cabo ao projeto analítico, conta-se principalmente com as contribuições de Cornejo Polar, além de Walter Benjamin (2013; 2016) e Susana Kampff Lages (2007). Palavras-chave: Arguedas; Los ríos profundos; narrador; heterogeneidade; melancolia. Abstract: This work aims at addressing one perspective of reading about thenarrator of Los ríos profundos (2016), written by José María Arguedas (1911-1969), based on the relations between the heterogeneity andthe melancholy. Cornejo Polar (2008), for example, was a pioneer in discussing, within his discussions about the heterogeneity – i.e., the conflictuous intersection of two or more sociocultural universes in only one literary extract – reflections about thenarrator-characterand his memories. Ángel Rama (2008), in turn, elaborated a theory that emphasizes the relevance of two narrators, one main and one ethnological, who form a synthetic whole. In order to retake the validity of the Cornejo Polar’s contributions, also Alberto Moreiras’s (2001) and Marcos Natali’s (2005), we try to relate the heterogeneity andthe melancholy to thenarrator, since the former, conflicting by nature, allows the emergence of the latter, also conflicting, double, and ambiguous. In addition, an approximation of heterogeneity with translation and, of course, with melancholy is rapidly undertaken. It is noteworthy that this study does not commit to the clinical nor to the psychoanalytical area. Cornejo Polar’s, Walter Benjamin’s (2013, 2016) and Susana Kampff Lages’s (2007) contributions were considered to carry out the analytical project.
Researchers have been interested in language as a powerful means to represent the world around and within us (Bezerra, 2003; Fairclough, 1992; Halliday, 1994; Heberle, 1997; Meurer, 2005; Ostermann, 1995; Prawucki, 1998). The image of women in our society is a product of many forces that come into play to establish our beliefs and social practices, and these beliefs can be captured in the way we behave as well as in the way we use language (Rajan, 1995). Taking into account this reality of women’s struggle for the (re)construction of their identities, based on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and studies on Language and Gender, this research investigates the USA TV sitcom ‘Sex andthe City,’ focusing on the image of women construed by the main character, Carrie Bradshaw, in her discourse as narrator, in the final episode of each season, totaling six episodes. Using SFL, I focus on the ideational metafunction, which is concerned with the way in which we express our experiences in the world, as a way to understand and demonstrate how language, gender and society are inextricably linked in the construction of women’s image in this contemporary world renowned TV sitcom. Overall results show that women are represented in multiple forms, but always seen as the most dynamic participants in all episodes analyzed and frequently dealing with matters of their private lives.
a concept that refers not to one system but a set of subsystems that operate with autonomy responding to their own triggering stimuli, and are not under the control of System 2 processing. This system is composed of mostly innately programmed behaviour, but new learned behaviour can become part of the system’s procedures as well. It is characterised as rapid, automatic, parallel, heuristic-based, relatively independent of computational power, and mostly domain‑specific. It is automatic because it does not depend on attention, and its processes are not revealed to consciousness; processing in parallel means that it executes multiple operations simultaneously, and heuristic processes are those that are quick but imprecise. System 1 responds automatically to holistic prototypical properties of stimuli and tends to be ballistic, which means that once triggered it can seldom be stopped. System 1 processing is essentially mechanical in nature, so that mechanisms are fired ballistically – because of a match in its input search – even in contexts where they should not be fired, and run to completion even when situation has changed and its output is useless. However, they are efficient, reliable, and probably more easily selected in evolution. A reflex would be a classic example of System 1 processing; however, it is not limited to such; even decision-making can be largely processed by System 1. It is important to notice that what the theory is claiming is that many of our higher capacities, including reasoning and decision‑making, are influenced by processes, which are rather like reflexes.
43 needs of civil society and encouragingly permits the destruction of political security, human security and environmental security. „Coherent political organization, bureaucratic competence and national decision-making are essential requirements of all national development programs but genuine progress is not likely to emerge in Nigeria until the military junta retires to the barracks and new self-governing institutions are erected over a political system anchored in democratic practices” (Dibie 2003:345). It is no wonder then that many organizational systems are in need of a complete overhaul, involving the governing system, the administrative systems, the police apparatus as well as organizational behavior and processes (cf. Dibie 2003:342). The deep-rooted culture of violence, whose presence particularly disturbs the indispensable region of the Niger Delta, reflects a major facet of the weaknesses in the overall national system and in the society relations. To suppress the trade and proliferation of weapons is an elementary, but immense task, given the range of the country andthe region of West Africa involved in the ongoing circulation across borders. To provide employment as substitute and re-orientation for the arms business and its formation, to regulate the inter-communal conflicts that are mainly based on the activities around the oil sector, to reform the position of ethnic minorities and to intensively protect the environment as a life security measurement lead the agenda of future priority actions. Community developments projects, the population’s share in real decision- making with the oil companies andthe government, regular consultations & dialogue, and to establish institutions for local conflict management can be named in this context (cf. Ibeanu 2000:30f.). Another concept could be to arrange circumstances that will mark violence as an unattractive instrument to resolve crisis, as for instance to animate communities to give up their possession of weapons in return for appropriate socio-economic possibilities and infrastructures such as road construction, schools, medical institutions, electricity, etc. (cf. Ukeje et al. 2002:42).
