Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 5, n. 11, p. 26404-26416, nov. 2019 ISSN 2525-8761 em relação ao seco. Isso ocorre devido ao carreamento de matéria orgânica para o leito do rio. Os valores da DBO são influenciados diretamente ao grau de poluição produzida por matéria orgânica oxidável biologicamente, que corresponde à quantidade de oxigênio que é consumida pelos microrganismos do esgoto ou águas poluídas, na oxidação biológica, quando mantida a uma dada temperatura por um intervalo de tempo convencionado (LIMA, 2001; FARIAS, 2006). O ponto 2 e 3 estão localizados numa área de exploração de areia contribuindo para elevação nos valores da DBO do rio Paripe. Essa elevação pode ser provocada pelo aumento da calha do rio e consequentemente acúmulo de material orgânico depositado no fundo, formando uma espécie de lodo de fundo, rico em matéria orgânica. A retirada de areia acontece com maior frequência durante o período seco devido à maior demanda, onde se percebe um aumento nos valores de DBO, (Figura 2) nos pontos 2/2016 e 3/2014 no período seco, com valores de DBO = 21,3 e DBO = 15,3, respectivamente. A deposição de matéria orgânica também pode ser uma indicação do incremento da microflora presente provocando um desequilíbrio no ecossistema aquático (SPERLING 1996). Altos teores de matéria orgânica causam a extinção do oxigênio existente na água, provocando a morte de peixes e outras espécies e o crescimento exagerado da microflora, além de produzir sabores e odores desagradáveis. (CETESB, 2017). Os resultados encontrados não estão de acordo com a Resolução 357/2005 do CONAMA, para as águas doces classe 2, até 5 mg L -1 de O
Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n.6, p.40002-40014 jun. 2020. ISSN 2525-8761 ou seja, maior influência na explicação do comportamento químico das amostras estudadas. Na Figura 6, as variáveis salinidade e condutividade, por exemplo, aparecem com maior grau de similaridade, com 100 % de semelhança. Alguns metais tendem a formar grupos, como é o caso do K, Na e Mg, e o Ba e Ca. Esses metais apresentaram alta correlação entre si. A evidência estatística mostra que a dinâmica desses metais nas águas subterrâneas tende a um comportamento similar, podendo ser provenientes da mesma fonte e terem mobilidades semelhantes na água.
The changes caused by water can also occur because it has a small molecule size with high molar concentration. 29 Due to these characteristics, it can penetrate into nanometer size free volume spaces between polymer chains, or also it could keep itself linked with functional groups around by hydrogen bonding described above. 29 This behavior ofwater can cause modifications of the plasticization of polymer matrices, which compromise mechanical properties as yield deformation and, consequently, changes are reflected in reduction of resin materials mechanical properties. 22,29 The hydrophilic nature of polymers, associated with monomers chemistry characteristics and its polymerization linkages, could contribute for more or less plasticization during the water sorption. 30 On the other hand, it is known that conversion of double bonds in dental restorative materials is never totally completed because of reactions such as immobilization, gelatinization, vitrification or steric isolation that leaves pendant side chains, which act as permanent plasticizers. 31
The direct relationship between water and its ability to transmit diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths, is one of the main consequences reflected by water contamination. The river Cachoeira, object of study of this work, bathes municipalities like Itabuna and Ilhéus and has great economic, political and social importance for the residents, presenting relevance in the well- being of individuals who use it for the most diverse purposes. From this perspective, this work aimed to evaluate the physical-chemical, parasitological and microbiological parameters ofwater samples collected at different points of the Cachoeira River from August 2018 to July 2019. Collections were made in 6 strategic locations during the course of the river between Itabuna and Ilhéus to determine the quality parameters. The river had favorable pH conditions for bacterial growth; the average water temperature had little variation between the collections; and the absorbance was associated with the proximity of domestic sewage, as well as the rainfall index. Regarding the parasitological findings, 100% of the collection points were positive, being that 65% were protozoan and 35% helminth. In microbiological analyses it was found that the water was unfit for both bathing use and human consumption according to current legislation. In view of this, it is evident that without corrective measures being taken to recover the river and raise the awareness of the surrounding population, the risks to health, safety and well-being tend to grow.
