(Halewood and Hannan, 2001), ghosts (Inglis and Holmes, 2001) or the geographic locations mentioned by different literary works (Herbert, 2001). Within the tourist routes related to gastronomy, the routes related to wine, and to the activities related to vitiviniculture in general, stand out. For this reason, it is interesting to make a brief reference to the articulation of the wine routes as a reference element and as a starting point for the configuration of the oliveoiltourism (De Salvo et al., 2013). Thus, we can define wine tourism, following Getz and Brown (2006), from a triple perspective; Firstly, as a consumer behavior; secondly, as a strategy to develop the geographical area and the wine market in this area; and thirdly, as an opportunity for the promotion of the wineries to sell their own products directly to consumers. Hall et al. (2000) state that wine tourism is the experience of visiting vineyards, know wineries and attend festivals and wine demonstrations in which the wine tasting and/or attributes of the wine experience are the main reason for the visitors.
Regarding the theoretical background, table 3 presents the most significant examples of the scientific production related to the oliveoil culture. These publications were classified into three thematic blocks: i) agriculture, rural development and agrotourism; ii) gastronomic tourism; iii) oliveoiltourism. On the basis of previous literature, it can be observed that researches specifically focused on oliveoil from a touristic point of view are still scarce and need bettering methodological approach and practical implications. The majority of works analyses oliveoil productions and areas within an agricultural context or in relation with its implications with gastronomy (see block 1 and 2, Table 3). Tourism recently has recognised this resource as an effective tool for achieving an integral development, not just for one sector but for the whole socioeconomic background of production areas (see block 3, Table 3). Results and conclusions of previous research suggest the need of deepening into the study of oliveoil as an enhancer resource on its own and of analysing the practical paths to follow in order to translate oliveoil touristic potential into concrete initiatives, activities and products.
Food plays an important role in rural development through tourism (Hall and Sharples, 2003; Plummer et al., 2005), especially food routes (Briedenhann and Wickens, 2004). The promotion of food tourism results in a symbiosis between the agrarian sector and the tourism sector. High-quality agricultural products take shape as a resource that makes possible the development of tourism. At the same time, the tourism turns into a promotional and marketing tool of high-quality agricultural products (Armesto and Gómez, 2004; Kivela and Crotts, 2006). Because food can be branded by region, the opportunity exists to create a positive association between food and a destination (Okumus et al., 2007). In addition, consumers are increasingly concerned to know where products come from and how they are produced, not only for health and safety reasons but also in terms of satisfying a current nostalgia which harks back to a perceived time of real and wholesome foods (Gilg and Battershill, 1998). The existence of such trends within consumer attitudes prompted the European Union to implement regulations (2081/92 and 2082/92) to protect food an drink products which have either special character, such as being produced with traditional raw material and/or a traditional mode of production, or a recognisable geographic origin (eg. Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)) (Ilbery and Kneafsey, 2000).
rise on a widespread level, especially in the second quarter. the import of some wine from the north coast of His- pania Citerior (Greco-italic and Dressel 1) as well as oliveoil (Class 67 and ovoid 6) and wine (ovoid 4) from the Guadalquivir valley in Ulterior might have kicked off around this time, although generally in small amounts.
treatment (Figure 2-B). In general, alcohols and aldehydes with 6 carbons were abundant in unheated and mildly heated olive oils, whereas carboxylic acids and long chain saturated and unsaturated aldehydes were abundant in oils heated at high temperatures. Alcohols, including 3- methylbutanol, Z-3-hexenol, Z-2-hexenol, and hexanol, in addition to E-2-hexenal, decanal, 3-methylbutyl acetate, Z- 3-hexenyl acetate, E-beta-ocimene, and myrcene, were more abundant in olive oils that were unheated and heated at 50 °C. Aldehydes, including heptanal, octanal, nonanal, E-2- nonenal, E-2-decenal, E,E-2,4-decadienal, and E-2- undecenal, in addition to 1-pentanol, octanol, and nonanoic acid were higher in olive oils heated at 150 °C and 200 °C. In addition, E-2-heptenal, 2-ethyl hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid were more abundant in oliveoil heated at 150 °C; hexanal and hexyl ethanoate were more abundant in oliveoil heated at 200 °C.
