From the 90's of last century, the developed countries began using the grid-connected photovoltaicsystem (GCPVS) for residential and commercial use. The objective of the GCPVS is to generate electricity for local consumption, and may reducing or eliminating the public grid consumption or even generating surplus energy. Thus, residences or companies that generate surpluses are no longer just consumers and become electricity producers (VILLALVA; GAZOLI, 2012).
Grid tied photovoltaicsystem generally operates at unity power factor. Figure 5(b) shows the waveform of the switching pattern for the proposed topology. The operation principle of the proposed topology is very similar to the H5 topology, which is shown in Figure 6. Consequently, four operational modes are proposed that produce the output voltage states of +V PV, 0, and –V PV .
Among the eight GCPVSs analysed, the 3 kWp installed in a residence in Curitiba, generated approximately 704.13 kWh / kWp during the first seven months of 2017, and, therefore, presented the best productivity index. This justification for the high productivity is due to the fact that this system is installed very close to the optimal conditions of installation - azimuthal deviation very close to zero and inclination close to the latitude of the city (25º to Curitiba), thus allowing to maximize the solar radiation on the modules and consequently increase the productivity of this system. Regarding the Sist.
The wide range of power production associated with photovoltaic systems, possible by its modular construction, allows a multiple possibilities of applications to it (BRAGA, 2008). Accordingly, it is important to define the necessary parameters to size and to analyze the technical and economic viability of these projects, since even if it is considered a high cost model for electricity production, in some cases it still represents the most suitable method for such purpose. In parallel with this, according to Braga (2008), companies and the civil society as a whole tend to adopt environmental policies and postures of greater responsibility and sustainability over time. In this context, it is interesting to investigate the methodologies that have been used to verify the economic viability in related works.
This paper has presented the topological principles, steady-state analysis, for a designing an efficient photovoltaicsystem that can be used for onboard ship applications. The converter proposed in this paper provides a efficient high step-up conversion through the voltage multiplier module and voltage clamp feature. Due to the low conduction losses and high efficiency, the proposed converter is suitable for onboard ship high power applications like blasting compressors, assault systems, radar communications etc.
The grid-connected photovoltaicsystem (GCPVS) of the UTFPR’s Center headquarters in Curitiba presents an installed power of 2.1 kWp (10 KYOCERA modules of polycrystalline silicon technology, model KD210GX-LP connected in series) and a single-phase inverter in 220V of 2 kW nominal power (PVPOWERED model PVP2000). The PV system on the roof of the building, takes up, for that panel, only 15sqm², and the PV panels are are installed with 15º of angle and azimuthal deviation of 22º to the west, following the roof of the building. Figure 1 shows the monthly energy values generated by this system, since its implementation.
In a growing concern for the world energy consumption, photovoltaic energy sources are a reliable renewable energy alternative. This thesis is built upon the premise that the forecast of photovoltaic power production can increase performance of local electric network through an ecient network management. The work developed proposes a power production forecast structure based on a grid-connected photovoltaicsystem in the University of Algarve. The proposed forecast structure is composed of two non-linear dynamic forecasting models and one non-linear static model. Articial Neural Networks were used in the development of these models which are intended to forecast solar irradiance and air temperature using Radial Basis Functions with 5 minutes time steps within a prediction horizon of 4 hours. The static model on the structure was created to estimate the power generated by the photovoltaicsystem and it was optimized through comparison between several network architectures (MLP and RBF) and several seasonal models, as well as a annual model.
(obtained through the digital elevation model used to derive slope and aspect); (2) solar radiation (input information associated with solar photovoltaic systems); (3) temperature (Ambient temperatures above 25 ° C influence the productivity of the photovoltaicsystem, although this influence has a residual impact on the efficiency of PV cells); (4) proximity to power lines; (5) proximity to system roads; and (6) the elements that characterize the environmental sensitivity [11,63-65]. These elements consider the technical and economic aspects and the territorial management, and favor the simplification and de-bureaucratization of the installation of a PV project. The criteria used in the site analysis are described in Table 2 [63,66]. These criteria were established using expert knowledge and a literature review.
With the automation of the work from the seventeenth century, the machines, originally by steam, have poured into the atmosphere harmful gases to the environment. These gasses have slowly caused changes in the environment and consequently caused changes in the climate. These changes became more noticeable with the increase in the intensity of natural disasters that led to several world meetings to discuss the subject. In these meetings the concept of sustainable development was introduced and the need to withdraw from nature at a lower rate than is naturally restored. In the area of electric energy, we have sought to generate energy by renewable sources and less aggressive to the environment. Brazil has a diversity of natural resources that can be harnessed for the generation of energy, among them the emphasis on wind and photovoltaic energies. This work will focus on photovoltaic energy, as an alternative energy supply for tank aeration turbine in the “girinagem” laboratory of FIPERJ (Foundation of the Institute of Fisheries of the State of Rio de Janeiro). After the system implementation and tests, acceptable values of tank aeration and electric power generation were obtained, indicating that the photovoltaicsystem provides adequate voltage and current parameters.
