The predatory bug Oriusinsidiosus (Say), is an important biological control agent of thrips in various ornamentals and vegetables crops in greenhouses. An efficient and economic production of this predator is a determinative factor for the success of a biological control program. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different densities of adults and eggs of O. insidiosus in rearing containers as well as estimate the average cost of production of this natural enemy. The experiment was carried out in climatic room at 26º ± 1ºC, 70% ± 10% UR and fotophase 12 h. For egg production three densities of adults was tested, being 1000, 1500 and 2000 individuals per container (plastic box of 6000 ml). For adult’s production, three egg densities (500, 1000 and 1500 eggs per container) in two types of containers (plastic box of 3500 ml and Petri dish of 800 ml) deriving from the three densities of adults were evaluated. To estimate the rearing- cost a model with plastic boxes with 1500 individuals per container and plastic boxes with 1000 eggs for adult development were used. No significant difference in the egg production in the three densities of adults being these 15,565; 22,353 and 23,453 eggs, respectively, for the densities of 1000, 1500 and 2000 adults of the predator per container. For the production of adults no difference was found related to the different origins of eggs (from three densities of adults). No record of significant difference in the density of 500 eggs in the two types of containers. The biggest production of adults (80.11%) was found in the plastic box (3500 ml) with the density of 1000 eggs. The results show that the necessity of a minimum space for better development until the adult phase of this predator, and that the evaluated methodology allows the attainment of a great number of individuals. In the estimate of the costs it was verified that it is possible to produce about 400.000 individuals, by the cost of R$ 0,094 per predator. The feeding represents almost 90% of the cost in the phase of development of the nymphs and the labor more than 60% in the adult phase. The results indicate that the employed methodology is adjusted for the large-scale production of O. insidiosus in the laboratory.
EFFECT OF COTTON CULTIVARS ON BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND PREDATION BEHAVIOR OF ORIUSINSIDIOSUS (SAY) PREYING ON APHIS GOSSYPII GLOVER. The objective of this research was to determine the survival, reproduction and predaceous capacity of Oriusinsidiosus on cotton aphid Aphis gossypii. Cotton plants of Antares, CNPA7H and Acala 90 cultivars (respectively, without tricome, medium tricome density and high tricome density) were individualized and infested with 15 third/fourth instar nymphs of A. gossypii, and then first-instar nymphs of O. insidiosus were released on the plants. The evaluations were made daily, quantifying survival and nymphal development; the number of cotton aphids A. gossypii per day and total; the number of eggs and the population of the predator (number of insects by female); and the conversion efficiency of A. gossypii predaceous. The nymphal development did not differ according to the cotton cultivars. The Antares cultivar favored a higher daily predation rate for the 1st, 2nd and 4th instars and adults of O. insidiosus. The number of eggs and nymphs was smaller when O. insidiosus females were confined on the Acala 90 cultivar. According to the predation rate of O. insidiosus, the efficiency of alimentary conversion was determined for the Antares, CNPA7H and Acala 90 cultivars, being respectively, 4.28, 3.00 and 2.75 cotton aphid predation for each egg of the predator.