In Sapote pulp, the pectin content is significant, given that potato has a content of 2.5% and apple from 5.0 to 7.0%. According to Alegría et al. (2005), Sapote pulp has a pectin content of 8.5%. This difference may be due to differences in the maturity degree of the fruits analyzed, as well as the variety, or even the presence of molecules and structures within the pectin in the fruit that at any time, may influence the extraction process. The soluble pectin represents almost 40% of total pectin, and this content is significant, and the fruit can be considered a prebiotic food, i.e., it is a food of vegetal origin, which has beneficial effects in modulating the composition of the intestinal microbiota, playing an important role in intestinal physiology, reducing colon cancer, reducing cholesterol and controlling blood glucose (GONÇALVES et al., 2007). Since pectin in water results in viscous solutions, even at low concentrations in the presence of sucrose and acid, and forms very stable gels, the possibility of transforming Sapote pulp into jams is very feasible, besides being an alternative for preserving the fruit.
snails: water temperatures measured in the morn- ing as well as the maximum temperatures in the afternoon lay within the favourable range (Appleton 1978), water conductivites were above the critical value (Polderman et al. 1985) and cal- cium concentrations were at least 2 1 / 2 times higher than the minimum value of 5 mg/l Ca 2+ (Williams 1970a, b). The magnesium/calcium ratios were low and never exceeded 0.8, and were therefore unlikely to have had a negative impact on the egg production of B. pfeifferi (Harrison et al. 1966). The highest sodium/calcium ratio was recorded at site D but its value, 1.38, was below the critical value of 2.4 (Schutte & Frank 1964).
Water reuse is presented as a viable alternative to minimize water scarcity. Knowing the qualitative characteristics of domestic effluents is important for the practice of reuse with sanitary safety. Since the reuse system requires reserving water, since the production and consumption of this effluent occurs at different times, changes in its characteristics must be considered. This work aimed to characterize the gray waters from the washing machine after storage. The washing machine effluents in two homes were evaluated after seven days of storage. The effluent from the first residence fit in the guidelines for various domestic uses such as flushing toilets and watering gardens. It presented low deterioration, in terms of dissolved oxygen, remaining in aerobic state after storage. The effluent from the second residence reached anaerobiosis after the storage period, requiring pre-treatment to reduce organic matter.
The lipid content was determined by the Gerber method, where three grams of each sample were weighed in a butyrometer. Five ml ofwater (40 ºC) were then added, followed by the slow addition of 10 mL sulphuric acid, 1 mL isoamyl alcohol and warm water until the tube was full. The butyrometer was immediately stoppered and shaken. The tube was inverted and placed in a water bath (Biomatica) at 65 ºC for 15 minutes and then transferred to a Gerber centrifuge (model 8BT) where it was centrifuged for 10 minutes at 1.200 rpm. The percentage of fat was read directly on the butyrometer scale.
People with epilepsy suffer from a considerable lack ofphysical activity. In addition, an important problem of epilepsy management is the lack of qualified professionals. In this study we present data from a survey which aimed to assess physical educators’ general knowledge about epilepsy. One hundred and thirty four physical educators of both sexes answered a questionnaire. Sixty percent of the professionals believe that a seizure is an abnormal electrical discharge of the brain, 13% that epilepsy is a cerebral chronic disease that can not be cured or controlled, 84% that people having convulsions will not necessarily present epilepsy and 5% that people with epilepsy have difficulties of learning. Questions concerned previous professional experience with epilepsy showed that 61% have seen a seizure and 53% have access to some information about epilepsy. Thus, 28% of professionals have a friend or relative with epilepsy, 14% have a student with epilepsy, and 29% helped someone during seizures. Our findings reveal a lack ofphysical educators’ appropriate knowledge about epilepsy. Improvement of this might contribute to the improvement of epilepsy care/management. Key words: physical activity, physical education, epilepsy, knowledge.
