DRUGS ANTI-HIV: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES. Currently available anti-HIV drugs can be classified into three categories: nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). In addition to the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease reaction, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle can be considered as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (1) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120; (2) viral entry, through blockage of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; (3) virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp 41; (4) viral assembly and disassembly through NCp7 zinc finger-targeted agents; (5) proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors and (6) viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation) process. Also, various new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed, possessing different improved characteristics.
DRUGS AGAINST TUBERCULOSE: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. Approximately every minute, somewhere in the world four people die from tuberculosis (TB), an infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with about 3 million deaths per year. In spite of these problems, unfortunaly, it is about 40 years that a novel drug was last introduced on the market. Due to the rapid spread of multi-drug resistant TB strains, resistant against all major anti-tuberculosis drugs, and the recent resurgence of the incidence of tuberculosis in association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, we need urgently the development of new drugs to fight tuberculosis. This is covered in the present article.
used to assess health’s subjective evaluations. The questionnaire includes both physical and mental health. It consists of 32 items, of which 26 measure perceptions of prior health, current and future health, resistance/susceptibility to illness, health concerns, sickness orientation (Table 2), and the remaining six items evaluate rejection of sick role, and attitude toward going to the doctor. High scores on four subscales (current health, prior health, future health and resistance to illness) indicate positive health perceptions and high scores on two subscales (health concerns and sickness orientation) indicate negative health perceptions. Twenty-two of the questions from the HPQ were used to calculate the General Health Rating Index (GHRI) score, ranging from 22 to 110, allowing assessment of health perception over time (past, present and future).
O renomado professor Alan Knight, da Universidade de Oxford – ganhador do prestigioso prêmio Albert Beveridge, da American Historical Association, entre outros, e apreciado e lido por suas obras sobre a Revolução Mexicana –, foi palestrante do workshop internacional “Desafios de revistas interdisciplinares: experiências do Reino Unido, Brasil e América Latina em história, ciências sociais e humanidades”, realizado entre 22 e 24 de junho de 2016 graças ao apoio da British Academy e à colaboração do Journal of Latin American Studies. O evento realizou-se na Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, no Rio de Janeiro, com a participação de editores de Inglaterra, Brasil e outros países latino-americanos. No encontro, o professor Knight leu a seguinte apresentação, que resume suas ideias sobre revistas de história e experiências valiosas como membro do conselho editorial da Past & Present, uma das principais revistas de história do mundo.
However, the performance of broad range PCR analysis at a level of high analytical sensitivity is complex and remains one of the most challenging PCR applications in the diagnostic laboratory. For example, as 16S rRNA gene amplification targets all bacterial species, small amounts of inherent residual DNA present in reagents may be co- amplified, resulting in false positivity. Methods for the removal of potential background contamination include long wave UV light gamma irradiation DNAse, restriction endonuclease digestion, ultrafiltration, and low DNA polymerases. However, many of these methods result in a reduced sensitivity in detecting target DNA, with a detection limit range of 10 3 –10 4 copies/ml, which is not ideal for diagnosing sepsis in clinical settings. It was found that a combination of pre-PCR culture with the use of AmpliTaq Low DNA achieves an acceptable level of sensitivity (5–50 copies/ml in a turnaround time of eight hours) for the real time amplification of bacteria in blood samples, without the need to remove any inherent DNA contamination. Detection by PCR does not yield the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the pathogen. Early exclusion of bacterial infection could help to reduce overuse of antibiotics. It is predicted that eventually real time PCR combined with DNA Micro Array technology will allow not only identification of the organism but also the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, which is so critical to clinical care.
SARS-CoV-2 has recently emerged, becoming a global threat, affecting directly all human beings owing to its morbidity and mortality and indirectly, due to the enormous economic and psychological impact produced by social isolation, the most effective measure so far, but unsustainable for a long period. The scienti ﬁc effort to understand and control SARS-CoV-2 transmission and clinical impact has been huge, and important achievements are highlighted in this review. Diagnosis is central and is the ﬁrst step in recognizing and ﬁghting any infectious agent. Instrumental to that is the quality of the data, relying on serological and molecular surveys in addition to trustworthy clinical records. However, the fast spread of a virus adapted for human-to-human respiratory transmission raised a demand for millions of molecular tests that are simply not available. Several candidate drugs are under evaluation in clinical trials. Those with an already recognized safety pro ﬁle are more auspicious, since, if proven effective, can cut several steps of production and phase 2 and 3 trials. More than one hundred vaccine prototypes are in different stages of development, however, safety and ef ﬁcacy evaluations cannot be obviated, implicating, most optimistically, in at least months for us to have an effective immunization, the de ﬁnite measure to allow a safe return to the pre-pandemic lifestyle. Science has never been more necessary and present in daily life. Relying on the best of human wit is the only way out to this pandemic, saving as many lives as possible.
A model restricted to the species’ preferred habitat (Fig. 3) to estimate current distribution shows areas that currently have the climatic conditions for potential occurrence of the jaguar and still present native vegetation co- ver, considering information from 2000 (Eva et al. 2002). It shows large suita- ble vegetation blocks in the Amazon and Pantanal biomes, some parts of the central Cerrado (especially the Cerra- do-Amazon ecotone) and the Caatinga biome. For the Atlantic Forest biome, however, the potential for jaguar oc- currence is predicted only in extremely fragmented and isolated areas.