ABSTRACT. Development and thermal requirements of Oriusinsidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The temperature strongly influences the development time of insects and the understanding of this aspect for natural enemies is essential for its use as biocontrol agents and for mass rearing purpose. The objective of this work was evaluating the effect of different temperatures on the development time of Oriusinsidiosus (Say, 1832) as well as its thermal requirements. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 ±1°C; RH 70±10% and photophase 12h. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) were provided as food. The embryonic period was 14.0, 8.9, 6.6, 4.8, 3.9 and 3.3 days at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31°C, respectively. Nymphs of all instars (independent of originated sex) were affected by the temperature on their development time; there was a reduction of this period with the increase of the temperature. Males and females presented a development time about 12 days at 25°C. The developmental thresholds (T o ) for egg stage was estimated at 11.78°C, and for the nymphal phase were 12.27°C and 13.03°C for males
SUMMARY - Oriusinsidiosus is a generalist specie, which makes it suitable to explore the ecosystem. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a major pest of Brassicaceae and can cause total destruction to the culture. This study aimed at obtaining information about O. insidiosus for use to develop biological control programs of P. xylostella in different varieties of Brassicaceae. We considered the following specific objectives: a) evaluate the development of O. insidiosus; b) to prepare a life table O. insidiosus fed on second instar larvae of P. xylostella reared on different cultivars of Brassicaceae; c) obtain the functional response of O. insidiosus. The rearing of insects (O. insidiosus e P. xylostella) and the experiments were developed in the Laboratory of Insect Biology and Rearing (LBCI), FCAV / UNESP Jaboticabal, under temperature 25 ± 1 ° C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and photophase of 12 hours. It was maintained rearing of P. xylostella in the varieties B. oleracea var. acephala (kale), var. italic (broccoli), var. capitata (cabbage) and var. botrytis (cauliflower). Eighty nymphs of first instar were individually placed in Petri dishes to the accompaniment of the nymphal stage. The adults were sexed, mated and kept in Petri dishes for the verification of reproductive traits and longevity. To study the functional response of females were left without feed for 12 hours and individualized in Petri dishes with caterpillars in the densities of 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 per plate for each variety. The production of females (R 0 ), generation time (T), intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) and
minute pirate bugs, Orius spp., are known as predators on several pests as thrips, aphids, spider mites and whiteflies. Oriusinsidiosus is an important thrips predator, commercially used around the world. However, one of the main problems on biological control of thrips in temperate regions is the occurrence of reproductive diapause in Orius species. This characteristic promotes the interruption of biological control strategies when predators are exposed to short photoperiods. This research had as objective to evaluate the influence of different photoperiod conditions on eggs/nymphs and adults of O. insidiosus in laboratory. The trials were carried out through the combination of eggs/nymphs and adults reared under the photoperiods 10L:14D; 11L:13D; 12L:12D and 13L:11D, at 25±2ºC and 70±10% RH. The predators were maintained during their pre- imaginal development time under one of the photoperiods and, after being emerged as adults transferred to another photoperiod regime. The predator had a tendency to present longer development time under photoperiod 13L:11D. There was no influence of the different photoperiods conditions on the reproduction of O. insidiosus. The females laid eggs normally during all their lifetime. O. insidiosus is not sensitive to photoperiod evaluated and do not enter in reproductive diapause.
biological aspects of Oriusinsidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae). The influence of different densities of A. gossypii (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 nymphs/day) on consumption rate, development time, survival, and reproduction of Oriusinsidiosus (Say, 1832) was investigated. The trials were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70±10% RH, and photoperiod 12:12h (L:D). Consumption rates of nymphs and adults increased under a linear form as the densities of aphids increased. Development time was longest when reared in 10 nymphs density (15.4 days). Nymphal survival was different under the densities of A. gossypii and no significant difference for the periods of preoviposition (4.8 days) and oviposition (8.9 days) were found. The oviposition increased with the prey densities (2.00, 11.33, 10.67, 21.30, 17.89 and 53.38 eggs), as well as the viability: 0.00, 52.49, 57.86, 58.14, 50.11 and 72.89%, respectively. Nymphs of A. gossypii as prey were suitable for the complete development of O. insidiosus.
All the prey tested may be considered adequate for the development O. insidiosus, and thus the predator is capable of completing its whole life cycle and reproducing having fed on these preys. Nevertheless, the results obtained in the present study point to the selection of A. kuehniella eggs as the prey most adequate for the rearing of this predator insect under laboratory conditions.
The work had as objective evaluate the quality of O. insidiosus and Orius laevigatus (Fieber) rearings initiated with different numbers of founder couples in the laboratory, and to assess the orientation and search behavior toward the prey exhibited by field or laboratory-reared individuals. In addition, aimed to determine the effect of types of preys and oviposition substrates on the production of O. insidiosus eggs and adults, and to evaluate types of materials placed in containers for O. insidiosus support and shelter, as well as the effect of handling on the insects during shipment and transport. A 40.8% decrease in fecundity was observed in O. insidiosus populations started with a single couple, from the 2nd to the 11th generation; in the 10th generation, 30% of females showed loss of their natural ability to recognize the prey, F. occidentalis. A number equal to 10 founder couples is indicated to start a laboratory rearing of O. insidiosus without the occurrence of significant losses in quality. O. laevigatus populations started from a single couple showed a fecundity reduction of 48.6% from the 2nd to the 11th generation; only populations originated from 50 founder couples in the 5th generation recognized the stimuli emitted by cucumber plants infested with F. occidentalis. O. laevigatus rearings can be initiated with 50 founder couples without significant quality losses in the biological parameters and prey recognition of this predator. O. laevigatus and O. insidiosus females were able to respond to odors emitted by plants infested with F. occidentalis. Their response was influenced by the origin of the colony. The predator O. insidiosus was able to reproduce and complete its development when reared on Artemia franciscana (Kellogg, 1906) cysts; and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) and soybean [Glycine max, (L.) Merr.] sprouts were suitable as oviposition substrates. Vermiculite + rice hulls placed in the containers were the most suitable material used as support and shelter substrate for O. insidiosus; the quality of individuals upon arrival after undergoing handling and transport was not affected under the conditions evaluated. The results demonstrate that O. insidiosus and O. laevigatus individuals can be produced with quality in the laboratory.