The use of non-ionic surfactants, according Santos et al. (2006), can promote the formation of liquid-crystalline phase. According to Morais (2006), the liquid crystals are formed also in the presence of rheological modiiers such as stearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol and cetostearyl alcohol. The long chain fatty alcohols, in the presence of non-ionic surfactant, can form lamellar mesophases due to position themselves between the surfactant molecules. Morais (2006) reports that the lipophilic surfactant (stearyl and stearic acid) long chain saturated obtains more stable emulsions, as the long chain penetrates deeper into the oil droplet been less rigid with respect to rotation than a chain oleic which features double bond, besides presenting polar portion reduced in respect of oleates, being favorable to the formation of lamellar phases.
The presence of moisture during deep frying at relatively high temperatures due to the introduction of food (vegetables, fish, meat) induces hydrolysis of esters bonds in triacylglycerols with the consequent formation of free fatty acids, mono-, di-acylglycerols, and glycerols as well as the acceleration of the oxida- tion processes with the consequent rancid flavours and worsened organoleptic characteristics of the fried food (Pokorný 1998). This is not desirable and several approaches have been made trying to prevent these undesirable properties which may not only be unpleasant for the palate but also injurious to health because they destroy vitamins, inhibit enzymes, and can be potentially responsible for gastrointestinal ir- ritations and mutations (Ng et al. 2007). One of these approaches for increasing the oil stability includes the addition of antioxidants such as tocopherols or tocotrienols, and synthetic antioxidants among other compounds (Tabee 2008).
Since proteins recovered after precipitation from the amurca extract did not inhibit the growth of tested foodborne pathogens, it is possible that the potent antimicrobial activity of amurca reported in the present study may have been caused by the phenolic compounds present (Table 6). This would be consistent with previous reports showing that phenolic compounds in olive products (olive fruit, oliveoil, olive leaves) and oliveoil by-products (oliveoil mill waste water, olive cake) exhibited antibacterial activity (Capasso et al., 1995; Kecel & Robinson, 2002; Markin et al., 2003; Pereira et al., 2006).
have been planted in these orchards because they are more productive and profitable in terms of yield. Consequently, the traditional and minor olive cultivars have almost van- ished from olive orchards in several regions in the world. In Spain, about 262 cultivars were identified and classi- fied into four main groups: major, secondary, dispersed, and local. Among the 262 cultivars, there were only 24 major cultivars . At the beginning of the twenty-first century, cvs. Picual, Arbequina and Hojiblanca  were the only cultivars grown in more than 90% of new olive orchards in Spain. Due to the massive cultivation of these cultivars, olive germplasm was significantly reduced. The cv. Arbequina is one of the most representative olive cul- tivars in Spain and in other parts of the world. In fact, it is grown in almost all olive producing countries . However, several traditional olive cultivars are considered local, dispersed, secondary, or minor olive cultivars. These olive cultivars have the potential to be widespread based on their productivity: the quality and chemical composi- tion of the olive products from these cultivars is usually taken into account for growing them on a large scale. In recent years, researchers have performed chemical charac- terizations of these minor olive cultivars. These research- ers wanted to use this information to valorize them in Tunisia , Greece , Spain , and around the world . In the Valencian Community (Spain), recent studies were conducted to determine the quality parameters and some components of oliveoil from 45 olive cultivars . According to Ruiz-Domínguez et al., “a greater diversity exists in the economically less important varieties, indi- cating that selection among them for specific composi- tion profiles with desirable properties… can be of interest for the recovery of neglected varieties” . In the present study, we emphasized the characterization of minor culti- vars. Moreover, the potentialities of this information were also explored in this study.