Foray et al. (2011), based on the work produced by Hausmann and Rodrik (2003), conclude that smart specialisation has to derive from a process of entrepreneurial discovery undertaken by compa- nies and the other organisations acting upon the economy. The process of discovery necessarily has to involve the companies as they constitute the only entities able to effectively identify just what may or may not be competitively produced in a particular time and place (Healy, 2016). However, as regards the discovery process, the bulk of the literature emphasises the importance of the regions or member states identifying in economic terms just what and where are the potentials for obtaining this sought‐ after competitive advantage (Boden, Marinelli, Haegman, & Dos Santos, 2015). Some authors affirm that any strategic process planned on a bottom‐up basis incurs the risk of poorly investing public re- sources (Camagni, Capello, & Lenzi, 2014; Capello, 2014). Iacobucci (2014), however, maintains the contrary, thus, concluding that the companies and firms better know the realities of the market than government members of staff are able to spot opportunities. Therefore, even when the stakeholders are invited to participate in the process, a top‐down approach is always effectively present in the choices over the “domains” for the specialisations selected, thus, correspondingly always dependent on who- ever is leading the strategy—the regional government (Estensoro & Larrea, 2016).
to explore two areas by the year’s end: the way in which publication influences career advancement, and ways in which we can broaden our representation of the global scientific community. Most of us would agree that important career decisions— hiring, promotion, funding—should be based on past performance and future potential to make meaningful contribu- tions. But as highlighted in several venues (including articles from PLoS Medicine [2,3] and, recently, from Mark Johnston, Edi- tor-in-Chief of GENETICS ), the Thom- son Scientific (formerly ISI) impact factor is no longer the only and best metric by which to assess meaningful scientific con- tributions. As authors, one way to combat the inordinate impact of the impact factor is to submit our best work to journals where our peers play a significant role in editorial decisions. But this tack will be most effective when those same decisions
In this review we gave an overview of the affordance research in the past and in the present. The concept of affordances was introduced by J. J. Gibson, and most clearly so in his 1979 book entitled ‘The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception’ (1986/1979). Although research on affordances predates J.J. Gibson’s conceptual work and can even be traced back to the seminal work of his wife E.J. Gibson (see E.J. Gibson 2002), the most influential empirical work on affordances can be traced to the pioneering work of Warren (1984, 1988) and Michaels (1988) Since then, the methods and approaches proposed by these studies have served as a guide to discovery. They have inspired many researchers to generate experiments in a variety of tasks, which resulted in a great amount of knowledge on different aspects of affordances. Most of the studies have continued to approach the study of affordances with similar methods -- that is, using discretely defined actions, and focusing on pi-numbers and action boundaries -- as first demonstrated in the classical studies on affordances (e.g. Warren 1984; Warren &Whang 1987; Mark 1987). Examples are the results of studies emphasizing the dy- namic nature of affordances and those examining the ideas of recalibration, and per- ception of social affordances. The majority of studies focus on action boundaries. That is to say, they have aimed to establish whether some action is possible or not and whether participants are able to perceive this.
In fact, this past decade witnessed a surge in the building of infrastructures such as hotels and transportation facilities. These developments occurred mostly in Lisbon leaving Madeira and Algarve relying on natural factors such as “sun and sea”. The discrepancy of investments will have negative implications in the future tourism demand. Salazar in 1965 showed some concern with the Algarve in terms of overdevelopment of accommodation establishments and the destruction of land due to tourism, “I fear that we are destroying Algarve with the hurry of endowing it of a number of rooms, considered necessary to the development of tourism. But tourism will pass and the Algarve will stay. And if we deform it because of tourism, we will never again recompose it” (Vieira, 1997: 34).
Hakenkamp, 2001 ; Spooner & Vaughn, 2006 ; Vaughn & Spooner, 2006 ). During the same period, the first comprehensive revisions of mussel diversity based on modern phylogenetic methods were published (e.g. Roe & Hoeh, 2003 ; Campbell et al., 2005 ; Graf & Cummings, 2007 ). From the middle of the 2000s, the efforts to refine captive propagation methods for mussels resulted in the near perfection of these techniques and the feasibility of their use on a large scale (e.g., Henley et al., 2001 ; Barnhart, 2006 ; Gum et al., 2011 ). At the present, the exponential growth on freshwater bivalves’ research, both in the field of basic biology, ecology and physiology but also on applied conservation such as habitats rehabilitation and prop- agation, needs to be integrated and available to all ecologists, conservation biologists and freshwater malacologists. This integration needs also to include managers, policy makers and other stakeholders to find and apply the best measures to conserve these animals and their natural habitats. The Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society has played this role in North America, promoting research and awareness but also by organizing periodic meetings and workshops. In other parts of the world, research efforts vary and integration and knowledge exchange are needed, mainly in undeveloped countries of the Southern Hemisphere. Trying to fulfil this gap, a group of researchers planned and organized the first Interna- tional Meeting on the Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Bivalves on 2012 (see below for further details).
Membrane attack complex (MAC) is also an index of complement activation of hemodialysis along with the C3a and C5a indices. Because these shows the complement activation of hemodialysis membrane at different levels with different action potentials. Here measure of one index does not substitute for the measurement of other, as C3 doesn’t lead to equal molar activation of C5 or that of the terminal section. Recent studies show some interest in measurement of other C3 activation products as indices of C3 activation. Detection of some of them as iC3b and C3d.they may possess their own biological activities 18 . These fragments like iC3b and C3d may degrade further according to the environment they are present. Quantitation of particular fragment may not correctly give the total number of C3 molecules that have been activated. Cross reaction between present antibodies and C3 fragments can complicate the interpretation of assay.