LIFE TABLES AND FERTILITY OF ORIUSINSIDIOSUS (SAY) PREYING ON APHIS GOSSYPII GLOVER ON DIFFERENTS COTTON PLANT CULTIVARS. The life table parameters were studied for Oriusinsidiosus on the three cotton plant cultivars Antares, CNPA7H and Acala 90 (respectively, without tricome, medium tricome density and high tricome density). This study showed that the type of cultivar can strongly influence the life-table parameters. The intrinsic rate (rm) was 0.088 (on Antares), 0.081 (CNPA7H) and 0.079 (on Acala 90), which was expected as these differences were also observed for development time, survival, fecundity and longevity on the cultivars. The reproductive rate (Ro) was 18.53 on the Antares cultivar, but showed less difference for CNPA7H (12.26) and Acala 90 (12.95). The development time was 33.9, 30.62 and 32.13 days for Antares, CNPA7H and Acala 90, respectively. The age-specific survival was similar until the 12th day. Maximum survival was 60 days on the Antares cultivar. Females usually began to oviposit after 16 days on the Antares cultivar and the after 19 days day on CNPA7H and Acala 90.
The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895) is an opportunistic species that explores several environments and causes serious damage in many cultivated plants in protected systems. Host plant and temperature are the main factors influencing this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different combinations of temperature, alternating between day and night, in the biology of F. occidentalis. The tests were conducted in climatized chambers at 21/11, 24/18, 27/21 and 30/26 ± 1°C, RH 70±10% and photophase of 12h. Approximately 60 first-instar, newly- hatched nymphs were individualized in Petri dishes (5cm) with a bean pod (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) placed on moinsted filter paper, both changed every two days. Development and survival were evaluated in the different stages. Adult females, with up to 24 of age, originating from the nymphs maintained in different combinations of temperatures, were evaluated in regards to reproduction and longevity. The development of F. occidentalis was influenced with increases in temperature, being 12.8; 8.3; 8.0 and 6.7 days at 21/11, 24/18, 27/21 and 30/26°C, respectively. The highest survival was found at the highest temperatures 27/21 and 30/26°C (44.4% and 40.0%, respectively). The base temperature was 3°C and was necessary 179 day-degrees for F. occidentalis to complete its development. The higher pre-reproductive periods were found at lower temperatures 21/11°C (8.8 days) and 24/18°C (6.6 days) and lowest ones in those higher 27/21°C (2.7 days) and 30/26°C (2.8 days). There was no influence of temperature on pre-reproductive or on fertility of female F.
SUMMARY - This study was done at the Laboratório de Biologia e Criação de Insetos (LBCI) at FCAV - UNESP - Jaboticabal, to assess the biological aspects and the rate of consumption of the predator Oriusinsidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), feeding on eggs and second instar larvae of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) (considered to be check treatment). For the species studied, O. insidiosus presented a longer nymph period when fed with P. xylostella caterpillars. Total consumption, during the nymph stage, was greater for A. kuehniella eggs, P. xylostella eggs and caterpillars, respectively. In the adult phase, the preoviposition period was shorter for the insects fed on P. xylostella caterpillars, demonstrating a shortening of this biological phase in the predator. The eggs of P. xylostella were nutritionally better suited to the development of O. insidiosus. For the eggs of P. xylostella, O. insidiosus presented a type II functional response curve, showing a tendency to stabilize in higher densities. The searching rate (a) was 0.0127 eggs/hour and 0.00233 caterpillars/hour and the handling time (Ht) was 1.4037 hours and 2.7903 hours, for P. xylostella eggs and caterpillars, respectively.