The building consist of 5 floor, each floor are installed with 3 a-Si (triple junction amorphous PV) modules on each array. When energy rating (kWh/kWp) were measures, it was revealed that an annual difference by 16% and a monthly difference between by 10% – 24% occur. Annual energy rating of first array is 1072 kWh/ kWp, Annual energy rating of second array 885 kWh/kWp. Minimum electricity output was measured in November due to radiation is least compared with a whole year. If declination angle decreases, energy rating reduces. Shading effect has a significant effect as ambient temperature, the direction of the building and the PV’s tilt angle. In , analyses of an open channel BIPV system were carried out which system specifications 1.5 m in height, 0.7 in depth, 0.1 in length. 3D calculation and natural convection analysis were pro- vided between two wall for 3 different configurations (uniform, staggered, non-uniform) given in Fig. 7. Results show that alternative input should be opened between hot and cold zone. In this way, heat transfer with convection and chimney effect with mass flow rate increases.
A specific controller, based on a free hardware platform - Arduino, performs the management of this hybrid grid. The controller manages the storage back energy entries and the power input to the load, according to the analysis of the state of the equipment/weather , and the programming requested by a defined protocol . The auxiliary power system is justified as support in case of several consecutive days without the effective presence of solar energy.
The growth of efficiency of solar photovoltaic plants can be obtained using sophisticated materials and technologies, but expensive, high investments are made in order to gain a little percentage in energy conversion efficiency, or instead increasing the solar radiation on the photovoltaic modules, that can be obtained through simple solutions, as proposed in this paper .
The performance of the proposed fuzzy logic based MPPT is investigated particularly when the PV array is under partially shaded conditions. PV module is modelled in MATLAB-SIMULINK based on the commercial SHARP NE-80E2EA PV module. PV array is formed by connecting five identical PV modules in series for larger output power. Under uniformly illuminated conditions, PV system presents nonlinear characteristics but a unique maximum point can be identified in the P-V characteristic. However, as the PV array is under partially shaded conditions, the PV system presents a more complex P-V characteristic with the present of multiple MPPs. To optimize the PV power generation, RMPPT has been implemented to reset the operating voltage point of PV system for a new cycle of global MPP tracking.
Rogers gave a concise definition of diffusion of innovations in the following sentence: “Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.” [7: p. 5]. There are, according to him, four main elements in the process of innovation diffusion namely (a) innovation; (b) communication channel; (c) time; (d) social system . As mentioned in the introduction to this section, the innovation element in the diffusion process may be underestimated by analysts. There may be many reasons for bad fitness between the new technology and the system it is supposed to penetrate. This was, for example, the case with hybrid corn analysed by Griliches . For many emerging technologies, the reason for slow adoption is simple: they are still not good enough for demanding potential users, more innovation is needed by the technology providers rather than more communication.
This paper analyses the prospect of hybrid stand alone wind/PV based system generation. The assessment of renewable energy resources has been presented. The region is the windiest and no environmental or rural restrictions are found to implement such system. The system considered has successfully demonstrated that the location studied could be supplied with zero capacity of shortage. Nevertheless, for optimised results, assuming a capacity shortage equal to 1.5 % seems to be the best choice, in this case since it is an acceptable value. The Levelized cost of energy $0.199 kWh, for a total net present cost of $2,529,025 is acceptable compared to those found in literature, even it is still too high compared to the price offered by the Algerian Company of Electricity and Gas. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the most both windy and sunny region would have the lowest LCOE.
To define the sustainability of a process or system, it is necessary to assess the subsystems connected to it, namely environmental, economic, social and technological systems. So, to achieve sustainability, the subsystems balance must be checked within their limits. From a technological point of view, a sustainable development of energy conversion processes results in the consumption of resources that must be available in quantity and in time, avoiding its depletion and with the least negative impact on the environment . Be sustainable determines the rational application of criteria of economic costs in energy conversion/transformation, necessary and adequate technology production to the process and especially in the useful energy acquisition by final consumer.
employed were: intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy, intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, charge extraction, and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that cells containing plum dye exhibited the best photovoltaic parameters, with high values of gap, charge extraction, and potential, being less resistive to charge transfer with an electron lifetime of 0.51 s, collection time of 8.54 ms, and charge efficiency collection of 0.99.
Exergy is defined as the amount of useful work that can be extracted from a system when brought into equilibrium with the environment through an energy conversion/transformation process. The energy analysis of a process, according to the 1 st law of thermodynamics, is based on the energy quantities. The exergetic analysis of a process based on the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics assesses not only the energy quantity but also its quality(or exergy level) on the thermodynamics interaction. It is important to take into account the energy quality, since this quality will be destroyed as the energy passes through conversion/transformation processes and due the irreversibility. The exergetic efficiency gives a more realistic evaluation of the energy conversion/transformation process performance, measuring how the actual process approaches or departs to/from the ideal case.
As can be seen in the table below, the production of electric energy with nanopanels is enormously cheaper than with the photovoltaic silicon panels; and reach a price comparable with the one of the traditional power energy, being yet higher. So, the nano photovoltaic panels begin to be competitive with the traditional electricity production means. This considerable power can also be interpreted as the ability to break paradigms in the energy industry, taking the form of a powerful competitive weapon of production units. Given this framework, electric energy production through photovoltaic nanopanels becomes evidently interesting for the production units, whether public or private.