Organizationalassessment is a usual practice in high performance organizations. Because of their high standards they must continuously strive for better results, which can be achieved by constant benchmarking and self-evaluation. Today’s organizationalassessment has been taken to a higher level. In order to sustain a high performance organization, managers are no longer implementing traditional valuation indicators, even if they successfully have been used for years. Khademfar and Amiri (2013) suggest a model of high performance organization, which maintains five major approaches: Strategic, Customer, Leadership, Processes and Structure and, Values and Beliefs. Strategic approach takes the organization to a higher plane of maturity with a clear vision where the entity is going. Customer approach strives for clientele loyalty, whether Leadership approach is associated with management knowledge to transfer the strategy to employee level, which will have a direct impact on their behavior and believes. The fourth block is associated with organization’s processes and structure. High performance organization should strive for implementing innovative policies to support the strategy. The last component of the model is Value and Believes which translates into organizations ability to implement the strategy. All pieces are linked to each other, since change to one provides changes in the others.
LHUs were established with the main goal of guaranteeing vertical integration of the different levels of care, strengthening the relationship between PHC and hospital care (ERS, 2015). The first LHU appeared in 1999, but the second one was only incepted in 2007. LHUs are still a small fraction of PHC provision (ERS, 2015) and full coordination between levels of care does not appear to have been successfully established (ERS, 2011,2015; Lopes et al., 2014; OECD, 2015b). ERS (2015) points out that there are no relevant differences between units under the management of ACES or of LHUs in terms of access to care, quality of services, productive efficiency (e.g. ambulatory care sensitive conditions) and financial performance (e.g. average payment time to suppliers). The study also concludes that, contrary to what was expected, units in LHUs exhibit an increase in the rate of avoidable hospitalizations and have a higher ratio of nurses per doctor and longer lengths of hospitalization (ERS, 2015). As a positive outcome, there seems to be a more cohesive management of diagnostic tests (ERS, 2011). We include a binary variable for Local Health Units to test whether being part of a vertically integrated structure strengthens or hampers success in transition into model B.
Recently, they are emerging new concepts like “social environment”, which also includes organizational effects on people and small groups, or “social footprint” that involves the impact on society due to management decisions (Pfeffer, 2010). As Jonker (2010) said: “responsibility implies mastering the art of balancing diverse needs and expectations of various stakeholders at the same time”. This is organizations must create a shared value to their stakeholders, as a new way to achieve economic success. So, we defend that CSR must be seen intimately in connection with the needs, desires and expectations of each company stakeholder. Philanthropy is only a plus. We think it is a schizophrenic behaviour to spend part of the profit in philanthropic activities instead of being social responsible in economic, legal and ethical performance.
Besides the direct relationships among the constructs examined in the sub-section of Stage 6, the indirect effects of each exogenous construct on the endogenous constructs of the model were analyzed (Table 10). By this assessment, the impact of research and development services was also considered to be non-significant. All the other relationships were significant at a minimum level of 10%, which may be assumed appropriate for an exploratory study such as this one, as suggested by Hair et al. (2014). Therefore, based on the model validated in this study, it is possible to infer part of the organizationalperformance of a machinery/equipment builder by knowing the level with which it meets its clients’ needs in the provision of the contemplated service categories, and thus, formulate more consistent servitization strategies that reduce the risk of the service paradox. For example, this suggests that investments to develop maintenance services, a service category with the highest path coefficient (0.11) along with financial performance, may provide a better financial return than other categories. In the industrial sector analyzed, investments to develop research and development services can be ineffective and may give rise to the service paradox.