To solve this huge problem, the Palestinian oliveoil needed to be studied for determining the natural content of 7 Stigmastenol. This investigation were pointed some assumptions about these highlighted factors. The following three factors were chosen to study their effect on 7 Stigmastenol: olive fly infestation, topographic land and olive fruit storage before pressing
Abstract- Erosion is the main cause of soil degradation, compromising soil productivity and sustainability. As soil organic matter (SOM) is a key indicator of quality, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different olive tree managements on SOM and its soil fractions in soil (Inceptisol) and erosion sediments. Five treatments were installed: bare soil, olive cultivation in bare soil, olive tree intercropped with jack bean, olive tree intercropped with pearl millet, and olive tree cultivated with spontaneous vegetation; a contiguous area of native vegetation was used as reference. Carbon in soil and sediment were determined by wet oxidation with external heating, while the fractionation of SOM was performed based on granulometry. The Carbon Management Index (CMI) was determined by the proportions of SOM fractions. The results indicated that SOM associated with minerals is the most present in soil and sediment erosion, regardless of the adopted management. Results on CMI showed that the systems olive tree intercropped with pearl millet or with spontaneous vegetation are the most favorable to increase the carbon stock in the soil. Index terms: Carbon Management Index; cover plants; Olea europaea L.
component analysis (PCA) exhibited tight and well-separated clusters of pure oliveoil (OO), pure soybean oil (SO), and blends of OO/SO (adulterated samples). Soft independent modeling of class analogies analysis (SIMCA) classification model indicated that five brands of oliveoil commercialized in Brazil were adulterated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, further confirmed by high-resolution NMR. Overall, LF-NMR provided a fast procedure for screening oliveoil authenticity directly in the sealed bottles.
According to the qualitative lipase production analy- ses, 11 of the 32 isolates and 7 reference strains were deter- mined to be use both oliveoil and tributyrin or only oliveoil as substrate. It was found that all the G. stearothermophilus species; including A113 isolate and reference strains ATCC 12908 T , ATCC 43223 T and DSM 7953 T , G. thermo- denitrificans DSM 465 T and isolates of F84a and F84b from G. thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus showed posi- tive results on the media contaning both oliveoil and tributyrin. Furthermore, D195 isolate from G. thermo- denitrificans; reference strains of G. kaustophilus 7263 T , G. vulcani 13174 T and isolates of Geobacillus sp. A353, D413 and E173b from genus Geobacillus mix group; G. toebii DSM 14590 T ; isolates of D642 and C196 from genus Aeri- bacillus, and also isolates of A403 and D494 belonging to A. caldoproteolyticus were all found to be able to use only oliveoil as a substrate. Beside these findings, any of the iso- lates or references could not solely use tributyrin.
accumulation with adverse effect on humans causing cancer, protein and endocrine disruption , European Union and the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Pesticide Residues and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have established maximum pesticide residue limits (MRLs) for oliveoil [26,27]. Thus, the implementation of more advanced, straightforward, reliable and sensitive analytical methodologies that enables the quantification of trace levels of pesticide residues in complex matrices, like oliveoil, is highly warranted. Altogether, the strategy used in this work encompasses some key innovations/improvements, mainly focused on the following points: (i) the design and development of “smart” functional MIPs based on core-shell magnetic-photonic MIP nanoparticles (DR-MIPs) for the selective trapping of dimethoate; (ii) an “on-off” integrated approach, timely controlled by the action of external magnetic and photonic stimulus, enables to gathering stirring/enrichment/separation into a single step and further photo-regulated release of the bounded pesticide. The dual magnetic and photonic responsiveness of DR-MIP is promoted by the incorporation in its structure of a Fe 3 O 4 -magnetic core and an azobenzene derivative as photochromic
oliveoil processing technology has been changed significantly in the last decade. Nowadays there are only 11 traditional mills active and 15 two-phase system plants have been introduced. The processing facilities improvement is followed by improvement of the condition for oliveoil storing. The oliveoil quality control is based on determination of the basic quality parameters. However, recent equipping of the laboratory at Biotechnical Faculty with GS and HPLC, extended the range of analyses for the market, as well as for scientific purpose as in characterization of oliveoil of local varieties. Montenegro is very rich in agricultural genetic resources and olive germplasm as well, considering the small area covered. There are the oldest exemplars of the old trees in the region and beyond, the 'Old Olive' in area of Bar, estimated to more than 2,000 years old and protected by law, and the 'Velja maslina – 'Great olive' in area of Budva, and numerous other exemplars. Characterization of local varieties on morphological and molecular level, clone selection of the major variety and preservation of olive genetic resources are big challenges for Biotechnical Faculty. Furthermore, the area of Montenegro coast as the main olive habitat is threatened by the construction of tourism facilities. From the other side, the olive is the basis for the coastal rural tourism. The important ways to market oliveoil are through the tourism, and through organized Mediterranean diet, providing great opportunities and challenge for the oliveoil sector.