CARRÃO-PANIZZI, M. C.; BERHOW, M.; MANDARINO, J. M. G.; OLIVEIRA, M. C. N. Environmental and genetic variation of isoflavone content of soybean seeds grown in Brazil. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, v. 44, n. 11, p. 1444-1451, 2009a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2009001100011. CARRÃO PANIZZI, M. C.; PÍPOLO, A. E.; MANDARINO, J. M. G.; ARANTES, N. E.; GARCIA, A.; BENASSI, V. T.; ARIAS, C. A.; KASTER, M.; OLIVEIRA, M. F.; OLIVEIRA, M. A.; TOLEDO, J. F. F.; MOREIRA, J. U. V.; CARNEIRO, G. E. S. Breeding specialty soybean cultivars for processing and value-added utilization at Embrapa in Brazil. In: WORLD SOYBEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE - WSRC, 8., 2009, Beijing. Proceedings... Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Institute of Crop Science, 2009b. CD-ROM.
LOBO, A. R.; SILVA, G. M. L. Implicações nutricionais no consumo de fibras e amido resistente. Nutrição em Pauta, n. 46, p. 28, 2001. MARLETT, J. A.; McBURNEY, M. I; SLAVIN, J. L. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, v.102, n.7, p.993-1000, 2002. MIRANDA, L. M. O. Composição de pão de banana enriquecido com farinha de banana verde, aveia e farelo de aveia. In. CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA DE ALIMENTOS, 21.; SEMINÁRIO LATINO AMERICANO E DO CARIBE DE CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA DE ALIMENTOS, 15., 2008, Belo Horizonte. Ciência e Inovação para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Belo Horizonte: SBCTA, 2008. 1 CD-ROM.
Ceramides are particularly abundant in the stratum corneum lipid matrix, where they determine its unusual mesostructure, are involved in the lateral segregation of lipid domains in biological cell membranes, and are also known to act as signaling agents in cells. The importance attributed to ceramides in several biological processes has heightened in recent years, demanding a better understanding of their interaction with other membrane components, namely cholesterol. Structural data concerning pure ceramides in water are relatively scarce and this is even more the case for mixtures of ceramides with other lipids commonly associated with them in biological systems. We have derived the thermotropic binary phase diagram of mixtures of N-palmitoyl-D- erythro-sphingosine, C16:0-ceramide, and cholesterol in excess water, using differential scanning calorimetry and small and wide angle X-ray diffraction. These mixtures are self-organized in lamellar mesostructures that, between other particularities, show two ceramide: cholesterol crystalline phases with molar proportions that approach 2:3 and 1:3. The 2:3 phase crystallizes in a tetragonal arrangement with a lamellar repeat distance of 3.50 nm, which indicates an unusual lipid stacking, probably unilamellar. The uncommon mesostructures formed by ceramides with cholesterol should be considered in the rationalization of their singular structural role in biological systems.
harvested in yellow mangosteen plants of the Active Germoplasm Bank of São Paulo State University and characterized by evaluationof length and width, weight, percentage and number of seeds per fruit, peel and pulp percentage, soluble solid (SS), titratable acidity (TA), vitamin C and SS/TA rate. Yellow mangosteen fruit is an intermediate vitamin C source with an average content 120.33 mg/100g of fresh fruit and has good technological quality.
Regarding to the pH values, there was a variation from 5.0 to 8.2. The value found in property A (8.2) can be attributed to the growth of a large biological production of phytoplankton and other aquatic vegetables, which remove CO2 from water through the process of photosynthesis, which increases the pH ofwater. In property B, pH 5.0 is probably related to the decrease or nonexistence of biological products due to the presence of suspended solids in the water, preventing the penetration of the solar rays, which are responsible for the growth of phytoplankton. In this case Boyd (1990) stated that the lethal points of acidity and alkalinity for the fish are pH values equal to 4 and pH 11, respectively. Thus, the nurseries of fish farms B and C, present inadequate pH for fish farming.