The trait approach has a number of advantages and disadvantages. The strength of this theory is in the strong research that took around a century to be made. As well, by focusing only on the leader the studies were able to provide us with the deeper understanding on how leader’s personality is related to the leadership process. Unfortunately, the weaknesses of the trait theory overcome its strengths. Firstly, the list of potentially important leadership traits was almost endless. For this reason, it was impossible to establish the “only true” image of the leader. Secondly, for various reasons, it was not possible to establish a close connection between the trait and leadership in the practical and objective matter. Thirdly, almost all researchers failed to take the situation into account, so the approach resulted in subjective determinations of the most important qualities of a leader. Colbert et al. (2012) raise a question of validity of the trait approach self-report measures. They claim that self-assessment tools are not effective for the trait discovery as individuals can be accustomed to their personality traits and not perceive them accurately (Colbert et al., 2012). To sum up, the approach of defining leadership traits is undoubtedly interesting, but, unfortunately, still not very helpful for practice.
The CHIMERE (Menut et al., 2013) model and the EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model, Elbern et al., 2007) models are mesoscale Eulerian models that compute transport, chemical reactions and deposition of gas-phase and aerosol species in a non- hydrostatic configuration. Both models are being used, since more than 10 years, for air quality operational purposes in Portugal (CHIMERE) and Germany (EURAD-IM) and both models have a dust module encoded which needs proper evaluation to support the daily dust prediction. Additionally, they are state-of-the art chemical transport models (CTM) being part of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, providing daily air quality forecast over Europe and reanalysis. The development of the CHIMERE dust module started in 2005 (Vautard et al., 2005) with continuous updates and reformulations since then (Mailler et al., 2017; Menut et al., 2007). The last developments comprehended the extension of the dust production module to any domain over the globe; the addition of a MODIS erodibility database for arid areas, and also the
The Philips device was used in the standard 12-lead set- ting (I-III, V1-V6, aVF, aVL, aVR), with conductive paste applied to each of the electrodes, while our sensor was used in the virtual ground setting with dry Ag/AgCl electrodes; for data acquisition we used our sensor with the BITalino system [ 14 ]. Subjects were asked to hold one of the elec- trode leads in the right hand and the other on the left hand. Data collection was performed using the standard clinical procedure, in which the subject is lying down, at rest, in an examination bed. The BITalino system acquired data con- tinuously. Given that the Philips device only records 10 seconds of data per run, we acquired three sequential runs, thus amounting to 30 seconds of data per subject per ses- sion. Ground truth data annotation for R-peak labelling was performed manually by a human expert that reviewed all of the records.
This study’s results show a strong link between psychological contract fulfillment, AOC, and job performance. This indicates that the manager can expect the employee to commit more or less to the organization and perform better or worse depending on the level to which the organization fulfills its obligations in the psychological contract. These findings highlight the importance of psychological contract management and of the expectations created even before entering the organization. This includes the initial experience in recruiting, the selection processes, and the initial socialization periods to provide newcomers with accurate information regarding their jobs in an attempt to avoid potential unmet pre-entry expectations and breaches in the psychological contract that result from misunderstandings. Therefore, it is crucially important for companies to avoid creating false hopes during the selection stages of recruitment. Once employees are hired, during the early socialization process, organizations should strive to get to know the employees, fulfill their promises, balance their psychological contracts, maintain their AOC levels, and try to improve job performance. These findings provide a way to better understand the consequences that may result from a failure to communicate what is expected of an employee or a failure to listen to what the employee expected from the employer.
The principles of LM are focused on a value creation system that seeks to offer high added value products and services and to eliminate systematically seven cardinal wastes (Ohno, 1988) that can be accomplished by adopting the “Lean way of Thinking” (Womack & Jones, 1996) and by applying a set of Lean practices and tools (Warnecke & Hüser, 1995). Hines, Holwe, and Rich (2004) demonstrate that the “Lean thinking” has been evolving and in synchronization with it, other processes’ improvement programs emerged. Some of these methodologies were used to face the gaps and critics that Lean had faced and ended up with a creation of integrated approaches, such as: Lean Agile, Lean Six Sigma, Lean Sustainability and Lean Automation (Danese et al., 2017).