Algumas espécies de tripes (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) são consideradas insetos-praga de culturas de importância econômica, porém em plantas ornamentais são considerados pragas- chave por causarem danos diretos nos tecidos de flores e folhas, impossibilitando assim a comercialização. Além disso, algumas espécies possuem o hábito de se abrigarem dentro de botões florais, axilas de folhas e flores, o que compromete a eficiência do controle químico, porém abre a possibilidade para o uso de outras estratégias, como o controle biológico. Percevejos da família Anthocoridae, com destaque para Oriusinsidiosus (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) são reconhecidos como predadores efetivos de tripes em cultivos abertos e protegidos. Ao contrário, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera, Forficulidae), é um predador voraz de artrópodes-praga na cultura do milho, porém também tem preferência por ficar escondido em estruturas de plantas durante o dia, o que o torna potencial predador de tripes. Por ocuparem o mesmo hábitat, se alimentarem de recursos de plantas como pólen e apresentarem presas em comum, O. insidiosus e D. luteipes são considerados promissores agentes de controle biológico de tripes. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a capacidade predatória de D. luteipes e O.
A utilização de produtos fitossanitários seletivos a inimigos naturais é importante para o sucesso de programas de manejo integrado de pragas em agroecossistemas. Objetivou-se investigar efeitos letais e subletais de inseticidas empregados para o controle de pragas da roseira sobre ovos e ninfas de quinto ínstar de Oriusinsidiosus (Say) Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, em condições laboratoriais. Formulações comerciais dos seguintes inseticidas foram diluídas em água destilada (concentração em g i.a./100 ml): endosulfam (0,021), formetanato (0,04), espinosade (0,0144) e deltametrina (0,0008). O tratamento testemunha foi somente com água destilada. Os bioensaios foram mantidos em câmara climática a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ovos do predador colocados em hastes de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.) foram imersos nas caldas inseticidas por cinco segundos. As ninfas de quinto ínstar do predador foram tratadas com os inseticidas em torre de Potter. O efeito total dos inseticidas foi estimado e enquadrados em classes toxicológicas de acordo com a IOBC. O inseticida deltametrina foi nocivo a ovos e ninfas de quinto ínstar de O. insidiosus; endosulfam, formetanato e espinosade foram levemente nocivos. Endosulfam e formetanato não afetaram negativamente as características reprodutivas de fêmeas oriundas de ovos tratados. Endosulfam e espinosade reduziram o número de ovos colocados por fêmeas oriundas de ninfas de quinto ínstar que receberam tratamento, e espinosade afetou negativamente a viabilidade desses ovos. Palavras-chave: seletividade, manejo integrado de pragas, controle biológico.
O controle biológico em cultivos protegidos é uma alternativa viável e promissora no Brasil, principalmente por causa da utilização indiscriminada de produtos químicos e a conseqüente resistência dos insetos às moléculas dos inseticidas utilizados no controle das pragas. Os agentes de controle biológico (parasitóides, predadores e entomopatógenos) podem ser utilizados de forma inundativa, como inseticidas biológicos ou em aplicações inoculativas, que visam liberar inimigos naturais periodicamente para manter as populações das pragas abaixo do nível de dano econômico. Dentre os inimigos naturais promissores para o controle de tripes em cultivos protegidos estão os fungos e nematóides entomopatogênicos (FEPs e NEPs) e o predador Oriusinsidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), aliados aos ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae (Bueno, 2005a; Mound, 2005).
A conservação de organismos benéficos em cul- tivos protegidos é uma importante estratégia para a manutenção da densidade populacional das pragas abaixo do nível de dano econômico (CARVALHO et al., 2001). Entre os inimigos naturais presentes na cul- tura do crisântemo, destacam-se os percevejos do gênero Orius. Esses predadores são utilizados em programas de Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP) na Europa e no Canadá, em sistemas de cultivo prote- gido, pois são eficientes no controle de insetos-praga (LENTEREN, 2000).
