Over the past few years, issues of sustainability are gaining grea ter prominence among organizations and their stakeholders around the world and with it the effective measurement of environmental performance has been a challenge for sustainable transition. The purpose of the article is to analyse, through the the perception of market experts and researchers, what sustainable performancemeasures have stronger positive correlation to achieve organizational sustainability in order to help employees in making decisions that reduce the consumption of resources and that create value throughout its chain. The research is of an exploratory and descriptive nature, with qualitative and quantitative method and has a deductive logic. It aims to help professionals and academics who want to start the measurement and continuous improvement of economic, environmental, social, governance and technical performance of their organizations. Finally, the analyzes allow direct efforts to sustainable measures considered most important, allowing the transition of the organization for sustainability.
The overall effectiveness of the roadway safety management process relies on a robust method for identifying and ranking sites with major potential for safety improvements. In Brazil, guidelines for hotspot identification are usually based only on crash frequency and Crash Rate as safety performancemeasures. This study presents a comparative analysis of safety performancemeasures, considering its limitations of applicability in a sample of signalized intersections from Fortaleza city, Brazil. The performance of each measure to rank the sample intersection was obtained through the rank difference between each safety performance measure and the Excess Expected Average Crash Frequency with EB Adjustment (EEB). In addition, it has taken a temporal analysis based on the consistency of safety performancemeasures during subsequent time periods. The results have suggested a reasonable matching between the most comprehensive safety performance measure (EEB) and very simple safety performancemeasures such as crash frequency and Crash Rate. It is recommended to investigate the consistency of the results for longer observation period as well as for a different jurisdiction in Brazil.
Based on the previous topics, the interface between the MCSs and the strategy and performancemeasures has been partially discussed. In this section, the aim is to highlight elements that characterize the elements as a whole, as established in the general research objective. Regarding the interface between MCS and strategy, theoretical support was sought in the belief systems and interactive controls. According to the reports, the relevance was perceived of the family values aligned with the organizational values to stimulate the innovation processes. The initiative for resolving problems is incentivized via organizational learning. Thus, new ideas and innovation projects are proposed by the employees to improve the operational processes linked to product quality, efficiency, and reducing operating costs. These projects are discussed and shared between managers and senior administration.
choose to obtain the latest composition version, dated of September 2012, and run those companies back until 2005. The companies that have not been quoted since 2005 were also excluded (see table III). The total composition of the sample comprises 71 companies (see Table I). The data was collected from annual and corporate governance reports, fulfilled within the AMF or companies websites. When collecting the data it was also mandatory to choose between parent company reports or consolidated ones. According to Niskanen et al. (1998) that used accounting and market data from thirty-five Finnish listed firms, they examine the information content of consolidated versus parent-only earnings, after controlling for each other. “The results show that consolidated earnings are a significant incremental explanatory variable for stock returns, while parent-only earnings are not. The findings suggest that consolidation improves the information content of earnings, and the requirement to disclose parent-only earnings should be based on arguments other than their value- relevance to shareholders. (..) Consolidated earnings are informative because they reflect the economic performance of the entire economic entity where investors hold their equity claims.” Niskanen et al. (1998). Other authors have studied this issue, as Müller (2011) or Abad et al. (2000), ending up with the conclusion of major value-relevance of consolidated accounts. In line with the described above the choice was the use of consolidated accounts.
