tested in experiment. Such a study would be particularly useful for further validation of the model.
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When Equivalence is Not Enough: Translation Adjustments of Philosophical Text in Comic Form

When Equivalence is Not Enough: Translation Adjustments of Philosophical Text in Comic Form

This article discusses several adjustments that the editor makes when editing the translation work. The material used for this study is the Chinese philosophical text: Zhuang Zi which was written in Chinese by Tsai Chih Chung, translated into English by Goh Beng Choo, and later translated into Indonesian by Clara Herlina. The English version is published by Asiapac Singapore and the Indonesian version is published by Elex Media.

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Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab  vol.54 número7

Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab vol.54 número7

that the caloric intake of shift workers is very similar to that of day workers (26), however their metabolic eficiency may be impaired once major caloric intake is often at night (27). In addition, it is important to highlight that leptin and ghrelin, anorexin and orexin hormones, respectively, are secreted, as most hormo- nes, in a circadian pattern (14,28-31). Light exposure at night may contribute to a decreased and/or delayed secretion of leptin, which usually occurs at night and has its acrophasis around midnight, further contribu- ting to an enhanced hunger and food intake pattern. This leads to weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in the abdominal region which simultaneously with stress, job strain and psychosocial factors, predisposes shift workers to a cortisol hypersecretion, hyperstimu- lation from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis lea- ding the adipose tissue to produce even more fat tissue. Regarding shift work and depressive symptoms, we did not ind any correlation, although chronotype is correlated to minor psychiatric disorders in this study. Also, eveningness chronotype was correlated to minor psychiatric disorders. This inding is in accordance to previous studies from our group: the evening chrono- type seems to be more susceptible, predisposing sub- jects with this phenotype to mood disorders (18). In a previous study, the author proposes that the effect of shift work on depressive symptoms is explained by the association between job characteristics and psychosocial factors, once this population also suffers from depriva- tion of their social life (8), however, in this study they did not analyze chronotype. Once chronotype was re- lated to mental disorders, it is clear that in our study it did not exert an inluence on shift work, independent from the stress demanded by this kind of labor journey. In conclusion, we suggest a new model of shift work physiopathology, where chronotype is not associated to shift work, although chronotype was correlated to mental symptoms. In addition, we provide evidence that shift work is directly correlated to BMI and waist circumference. Further studies are necessary to clarify how shift work inluences metabolic disturbances and what components of metabolism and biological oscilla- tors are altered in shift workers.
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Protecting the health of the young worker

Protecting the health of the young worker

Child labor laws are needed to prevent work of children at unsuitable ages, under undesirable conditions, for excessive hours or at night, at tasks too heavy for[r]

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