One of the most important factors affecting the predation rate is the prey density in areas explored by the predator. At lower prey densities, the search efficiency is lower (O’NEIL, 1988) due to the energy cost of locating prey. At higher densities, De Clercq and Degheele (1994) reported that the predation rate may be increased due to the ease with which predators encounter prey, causing the predator to abandon its prey before it is fully consumed. One of the methods that O. insidiosus uses to locate and capture its prey is to detect plant volatiles that are released when the herbivores feed (HATANO et al., 2008). When the toxin of B. thuringiensis is used systemically in a plant, it may have toxic effects on a herbivore that feeds on the
cm) de cada cultivar (‘White Reagan’ e‘Yellow Snowdon’) em camada de ágar-água . Na avaliação da oviposição foram utilizados pecíolos de cada cultivar como substrato de oviposição e ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) como alimento. O predador completou seu desenvolvimento alimentando-se somente de A. gossypii presente em ambas as cultivares. A duração da fase ninfal de O. insidiosus foi de 21,1 e 18,3 dias, em ‘White Reagan’ e ‘Yellow Snowdon’, respectivamente. O consumo de A. gossypii por fêmeas foi maior (P<0,01) em ‘White Reagan’ (2,63 ninfas), comparado a ‘Yellow Snowdon’ (0,7 ninfas). Fêmeas de O. insidiosus ovipositaram em pecíolos das cultivares, com 22,5 e 23,3 ovos/ fêmea em ‘White Reagan’ e ‘Yellow Snowdon’, respectivamente. Liberações de O. insidiosus em cultivos de crisântemo podem auxiliar na diminuição da população de A. gossypii, uma vez que o predador completa o seu desenvolvimento tendo este inseto como presa e as cultivares de crisântemo oferecem condições para colonização e estabelecimento de O. insidiosus.
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ORIUSINSIDIOSUS (SAY) FEEDING ON EGGS OF PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA (LINNAEUS) AND ANAGASTA KUEHNIELLA (ZELLER). The objective of this work was to evaluate the biology of Oriusinsidiosus fed on eggs of Plutella xylostella and Anagasta kuehniella. The eggs used were obtained from the Laboratório de Biologia e Criação de Insetos, Departamento de Fitossanidade, FCAV/UNESP. The experiment was carried out with a total of 50 12-to-24-hou0r-old O. insidiosus nymphs, 1 per Petri dish (50 replications). P. xylostella or A. kuehniella eggs were places into each Petri dish daily, along with a small cotton pad moistened with distilled water. The evaluations were carried out daily. The adults were separated in couples, and placed in Petri dishes. The following biological aspects were evaluated: duration, survival rate and consumption of the nymph instars and of the nymph period; longevity of males and females; consumption per day and adult longevity; eggs per day; female fecundity; egg viability; embryonic period; preoviposition period, oviposition period, post-oviposition period. The fertility life table parameters were also evaluated. The predator O. insidiosus did not present significant differences for its biological characteristics, when feeding on P. xylostella and A. kuehniella eggs, however it showed improved fertility life table parameters when fedo n eggs of P. xylostella, suggesting the possibility of using these eggs in the mass rearing of this insect.
Objetivou-se avaliar a toxicidade em g i.a. 100 L -1 de água dos produtos fitossanitários: mancozeb (160), chlorothalonil (150), lufenuron (15), dicofol (36), bifenthrin (2), triazophos (40), methomyl (2,15) e acetamiprid (6) utilizados em crisântemo, sobre adultos de Oriusinsidiosus (Say). No tratamento testemunha utilizou-se somente água. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol 2 , com aplicação de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm 2 em adultos com até 48h de idade. Os bioensaios foram realizados em laboratório sob temperatura de 25±2°C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 12h. A toxicidade dos produtos para adultos foi determinada pela porcentagem do efeito total (E%), levando em consideração a mortalidade diária até os 8 dias após a aplicação dos produtos e a oviposição diária e total em 15 dias, os quais foram classificados segundo critérios propostos por membros da IOBC. Chlorothalonil foi considerado inócuo ao predador, classe 1, enquanto mancozeb e dicofol foram categorizados na classe 2 (levemente nocivos) e lufenuron foi considerado moderadamente nocivo, classe 3. Bifenthrin, triazophos, methomyl e acetamiprid foram os mais prejudiciais ao predador O. insidiosus, sendo enquadrados na classe 4 (nocivos).