vious treatment of this sort is not found in the literature andthe advantages of the periodic approximate formulae derived here are certainly their simplicity and accuracy, which makes them useful for analysing large-amplitude oscillations in experiments, working well for arbitrarily long time intervals. This kind of periodic approximations may be of general interest for science and engineering applications in which the natural modes of oscillatory structures must be determined accurately, e.g. avoiding
When we make the decision to build in this building system, as architects, we have to think conceptually regarding its specificity. One of the reasons for not using this constructive system in housing is the cost of the work because most of the projects are designed for traditional construction and for this type of project a greater budget is needed. On the other hand, few architects opt for a Metallic system due to lack of knowledge, personal discomfort or, for the simple convenience of habits related to their knowledge. If during the design, this constructive system is taken into consideration as the creation of a solution with "standard" models, it allows saving labor time as well as manufacturing and assembly times, the conditions of work in the workplace are more controlled, thus reducing costs significantly.
expectations of their children (i.e., they were low in Self-Directedness and high in Self-Transcendence). The fathers of children with problematic behaviors were also anxious (i.e., high in Harm Avoidance) but they were not low in Self-Directedness. The zero-order correlation of the father’s Self-Directedness was negligible, but in the multiple regression analysis, higher Self-Directedness of the father contributed to the risk of the mother reporting more problems in the children. This suggests that possible interpretation that the discrepancy between the Self-Directedness of the two parents increased the mother’s expectations and demands on the children. When a father is a hard-working wage-earner who has little time to help the mother or the children, as is common in Korea, the greater Self-Directedness of the father may contribute to family conflict and children’s problem behaviors. In other words, the higher Self-Directedness of the father may be an indicator of his absence from the home because of his over-commitment to work; as a result, he is unlikely to be helpful in child-rearing, which leads to problems when the mother is not a calm, resourceful caretaker herself.
Article is devoted to the social legitimation of knowledge. We study the contexts of implantation of knowledge products into the body of culture. The author proceeds from the need to study the process of objectification symbol- ic of object by applying the category of “facies”, the introduction and justification of which on content and formal level were realized by the author in previous works. Such issues as the following are discussed in the article: the main stages of objectification, cognitions, different worlds in science in the trend of unfolding cognitions, the basic principles of object-symbolic interpretation of the nature of knowledge. The author explores these questions by analyzing the basic epistemological trends that can be seen in the works of the greatest philosophers of both mod- ern and recent times, globalizing the principle of a system approach on the basis of its synthesis with the elements of synergetics and semiotics. The author devotes a great place to criticism of Kant's transcendental apriorism, re- vealing, however, its positive potential and determining its promising vector beating literally in the essence of con- temporary cognitive science. Author takes on orbit of its original methodology conclusions of not only natural sci- ences and mathematics, but also poetic insights that allows creating of pulsating and at the same time quite certain interdisciplinary context. The main conclusions regarding the content of prerequisites of cognitive synthesis in- cluded in the final paragraph of article and are accompanied by convincing examples of modern physics.
Description:—Thallus up to 125.7 mm high, consisting on geniculate fronds (Fig. 5a) attached by a crustose base variable in size but always larger than 10 mm and pinnately branched at the main axis (see Fig. 5a) with apices mostly rounded (Fig. 5b); stolons absent. Branching at narrow angles (< 45º), originated at the genicula, gaps between successive lateral branches absent or incouspicuous, usually dense (mean BDI was 0.79), occasionally irregular (35.00 %). Fronds consisting of wedge shaped laterally expanded intergenicula, terete (at thallus base, Fig. 5c) to compressed (thallus apices, see Fig. 5a). These are 0.482-1.470 mm long and 0.410-1.494 mm in diameter at the main axis, tending to be nearly as wide as long (see Fig. 3, L/W ratio at Tab. 2); intergenicula composed of 7-25 tiers of medullary cells of 32.5-87.5 µm. Geminated intergenicula (Fig. 5d) were common (62.50 %). Mature genicula composed by 1 tier of cells with 94.2-297.6 µm long and 94.2-456.3 µm in diameter. Cortex with 6–17 µm thick composed of 3-5 tiers of cells. Pedunculate conceptacles, mostly axial, sometimes also pseudolateral; conceptacles frequently bearing branches (Fig. 5f) and horns (Fig. 5e); tetrasporangial conceptacles 138.9–515.8 µm external diameter; tetrasporangial conceptacle chambers 99.2–372.0 µm diameter, 44.6–416.6 µm high with the roofs (canal length) 34.7–297.6 µm thick. Proliferous conceptacles (see Fig. 5f) frequently observed.