The nature of research studies could be exploratory or descriptive. While exploratory researches aim to make it easier to understand an issue's nature that little research may have been done on its related phenomena, descriptive researches are carried out to determine and describe the characteristics of the variables in a given situation (Mokhtar & Alhabshi, 2008). Descriptive researches are divided into subcategories of survey researches, correlation researches, action researches, case studies, and causal- comparative researches. Survey researches are applied when reviewing the distribution of the attributes of a statistical population (Yao et al., 2007).The current research has three stages. In the first stage, exploratory methods have been used and senior and informed managers of the organization have been interviewed to identify the input and output factors, which influence the organizationalperformance. Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) was implemented to make sure of the effects of the above-mentioned factors on the organizationalperformance, and a tolerable multi- collinearity among input factors. VIF is calculated through the following equation:
To survive in a global market characterized by high competition, over the past few decades, organizational restructuring via downsizing has become a popular solution (Guthrie & Datta, 2008; Shoss, 2017). Downsizing, as a management scheme, aims to eliminate positions or jobs to improve organizational efficiency, productivity, and/or competitiveness (Marques, Galende, Cruz & Portugal, 2014). This concept has also been viewed as a relevant issue for organizationaland employment relations (Arshad & Sparrow, 2010; Meyer & Allen, 1991). For instance, Datta, Guthrie, and Pandey (2010) have highlighted many individual andorganizational outcomes of such downsizing strategies; e.g., an important factor in the downsizing process is job insecurity, which has been criticized for its negative effect on both organizationaland individual performance (Brockner, Grover, Reed, & Dewitt, 1992; Brockner et al., 2004; De Witte, 1999). Because of its importance, job insecurity is defined as the perceived fear of being dismissed from the workforce, as well as a stressor of a threatening work situation.
psychological contract and affective organizational commitment decreased over time. The third and fourth studies investigate the relationship between these two constructs and job performance. We assessed job performance by supervisor ratings in performance appraisals undertaken by the organization. Specifically, the third study makes a detailed analysis of the quantitative results and the fourth adds qualitative data to the analysis, from interviews with the same individuals over the first three years of work in the organization. Our results show that fulfilment of the psychological contract explained about 40% of affective organizational commitment ´s variance and about 5% of job performance´s. Together in a mediation model, the variables of psychological contract fulfilment and affective organizational commitment explained about 7% of the variance in job performance. In a longitudinal mediation model, affective organizational commitment had 86.3% of the variance explained, while job performance had 12.3%. This thesis advances prior research by showing that job performance can be predicted by a combination of variables, such as psychological contract fulfilment and affective organizational commitment.
The second objective of the present study was to understand if a relationship between pay dispersion andperformance actually existed, and if it was positive or negative. Despite the fact that studies focusing on vertical pay dispersion mostly pointed at a positive impact (e.g. Eriksson, 1999; Hibbs and Locking, 2000; Lallemand et al., 2004; Heyman, 2005; Ding et al., 2009) – with a few exceptions found by Cowherd and Levine (1992), Hibbs and Locking (2000) for dispersion between firms, Beaumont and Harris (2003) for UK-owned plants, Martins (2008), Hamann and Ren (2013) for non-profit firms, Firth et al. (2015), and Connelly et al. (2016) for long-term performance – and that studies on horizontal pay dispersion mostly pointed at a negative one (e.g. Shaw et al., 2002; Frick et al., 2003; DeBrock et al., 2004; Jewell and Molina, 2004; Ding et al., 2009; Kepes et al., 2009), the present study did not find only linear relationships – hump-shaped (Winter-Ebmer and Zweimüller, 1999; Grund and Westergaard-Nielsen, 2008; Mahy et al., 2009; Mahy et al., 2011; Yang and Klaas, 2011) and U-shaped relationships (Grund and Westergaard-Nielsen, 2008; Hunnes, 2009) were also found. For hump shaped relationships, this points to tournament effects being effective up until a certain of dispersion, with fairness effects being more prevalent after that point is reached (the opposite for U-shaped relationships).
