The results of this study confirm the usefulness of the erythrocyte micronucleus as a powerful monitoring tool for detecting genotoxic agents in a coastal environment. Micronuclei frequencies proved to be very reliable for test- ing genotoxicity in studies in situ and in vitro, as it was pos- sible to compare results obtained in the field with those from the laboratory. The present study suggests that nuclearabnormalities are not good indicators for genotoxicity eval- uation in field studies, since their frequencies were higher in the negative and positive control groups in relation to the sites and months of collection.. It is worth emphasizing that the mechanisms of formation of these nuclear abnormali- ties are not yet fully understood (Çavas and Ergene-Gözü- kara, 2003). The results of studies with nuclear abnormali- ties demonstrate their effectiveness as genotoxicity markers mainly in fresh water fishes and in the laboratory under controlled conditions (Ayllón and Garcia-Vazquez, 2000; Çavas and Ergene-Gözükara, 2005), although it is also necessary to test these parameters in field studies. The need for controls is emphasized in the laboratory for com- parison with field studies as a means of reaching more reli- able conclusions, since it is through this that the effective- ness of the micronucleus test and not of the nuclear abnormality assay was corroborated. Uncertainties in the extrapolation of laboratory data to natural ecosystems will always exist, as many physical, chemical and biological factors are wholly integrated into the aquatic environment, thereby being very difficult to reproduce. Furthermore, standard laboratory conditions are very different from those in nature (Araújo et al., 2006). Several studies have demon-
The frequency of spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in fish species needs to be determined to evaluate their usefulness for genotoxic biomonitoring. The definition of a good bioindicator takes into account the current knowl- edge of its metabolic traits as well as other factors including its feeding behavior and relationship to the environment. In this study, we compared the basal frequencies of micronucleated erythrocytes and nuclearabnormalities (NA) among different species of the fish Order Gymnotiformes (Rhamphichthys marmoratus, Steatogenys elegans, Sternopygus macrurus, Parapteronotus hasemani, Gymnotus mamiraua, Gymnotus arapaima, Brachyhypopomus beebei, Brachyhypopomus n. sp. BENN) sampled in several localities of the Eastern Amazon. A baseline of MN and NA frequency in these fish was determined, enabling the identification of potentially useful species as models for genotoxicity studies. Only one impacted sample collected at a site in the River Caripetuba showed a significant num- ber of NAs, which may be due to the release of wastewater by neighbouring mining industries and by the burnt fuel released by the small boats used by a local community. Our results may provide support for further studies in areas of the Eastern Amazon affected by mining, deforestation and other anthropogenic activities.
This work aims to establish baseline frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and nuclearabnormalities (NA) in native fish species collected in situ from the Paraná River. For this purpose, the micronucleus test was applied in peripheral blood erythrocytes from specimens obtained from samplings collected at two localities (Posadas and Candelaria, Misiones, Argentina) during the period 2007-2010. The results were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test. Data from nine fish species were obtained, among which Steindachnerina brevipinna (Characiformes) revealed the highest baseline frequency of MN and NA, showing statistically significant differences with regard to the other analyzed species. These results are the first report of baseline MN and NA frequencies for native fish species studied and could be useful for future comparisons with data of fishes belonging to other environments.
thalamus. The results showed signiicant differences in the mean heart rate before and after thalamic injury in the in vivo experiment. Surprisingly, no differences in heart rate could be observed before and after thalamic injury in the isolated ex vivo experiment. These observations seem to indicate the existence of a speciic thalamic modulation of cardiac functioning that could support our hypothesis that SUDEP occurs due to cardiovascular dysfunction secondary to thalamic dysfunction. Finally, based on these results, we raised the possibility that the presence of thalamic nuclear lesions in people with temporal lobe epilepsy could be responsible for some of the processes that culminate in SUDEP, and that cardiovascular dysfunction could play a signiicant role in this condition. 72
maintained for 7 days in separate tanks to better un- derstand the response mechanisms of this species to a toxic substance. The comet assay did not detect any significant differences between BNF injected and con- trol fish, whereas nuclearabnormalities assay showed significant differences between BNF injected and the control groups. The damages identified by the comet assay are repairable breaks in the DNA strands, where- as nuclearabnormalities may be permanent. Possibly the period of maintenance after injection was enough to clean BNF from the organisms and to repair the breaks in the DNA strands. As cobia seems to respond very well to genotoxic elements, comet assay and nuclearabnormalities assay would be useful tools to monitor farming conditions.
Please note that the patent is expected to be completely resolved once and for all mankind faces energy and environmental protection problem, so its rid progress each delayed day, all mankind will have to take more than a day of high energy costs and heavy environmental pressure. Energy industry is promoting the development of national economy of the engine, oil resources is of the great powers for the control of strategic materials. This patent invention relates to national defense security and national economic major interests. According to the patent law of the People's Republic in chapter 2, the condition of the grant of the patent right, article 25 of the patent right is granted terms, not the first paragraph (a) scientific discovery; the fifth paragraph (5) with nuclear transformation method for material. Suggest the patent of invention as a state the most confidential patent, priority support, research as soon as possible.