With the ever-so-increasing need to create a compelling storytelling to increase the gaming experience, the sound accompanied the game, carrying with it the need for a clear sound design and soundtrack as it was done in film. Nowadays, the most praised sound design is usually the most realistic one, as it provides the player with a sense of immersion. The amount of enthralling sound design and sound characterization in games is such and so sought after that there are enormous amounts of video games that could serve as examples. The introduction of shooter games was also extremely relevant in pulling the player into the game world. By following the player character’s point of view, the feeling of involvement in the game as an active participant increases as the player can reel in watching through the main character’s eyes or gaze line. In the RPG genre (Role-Playing Game), the third-person shooter Assassin’s Creed Saga andthe first-person shooter BioShock Saga the player is allowed to be and feel in the character’s skin by moving around the game while listening to the characters’ breath, rustling of its clothes and footsteps, the latter adapting to the environment and flooring they are stepping on. Another particularity of these characters is the use of speech and discourse that helps us better understand their personalities. Other games like the Call of Duty first-person shooter war game provides the player with an extremely blank and flat character, as opposed to the layered and story-driven characters of Assassin’s Creed and BioShock. On the screen, only the character’s hands are seen and their emotion is translated through the adaptive soundtrack, triggered by the different situations thecharacter is in (dangerous, weary, hurt, and so on). On the subject of First- Person Shooters, Mark Grimshaw states that through “a system of sonic perceptual realism”, the player’s mind shifts from being aware of his own reality to being uniquely focused on the virtual world. Through the sensation of authenticity, the game world seems to materialize around the gamer and just like that, “in the ideal case, virtuality becomes substituted for reality” (Grimshaw, 2008, p. 2).
Business cooperation is a widely discussed topic in the literature; however, few studies have focused on the specific case of the family businesses (FBs) and, moreover, there is no clear consensus on the relationship between cooperation and family character (Niemelä, 2004; Roessl, 2005; Pittino & Visintin, 2011; Classen, Van Gils, Bammens, & Carree, 2012; Franco & Haase, 2012; Pittino, Visintin, Bau’, & Mazzurana, 2013; Alberti, Ferrario, Papa, & Pizzurno, 2014; Feranita, Kotlar, & De Massis, 2017). Given the importance of FBs around the world, and because their peculiarities make their strategic behavior different from that of other companies (Benito- Hernández, Priede-Bergamini, & López-Cózar- Navarro, 2014; De Massis, Frattini, Pizzurno, & Cassia, 2015; Padilla-Meléndez, Dieguez-Soto, & Garrido-Moreno, 2015), it seems relevant to develop an analysis in this research line (Feranita et al., 2017; Brinkerink, 2018).
Two recent qualitative studies were aimed at uncovering social, environmental and cultural aspects of active aging (e.g., Nettles, 2016; Zrinscak & Lawrence, 2014; WHO 2002) in the lives of older women in rural and northern areas of China and Finland. Methods used included focus group interviews and art-based approaches with older women who participated in local program activities. The use of drawing was introduced to enrich the interview data and provide a visual and individual view of what constitutes active aging for these groups of women who lived so far apart from one another. We found that they shared some ideas about aging actively and maintaining well- being, such as the importance of family and other social relationships and health, but there were also stark differences that will be shared as initial findings from the interviews and drawings. One of these is the significance of older women's cultural and place-based activities and interests from earlier life stages and how these can be promoted and continued in old age. Also necessary is to include study participants in presentations, recommendations and briefs that could result in policy and practice shifts and in keeping women as they age connected to others and to the outside world so that they feel themselves an integral part of it. The oldest older women are otherwise at risk of serious loneliness and feelings of loss that could be prevented in many cases.