in performance evaluation. For instance, the studies by Libby (1999), Giraud, Langevin and Mendoza (2008), Lau, Wong and Eggleton (2008), and Hartmann and Slapnicar (2009) have shown that perceived performance evaluation fairness is influenced by performance measure properties. Basically, there are two main premises. First, when a performance metric is influenced by uncontrollable factors, it becomes noisy and less informative about the impact of managers’ actions. Second, as discussed above, holding managers accountable for events that are out of their control may result in perceptions of unfairness. Accounting-based, objective performancemeasures provide some information about agents’ efforts, but are often contaminated by uncontrollable random events that occur outside the firm (e.g., environmental uncertainty) or within the firm (e.g., decentralization of decision rights) (GERDIN, 2005; GHOSH; LUSCH, 2000; LAU; WONG; EGGLETON, 2008; MERCHANT; VAN DER STEDE, 2007). Therefore, the use of subjective measures
Quellec et al  proposed a CBIR method for diagnosis in medical fields. In this, images are indexed in a generically, without extracting domain-specific features: a signature is built into each image from wavelet transform. These signatures characterize wavelet coefficient distribution in each decomposition subband. A distance measure compares two image signatures and retrieves most similar images from the database when a physician submits a query image. To retrieve relevant images from a medical database, signatures and distance measure should be related to medical image interpretation. Subsequently the system requires much freedom to tune it to any pathology with image modality being introduced. The scheme proposed using a custom decomposition scheme to adapt the wavelet basis with lifting scheme framework. Weights are introduced between subbands. All parameters are tuned by an optimization procedure, using database medical image grading to define performancemeasures. System assessment is through two medical image databases: one for diabetic retinopathy follow up and another for mammography screening, as well as a general purpose database. Results are promising: a mean precision of 56.50%, 70.91% and 96.10% are achieved for the three databases, when the system returned five images.
Excluding the observations, which match the period of the financial crisis, led to slight changes in the results, smoothing them and increasing their values, as the majority of negative periods were not considered. Based on these results, Green mutual equity funds are still considered to be the best performers, however, now reporting the best results for only four measures, while for the remaining two, Treynor measure and Jensen’s alpha, they are the worst performing funds. Islamic mutual equity funds report the worst results in three performancemeasures - Sharpe ratio, Modified Sharpe ratio and Information ratio. As for the remaining two measures, they report the middle result. SRI mutual equity funds are considered to be best performers according to Treynor measure and Jensen’s alpha, however they report the worst results for the Adjusted Sharpe ratio. This might indicate that, even during the period of crises, The Green mutual equity funds report, on average, more consistent and higher ratios than the other two types of funds. Another important finding is that the exclusion of the financial crisis leads to achieving more uniform results, meaning that the differences between the reported ratios are narrower. Additionally, double-sorting on fund characteristics shows that Top 10 th percentile funds outperform, on average, the Bottom 10 th percentile funds.
Due to the results of our study, despite the little differences between two populations (Tables 1 to 3) the EuroSCORE II may not be completely reliable for risk periodization or resource allocation programs in Iran. Poor performancemeasures for EuroSCORE II highlights the need for reformulating this risk stratification tool aiming to improve post cardiac surgery outcome predictions in Iran. It may be done by calibrating mortality risk scoring model (e.g. EuroSCORE model) for the region or creating new models with accurate localized parameter sets [11,20] .
For Shaik & Abdul-Kader (2014), all companies must have six perspectives: inancial; processes (internal and external); interested parts; innovation and growth; environment and social. However, Hernández et al. (2012, p. 454) point out that “[…] even though a model may be applicable to companies in any industry, it will always be necessary to make speciic adjustments to the characteristics of each company”, because the performancemeasures adopted are subject to the dificulty of the process to be measured and its relevance in relation to the objectives set by the company, as well as the use of this information by managers (Hernández et al., 2012).
Abstract — This paper proposes a new discrete-time queue analytical model based on BLUE algorithm in order to determine the network congestion in preliminary stages. We compare the original BLUE, which has been implemented in Java, with our proposed analytical model with regards to different performancemeasures (average queue length, throughput, average queueing delay and packet loss probability). The comparison results show that the proposed discrete-time queue analytical model outperforms BLUE algorithm in terms of throughput and packet loss probability. Moreover, the proposed model maintains the throughput performance regardless whether the amount of the traffic load is light or heavy. Furthermore, we calculate the packet dropping probability function for our analytical model and the BLUE algorithm in order to decide which algorithm drops fewer packets.
In this article, the authors study the relevance of the market timing hypothesis of going public, which tends to explain the lower post-issue operating performance of Czech initial public of- ferings. The data collected under the conditions of the Czech capital market are compared with the performance of companies selected from the main European stock exchanges, when they decided to adopt the IPO strategy. Achieving the objective required an empirical survey that involved a collection of accounting data in companies that had completed an initial public offer in the Czech capital market. The data were evaluated by inancial performancemeasures. The comparisons were made using descriptive statistical methods. The research results broaden and deepen the present understanding of the market timing hypothesis in companies going public, particularly in the Czech Republic.