A 32-weeks-old boy stillborn, at autopsy, was diagnosed with a clinical condition of large ante- roposterior left-side CDH associated with IM and the presence of five unusual abnormalities. First, after dissection of the thoracic cage, was possible to visualize the intestinal loops displaced from the abdomen to the thorax as from the congenital her- nia in the diaphragm muscle (Figure 1A). The right diaphragmatic cupula is normal. In the mediastinum is possible to visualize the heart slightly deflected to the right, later covered by the pericardium, presen- ting cardiac hypertrophy when compared to fetal age (Figure 1B).
signal abnormalities in the optic chiasm in all but patient 2 and in the diencephalon in three of them (Patients 1, 4 and 6) (Table 2 ). In patient 4, only slight abnormali- ties were observed in the midbrain and corpus callosum, whereas in patients 3 and 5 the lesions extended to the midbrain (predominantly to the cerebral peduncles), inter- nal capsule and corpus callosum; patient 5 also showed a few focal signal abnormalities in the periventricular white matter. Patient 1 had the most striking brain involvement with extensive signal abnormalities in the periventricu- lar white matter as well as in the right hippocampus. Pa- tient 2 also had extensive subcortical white matter in- volvement with hypointense signal on T1- weighted im- ages, suggesting early axonal loss. We observed a variable pattern regarding gadolinium enhancement: absence of enhancement (patient 3), mild punctiform enhancement (patients 4 and 6), corpus callosum enhancement only (pa- tient 2) and nodular enhancement inside the lesions (pa- tients 1 and 5). None of the images evaluated fulilled the Barkhoff criteria for MS 6 .
abnormalities was identified in fetuses of GA >29, and no significant difference was detected between cases and controls in this subgroup (17% vs. 13% in cases and controls, respectively). For subgroups based on type of death, the highest proportion of chromosomal abnormalities was detected among cases after induced termination, where both cases and controls had a higher proportion than the average (63% and 34%, respectively). No significant difference was detected between cases and controls in the stillbirth group, and no chromosomal abnormalities at all were detected in the spontaneously aborted fetuses. However, the number of cases was low in both of these subgroups. The tissue location of calcifications did not influence the pro- portion of chromosomal abnormalities identified.
The V Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and the XXVI Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil took place, as a joint and simultaneous event, in Santos, Brazil, from 1 to 5 September, 2003. The Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics was the fifth in a series of biennial meetings de- voted to promoting the development of nuclear sciences in Latin America. The previous symposia took place in Venezuela (1995, 1997), Colombia (1999) and Mexico (2001). One of the main goals of these meetings is the development of fruitful collaborations within the nuclear physics community in Latin America, as well as establishing and strengthening similar collaborations with the communities of coun- tries with stronger scientific tradition. The Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil was the 26th in a series of annual meetings in the areas of experimental, theoretical and applied nuclear physics. The joint event was chaired by Roberto V. Ribas, from S˜ao Paulo. The members of the organizing committee were Alejandro Szanto de Toledo (S˜ao Paulo), Alessandro Alves da Silva (S˜ao Paulo), Eduardo Nascimento (S˜ao Paulo), Manfredo Tabacniks (S˜ao Paulo), Nilberto H. Medina (S˜ao Paulo), Paulo Roberto S. Gomes (Niter´oi), and Raul Donangelo (Rio de Janeiro). Secretarial support was provided by Zenaide D. Vieira (symposium secretary) and the staff of the Brazilian Physics Society (Eliane Maria Alves, Roberto C. Pereira, Edgar Gonc¸alves, Fernando Luis Braga, Sueli M. de Almeida, and Neusa Lucas Martin, which is responsible for the production of these proceedings). Over two hundred and thirty people attended the Symposium/Workshop, including about 70 participants from outside of Latin America. The scientific program consisted of 20 plenary invited talks, during the morning sessions, and seven topical parallel afternoon sessions, with a total of 56 invited talks and selected oral contributions. There were also 124 poster presentations. The sessions were devoted to Nuclear Reaction Dynamics, Nuclear Structure, Nu- clear Matter at High Energy Density, Nuclear Astrophysics, Nuclei far from Stability, Particle-Nucleon Interactions, Photonuclear Reactions, Applied Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation for Nuclear Physics. The authors of the contributions were invited to submit an original article for publication in this special issue of the Braz. J. Phys., which is entirely devoted to the proceedings of the Symposium. We acknowl- edge the financial support of CNPq, CAPES, FAPESP, FAPERJ and CLAF. Also, we wish to thank the NSF America Program for providing the funds to support the participation of nine American students.
Childhood vitiligo in Bangalore showed preponderance in females and greater number of children (72.4%) present with depigmentation in the age group of 7 to 12 years. Majority of patients (77.9%) had less than 5% body surface area involvement. Low incidence of ocular pigmentary abnormalities in comparison with adult population might suggest that childhood vitiligo patients do not have ocular pigmentary abnormalities in the beginning, but as they age or as the disease progresses they may develop ocular pigmentary changes.