Based on the values of lipase activity obtained after 48 hour- fermentation (Fig. 3), by-products from corn oil refining were tested as inducers in the preparation of fermentation medium. The best results were achieved with soapstock and stearin, reaching values of 62.7 and 37.7 U/gds, respectively, which are higher than the value for oliveoil (34.1 U/gds). The use of fatty acids residue inhibited lipase production. This kind of inhibition has already been reported by other authors (7,17), but good results were obtained only for low fatty acid concentrations using palmitic and oleic acid during lipase production by Candida rugosa (10) and Rhyzopus arrhizus (18), respectively. Concluding the work, the Aspergillus niger 11T53A14 strain was found to be the best lipase producer. Wheat bran and soapstock were the best substrate and inducer, respectively,
To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the oliveoil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.
Research is being conducted in an attempt to produce biodegradable packaging to replace plastic products, thereby reducing solid waste disposal. In this work, zein films were produced from vegetable oils (macadamia, olive and buriti) and from pure oleic acid. The surface of zein-based films made using oleic acid has a good lipid distribution. The high content of oleic acid produced a film with the greatest elongation at break (8.08 ± 2.71%) due to the greater homogeneity of the protein matrix. The different oils did not affect the glass transition temperature (Tg). Tg curves of films with fatty acids showed a reduction in mass at between 50 and 120 °C due to water evaporation. At 120 °C the weight loss was 3-5% and above this temperature further weight loss was observed with the highest loss being seen in the film made using pure oleic acid. In conclusion, although biodegradable films were produced using the four different oils, the film made from pure oleic acid has the best characteristics.
This work aimed to evaluate the production of lipolytic complexes, produced by microorganisms isolated from a biological treatment system of effluents from a hotel. To select the best lipolytic microorganism for use in biotechnological processes, we tested 45 bacterial isolates recovered from the raw effluent of the hotel’s restaurant waste tank. Lipase production was assayed in culture medium supplemented with oliveoil and rhodamine B, incubated at 25 °C and 30 °C for 24 h - 48 h. Results showed 22 isolates lipase producers. All isolates were inoculated on medium without yeast extract to select the ones with highest enzyme yields. Out of these, nine isolates showed high lipase activity. The strain with the larger halo was assayed in submerged culture using an orbital shaker and a bioreactor, with three different substrates (oliveoil, grape seed oil, and canola oil). Isolate G40 identified as Acinetobacter baylyi was selected to run the production assays because it showed the best result in the solid medium. In the bioreactor, maximum lipase production was obtained after 12 h of culture with the three substrates evaluated: 0,358 U/mL.min -1
Dlives of the Ayvalık variety were used in this research and were harvested from a grove in the district of Çine, in the province of Aydın, in the harvest years of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. All the olives were harvested in the early harvest period (pink stage), during which the skin of the olives was yellow or greenish yellow. Fresh leaves picked from the tops of the trees were dried at 50 °C in a tray drier and cut up into 5 mm pieces. The leaves were subjected to a drying process within at most 24 hours after they were picked. The extracted oliveoil was stored in black colored glass containers at 4 °C until analyzed.