This paper shows similar estimated values for the performancemeasures analysed – system availability and total maintenance cost per time unit, for both simulation model and analytical model, as far as a Maintenance Float System with M=10, R=5 and L=5 is concerned. Nevertheless a difference of nearly 15% is noticed. Also, it is quite clear that variance is different for both global efficiency measures analysed, specially when using extreme values for periodic overhauls rates. In this respect, AvgSav is the most sensitive parameter. As expected, the least sensitive parameter is AvgTCu , as it does not take into consideration the number of available machines, i.e., the cost for production loss is constant, irrespective of the number of available machines in the system.
Table 4 shows that emphasis on competitive priorities (CP) and Improvement Activities (IA) are significantly correlated, but Table 5 shows that competitive priorities are either low or negative correlated with business performancemeasures. This may be due to the fact that the Indian manufacturing firms invest less in advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) as mentioned earlier. This AMT eventually establishes the long term manufacturing competence that in turn helps to boost up the business performance. The AMT creates the manufacturing structure over which the desirable superstructure can be developed with the help of AMS and IIS. This lapse on the part of Indian manufacturing organization may be the basic reason for poor correlation between competitive priorities and business performance.
The rest of this article is organized as follows. Section ‘‘Modeling and verification’’ describes the lin- ear yaw plane model of tractor–trailer combinations, and model verification is made by comparing with TruckSim. The proposed yaw rate rearward amplifica- tion ratio (RWA) for lateral performance measure of vehicle combinations is presented in section ‘‘Lateral performancemeasures.’’ Section ‘‘Simulation results and discussion’’ presents the relationship among differ- ent speeds, the distance between articulation joints of dolly, the CG location of the second trailer, and the yaw rate RWA in this model. Finally, conclusions are drawn in section ‘‘Conclusion and forward.’’
strate that there is a significant positive relationship between diversification and per- formance for Tobin’s Q models. The results of the regression analyses reject the null hypothesis that the industrial diversification of the firm is negatively related to its performance. This means that the firm performance levels increase as the diversifica- tion degree rises. The finding that there is a statistically significant positive relation- ship between performance and industrial diversification is only supported in Tobin’s Q models. It seems that diversification has an effect on Tobin’s Q as a market-based performance measure. The results indicate that diversified firms outperform single firms. This finding suggests that investors should consider diversification when buy- ing shares. The results of the regressions support the findings of the correlation anal- yses. Additionally, the regression results showed that there was a negative relation- ship between Tobin’s Q and size. It is understood that this positive effect on the per- formance of the firm is not attained through the creation of economies of scale and scope. Contrary to Tobin’s Q models, the ROA model presents a positive relationship between performance and size. Tobin’s Q models present a positive relationship be- tween performance and leverage. Moreover, it shows that the positive effects of di- versification on performance stem from financial synergy. Firms tended to improve their performance by increasing their capacity of debt finance. On the contrary, these positive relationships might indicate that diversification causes the efficient use of the total assets. These gathered findings are compatible with the resource-based ap- proach. Firms have achieved efficiency through diversification and therefore have used the internal capital market efficiently. Shyu and Chen (2009), Marinelli (2011) have reached similar results in their study. We could not find a statistically signifi- cant relationship between investment opportunities and performance for ROA mod- els. In contrast to the ROA model, the Tobin’s Q model indicates that there is a sta- tistically significant positive relationship between investment opportunities and per- formance. This result means that managers have avoided debt financing. The analysis showed that, after controlling for diversification, size, investment opportunities, and leverage, the results obtained from various performancemeasures differed from one another. The market-based measure was shown to be more sensitive to diversifica- tion.