Conclusion: It is possible to standardize single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis in acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes and compare the results with the abnormalities detected by karyotyping. Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis increased the detection rate of abnormalities compared to karyotyping and also identified a new set of abnormalities that deserve further investigation in future studies.
In order to advance this point, the text is divided into three main sections following this introduction. We begin by situating the developmentalist thinking in Brazil, since it is important for at least three reasons: (1) for the understanding of the role of the state for the project of development in Brazil; (2) for the understanding of the scenario in which the nuclear issue came to acquire relevance within the political agenda; and (3) to the analysis of the rereading of the development project by the Workers’ Party. We, then, present a historical overview of the role of the armed forces in issues of national development, defense, and nuclear technology. This role is reviewed as conceived by the ruling elites. Drawing on the two previous sections, section IV proposes the notion of a defense-development nexus as an analytical approach to the nuclear issue under the Workers’ Party government. Finally, some concluding remarks are pointed out.
célu la s tu mora is por meio de método imu noistoqu ímico. A análise estatística dos resultados não evidenciou correlação significante entre os dois parâmetros estudados. Conclui-se que a presença do antígeno nuclear de proliferação celular nas células tumorais malignas da mama não se correlaciona com o tipo de grau nuclear que essas células exibem, e que esses fatores devem continuar sendo solicitados simultaneamente e interpretados de forma integrada com os demais.
Trata-se de tema suscetível de ora polêmica, ora receio, quando abordado. O motivo é de fácil compreensão quando se analisa a história recente, visto que a energia nuclear apresenta-se também associada, e de maneira inevitável, à construção de artefatos bélicos – atômicos – com poder de devastação que a sociedade mundial dolorosamente conhece. Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, diversos países sentiram sua soberania ameaçada face à vulnerabilidade ante a devastação proporcionada por uma detonação nuclear, com os eventos ocorridos nas cidades japonesas de Hiroshima e Nagasaki. Por conta disso, o mundo voltou seus olhos mais atentamente para a questão nuclear, e na América do sul, Argentina e Brasil, respectivamente, iniciaram pesquisas isoladas neste âmbito.
Assuming that nuclear matter can be treated as a perfect fluid, we study the propagation of perturbations in the baryon density. The equation of state is derived from a relativistic mean field model, which is a variant of the non-linear Walecka model. The expansion of the Euler and continuity equations of relativistic hydrodynamics around equilibrium configurations leads to differential equations for the density perturbation. We solve them numerically for linear and spherical perturbations and follow the propagation of the initial pulses. For linear perturbations we find single soliton solutions and solutions with one or more solitons followed by “radiation”. Depending on the equation of state a strong damping may occur. We consider also the evolution of perturbations in a medium without dispersive effects. In this case we observe the formation and breaking of shock waves. We study all these equations also for matter at finite temperature. Our results may be relevant for the analysis of RHIC data. They suggest that the shock waves formed in the quark gluon plasma phase may survive and propagate in the hadronic phase. We also study the non-linear wave equation for pertubations in baryon density and energy density in quark-gluon-plasma (QGP). Under certains conditions solitons may exist in QGP.
The array of different practices involved in the securitisation promoted by the anti-nuclear organisations points to the existence of various “battle fronts” where the construction of nuclear weapons as a threat is fought; that is, it is negotiated between the securitiser and the audiences. In order to gain a better understanding of the variations in the form, content and success of different securitising moves, Salter (2008) borrowed the concept of “setting” from Goffman’s dramaturgical analysis (p. 322). According to Salter (2008), “the setting of a securitising act includes the stage on which it is made, the genre in which it is made, the audience to which it is pitched, and the reception of the audience” (p. 328). This dramaturgical approach comes to remedy the exaggerated emphasis on the internal elements of discourse that is part of the speech-act model proposed by the Copen- hagen School. As Salter has observed, the success of a securitisation cannot be reduced to the formal syntax of the speech; it is also related to the existence of a common, social grammar, which encompasses the “particular history, dominant narrative, constitutive characters, and the structure of the setting itself” (2008, p. 331).
A sequência da região controle é chamada hipervariável porque acumula mutações pontuais aproximadamente dez vezes mais do que o DNA nuclear (BUDOWLE et al., 2003). Isso se deve a reduzida fidelidade dos processos de replicação da DNA polimerase mitocondrial (um erro a cada 440.000 nucleotídeos); a perda do mecanismo de reparo do mtDNA (LEE e JOHNSON, 2006); ao dano oxidativo causado principalmente por um grande número de radicais livres proporcionando um ambiente favorável a mutação do DNA (CORREIA, 2010); e ainda, o mtDNA não possui histonas, que exerce um papel protetor no DNA nuclear (YAKES e VAN OUTEN,1997). Como esta região não é transcrita, tais mutações sofrem menor pressão de seleção, permanecendo com maior frequência que as que ocorrem nas partes transcritas do mtDNA.