Several studies have explored the impact of organizational learning on business performance. Their conclusions allow us to verify that there are two different perspectives on the concept of performance, that is, they consider financial performanceand non-financial performance [44-47]. Bontis study  allowed to conclude that performance can be measured by two aspects, which include, on the one hand, economic-financial results and, on the other hand, non-financial performance. Hult et al.  and Wu and Fang  focused on non-financial results, such as innovation and employee efficiency. Goh et al.  analyzed the financial performance considering factors such as competitiveness, profitability, profit growth, sales growth, return on investment (ROI) and return on equity (ROE), and non-financial performance, such as innovation, efficiency and job satisfaction. Ngo and Loi  considered in their study aspects related to the market, along with the personal characteristics inherent in business performance, such as employee satisfaction, employee retention, customer satisfaction and customer retention.
Authors like Evans (1995), Rodrik (2004) and Avnimelech and Teubal (2008), however, have advocated the importance of the emergence of new guidelines regarding public policy, leading to a paradigm shift, which may result in key proactive measures for the development of R&D activities that will enhance the innovative performanceand exceed the mere protection and selection of tax incentives or government measures. Specifically, about Portugal, Carvalho (2006:211) argues that “Portugal has structural problems concerning the investment in R&D activities, in particular business R&D, which weaken the innovative activity of the Portuguese business sector and its competitiveness in an international context, and hinder the transition to a knowledge-based economy”. Just, the absence of enabling conditions in Portugal, such as those referred by Carvalho (2006:211), as: “the low qualification of human resources; the fact that corporate culture still poorly suited to invest in R&D; a business structure with many small firms and the low importance of high-tech industries; the weak interaction between firms and research institutions, and a poorly rooted innovation culture” affects the innovative performance of Portuguese firms.
With regards to operational problems, Conant, Mokwa and Varadarajan (1990) noticed that the paragraph approach is frequently used. This method was employed in several empirical studies to classify the organizations according to the typology of Miles and Snow. The following resear- ches are examples of this: Snow and Hrebiniak (1980), McDaniel and Kolari (1987), Segev (1987), Zahra (1987). The paragraph approach requires that respondents read a short paragraph – length descriptions of each ideal type, and then select the one which best characterizes their organization. Typically only a few dimensions considered in Miles and Snow’s adaptive cycle are expressed in the paragraph. In addition, this does not permit the evaluation of the possible gap between the or- ganization and the respective ideal type, even for the dimensions considered, and therefore it is useless to measure the performance evaluation impact resulting from unsuitability of relevant orga- nizational factors.
As Crossan, Lane, White and Klus (1996) suggest, improvisation is an activity where planning meets opportunity, blending in this way strategy formulation and implementation. Weick (2001) also calls improvisation “just-in-time strategy” and explains that, “Just-in-time strategies are distinguished by less investment in front-end loading (try to anticipate everything that will happen or that you will need) and more investment in general knowledge, a large skill repertoire, the ability to do a quick study, trust in intuitions, and sophistication in cutting losses” (2001: 352). These descriptions of improvisation in the context of business are consistent with the experience of improvisational jazz. Jazz improvisation has been used to illustrate how basic musical themes are reworked in a spontaneous fashion to build novel outcomes. Berliner’s definition of jazz improvisation reinforces the notion of improvisation operating at the juncture of planning and opportunity: “Improvisation involves reworking pre-composed material and designs in relation to unanticipated ideas conceived, shaped, and transformed under the special conditions of performance, thereby adding unique features to every creation” (1994: 241).
Bessant et al. (2001) report that most literature dealing with lean production systems and continuous improvement does not cover behavioral aspects of the change process. In their view, many aspects related to LPS are poorly addressed in the literature. One such aspect relates to deficiencies in LPS implementation roadmaps that closely correlate results with the exposure to lean techniques, neglecting elements such as the construction of a behavior. Moreover, much of what is found in the literature assumes a binary division between having or not an LPS, rather than viewing it as an emerging behavioral pattern to be developed alligned with a management philosophy (Pollitt, 2006).