Performance is at the core of marketing practice and is regarded as a critical subject by researchers. The variation of measures such as sales and market share underpins managers decisions and constitutes the basis of response models and this is why the primary objective of this thesis is to explain the impact of marketing strategies on brand and category sales and market share. Research that directly assess the marketing effect reached an overemphasizing condition, especially in industrialized countries, but recent editorials from important journals are stressing the need to shed light on the challenges that emerging economies like Brazil pose to the development of the discipline. The approach detailed in this thesis seeks to fill this gap, anchored in the gasoline retailing context, a competition environment which presents singularities of marketing elements. The starting point is to underscore this particularity in a conceptual chapter dedicated to establish Business-to-Business (B2B) performance in emerging economies as the subject of interest. The theoretical part highlights two established frameworks and incorporates the gasoline market as the foundation for two empirical avenues based on time series analysis. The first empirical study focuses on explaining brand sales in a setting where branded and unbranded competition coexist. The methodology involved the classification of brand sales into six descriptive positions, ranging from what is considered the worst to the best scenario for managers. The second empirical chapter explores the importance of service because this was the most impactful variable of the preceding study. We analyse the positive effect of service differentiation on brand, category sales and market share using a methodology divided into two stages. The issues addressed in this thesis are important for marketing research because outline how performancemeasures in a B2B setting behave in an emerging economy. This contribution also arouses implications for practice, where managers can understand the processes involved in the variation of brand and category sales and market share.
for the system with same service rate for each service station. However, the problem of the performance analysis for the system becomes very complex when the system consisting more than three service stations and the service rate for each service station is different. Fortunately, we have obtained important insights about disposition strategy for the system with the arbitrary number of service stations in order to increase the operational efficiency of the system (i.e. decreasing mean waiting time in the system) by applying matrix-geometric method. This method not only evaluates the steady-state probabilities, which are very significant quantities for estimating related performancemeasures, but also provides a systematic way to derive stability conditions for the system in exact formulations. Furthermore, the numerical results show that the upper bound of the stability condition is consistent with the analytic formulae we derived. We expect that our results can provide insights for real industrial applications.
Over the last decade, significant efforts have been made to address the assessment of EI and several measures have been developed (Ciarrochi, Chan, Caputi, & Roberts, 2001), grounded in diverse theoretical conceptualisations of EI which have reflected various inconsistencies in the field of EI measurement (Zeidner, Roberts, & Matthews, 2002). Several authors have suggested that EI’s assessment by self-report measures should not be based upon mixed models of EI (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 2000) since self-report measures only appraise individuals’ own beliefs about their capacities (Ciarrochi et al., 2001). However, if assessing EI conceptualised as an ability model (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the ability testing should be applied with objective performancemeasures (Ciarrochi, et al., 2001) in order to evaluate the individual’s actual capacity to perform, similarly to any other measure of intelligence. Nonetheless, the fact that frequently both performance and self-report measures are grounded in the ability-based perspective of EI should support the development of more studies comparing both types of measures.
In order to test the hypothesis of a positive significant relation between ERSAR’s technical indicators and consumer satisfaction, I employ a Spearman rank corre- lation analysis using both datasets. The municipalities of the survey respondents are known. It is therefore possible to identify which water, wastewater and waste operators are responsible for their households at the retail level. This allows to get information about both the technical performance of the service provider as well as the satisfaction levels of all respondents that are served by this very operator. Following this strategy, the analysis includes in total 80 retail operators for each of the three service sectors. Due to the sampling method of the survey and the differences among entities in terms of size and geographical area, the number of respondents is not the same for all operators as it would be ideally the case. Being aware of this limitation, the following analysis can be nevertheless used to identify tendencies in terms of a potential relation between consumer satisfaction and tech- nical indicators. A significant positive correlation means that the perception of consumers is reflected by the technical indicators that are employed by ERSAR. A non-significant correlation indicates that it is not possible to make any inferences about consumers’ satisfaction by looking at ERSAR’s rating that uses technical data. In the second case, both performance measurements cannot be substitutes for each other, but should rather be used as complements.
Comparing the VC value between PO1 and Preoperative, there was a decrease in both groups, CG [731.25 ± 279.68 ml vs. 2425.0 ± 956.33 ml (P<0.0001)] and SG [790.00 ± 330.45 ml vs. 2537.0 ± 1067.9 ml (P<0.0001)]. In PO3, we observed recovery of measures in both groups, but more markedly in the group undergoing respiratory training [CG 919.17 ± 394.47 ml and SG 1230.4 ± 477.86 ml]. There were significant differences between CG and SG (P=0.0222) in PO3. The measures remained significant decreased with respect to preoperative value. The VC values of the studied patients are shown in Figure 4.