A non stationary state in the one-dimensional infinite square well formed by a combination of the ground state andthe first excited one is considered. The statistical complexity andthe Fisher-Shannon entropy in position and momentum are calculated with time for this system. These measures are compared with the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, ∆x∆p. It is observed that the extreme values of ∆x∆p coincide in time with extreme values of the other two statistical magnitudes.
Abstract. h e article analyzes characters of clergymen andthe process of creating a specii c type of a preacher in Leo Tolstoy’s works. h e researcher tries to prove that this process was strongly inl uenced by Tolstoy’s close attention to the preacher characters in George Eliot’s works. h is can be proved by Tolstoy’s letters, diary and notes in the books from the writer’s personal library. h e main features of Tolstoy’s preacher character are demonstrated by the example of Prince Nekhlyudov (Resurrection). Proclaiming evangelical truth, he is not a member of any confession; he does not promulgate his views, but he proves his case by his actions and his way of life. He rejects earthly comfort and goods and voluntarily becomes integrated into people’s life. Having walked his way of repentance of former sins, he cultivates the ability to forgive and have mercy. George Eliot also accents these features in the key characters of her books, analyzed in this article (Janet’s repentance, Adam Bede and Felix Holt, the Radical). Eliot’s version of preaching becomes a certain guide for Tolstoy in the process of shaping a new type of character in his late works.
A second strand of literature follows the “justice as fairness” approach of John Rawls (1971), which is contractarian and non consequentialist. Rawls’s analysis departs dramatically from the utilitarian tradition on at least three important issues. Firstly, the distinct aim of the analysis. It is not social welfare that Rawls is looking for, but principles to implement a just andwell ordered society. “Among individuals with disparate aims and purposes a shared conception of justice establishes the bonds of civic friendship;...One may think of a public conception of justice as constituting the fundamental charter of a well-ordered human association” (p.5, 1971). Secondly, Rawls’s conception of happiness departs from utilitarianism. He considers that happiness is not necessarily pursued by individuals with a rational plan of life, and it is not a central concept in his theory. Thirdly, individuals have two moral capacities : for a sense of justice and for a conception of the good. Thus, we may argue that it is consistent with Rawls’s approach that, apart from the intrinsic value of just institutions, living in a well ordered society also impinges on the individuals’ perception of happiness because it is in accordance with their sense of justice. Therefore, the quality of institutions must also be an ingredient of life satisfaction.
demonstrates health or functional needs (Weuve, Boult & Morishita, 2000). There are three types of IC described in various investigations: primary, secondary and tertiary (Sequeira, 2010; Almberg, Grafstrom & Winblad, 1997). The primary caregiver is the main carer, who assumes the full responsibility for the caregiving tasks, having to supervise, guide and accompany and care directly for the older person in need of care. This person provides most of the care (Davies, 1992; Carrero, 2002). The secondary caregiver is someone who helps with the caregiving tasks regularly or occasionally, but does not have the responsibility of caring. These are frequently other family members that assist the primary caregiver with economic and leisure tasks or social activities. This carer can replace the primary care provider in his absence or in emergency situations (Penrod, Kane, Kane & Finch, 1995; Neri & Carvalho, 2002). The tertiary caregiver is usually a family member, neighbour or close friend who helps sporadically or only when requested in emergency situations, but is not responsible for caring (Neri & Carvalho, 2002).
Point of departure of several models in the occupational health literature is that job strain is the result of a disturbance of the equilibrium between the demands employees are exposed to andthe resources they have at their disposal. For example, according to thewell-known job demand-control model (JDC; Karasek, 1979; 1998) job strain is particularly caused by the combination of high job demands (particularly work overload and time pressure) and low job control – “the working individual’s potential control over his tasks and his conduct during the working day” (Karasek, 1979, pp. 289-290). Job demands refer to physical, social or organizational job aspects that require sustained physical and/or psychological effort and are associated with certain physiological and/or psychological costs (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001). Examples of job demands are work overload, heavy lifting, interpersonal conflict and job insecurity. By definition, job demands consume energy because additional effort must be exerted to achieve the work goals and to prevent decreasing performance and may therefore eventually lead to physical and psychological problems such as exhaustion, fatigue, irritability and related health problems. Thus, one basic premise in the JDC model is that employees who can decide themselves how to meet their job demands do not experience job strain (e.g. job-related anxiety, health complaints, exhaustion, and dissatisfaction). According to Karasek (1979): “The individual’s decision latitude is the constraint which modulates the release or transformation of “stress” (potential energy) into the energy of action” (p. 287). There is indeed empirical evidence showing that particularly the combination of high job demands and low job control is an important predictor of psychological strain and illness (Karasek, 1979; Schnall, Landsbergis & Bakker, 1994).