Mushrooms have become attractive as functional foods and as a source of physiologically beneficial bioactive compounds. The huge mushrooms reservoir of Northeast Portugal must be chemically and nutritionally characterized for the benefit of the local populations and for the genetic conservation of wild macrofungi (1). Herein, we describe and compare the chemical constituents (phenolic compounds, macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols and ascorbic acid) of four wild edible mushrooms widely appreciated in gastronomy: Armil-
We would like to thank José R.I. Ribeiro (UNIPAMPA) for confirming and reviewing species identification, and his effort and attention; Lourivaldo A. de Castro for his fieldwork sup- port; Ully M.P. Costa, Laboratory of Waters, for her limnologi- cal analyses; the staff at the Entomology Laboratory at UNEMAT; Amintas N. Rossete, for providing us with most of the data on the Basin and her staff at the LANA – Laboratory of Environmental Analysis, who devised the map of the sampling areas; Frederico F. Salles and Fábio M.V. de Carvalho, Daniel S.Paiva for manuscript revision. We also thank three anony- mous referees for their helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. UNEMAT for the PROBIC grant and CAPES for the Master’s Program Scholarship, and finally, FAPEMAT for the funding that made this study possible.
Among the analyzed samples in the present study, only one (2.5%) presented count of molds and yeasts of 2.4 x 10 4 CFU/mL. In the other samples, the counts were below 10 CFU/mL. These results point out that there was not contamination by those microorganisms originated from environment, packaging or ingredients in almost all analyzed samples. Besides, the samples were added with potassium sorbate, which is used to avoid mold and yeast growth in foods. Tebaldi et al. (2007) did not detect the presence of mold and yeast in fermented milk beverages, similarly to the results of the present study.
and, also, the difficulties found. This way, the teacher can show them how their work is being carried out and which obstacles they have to overcome. If the teacher’s trainer did not help himself/herself from this type ofevaluation and only verified, at the end of the unit, the students who had or not learned, they would have fewer possibilities to “redo the path they had walked”. The smashing majority of the teachers’ trainers, 88.9%, does not carry out a punctual evaluation. This evaluation is a characteristic of the examinations or competitions (not of seminary works). There might be other moments of punctual evaluation, for example, in cases where at the half of the teach-learning process there are moments ofevaluation with the aim of judging the students’ level, at that point.Practically all the teachers’ trainers (94.4%), place questions to students with the intention to precisely judge what they know and which difficulties and doubts they have. If the teachers’ trainer questions a student, he/she can understand if, what was interpreted by the student is really correct or not. The questioning can also be a way of evaluating. The teachers’ trainer can question in order to evaluate, this is, to pose a question about a topic related to a content of student’s work and collect information to be used in evaluation (Black, 1998). With the gathered information for this study, one verifies that there is a general agreement of all the teachers’ trainers, because all of them give opinion/information about what the student must do next. With the teachers’ trainers experience and information, students know what they have to do next. The formative evaluation helps the student to learn and the teachers to teach. As a consequence, there is an exchange of living experiences between them. The
Abstract In conifers, vegetative propagation of superior genotypes is the most direct means for making large genetic gains, because it allows a large proportion of genetic diversity to be captured in a single cycle of selection. There are two aims of vegetative propagation, namely large-scale multiplication of select genotypes and production of large numbers of plants from scarce and costly seed that originates from controlled seed orchard pollinations. This can be achieved, in some species, either through rooted cuttings or rooted microshoots, the latter regenerated through tissue culture in vitro. Thus far, both strategies have been used but often achieved limited success mainly because of difficult and inefficient rooting process. In this overview of tech- nology, we focus on the progress in defining the physical and chemical factors that help the conifer cuttings and micro- shoots to develop adventitious roots. These factors include plant growth regulators, carbohydrates, light quality, tem- perature and rooting substrates/media as major variables for
ABSTRACT – The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of populations and mother trees over some characteristics on pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) fruits as well as their repeatability coefficient. Data came from two populations with 15 mother trees each, covering three years. The following physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated: total fruit weight; external mesocarp weight; number of putamens per fruit; total weight of putamens; total and average pulp weight; and proportion of the weight of lipids and proteins in relation to pulp weight. Analysis of variance was performed using a nested design model. The effects of mother trees within populations were highly significant for all variables under study, while the effects of populations were not for any characteristic, showing that for populations and mother trees, efforts must be focused on the number of mother trees per population rather than on populations. The estimated repeatability coefficients showed high genetic control for total fruit weight; external mesocarp weight; average weight of putamens; average pulp weight; and proportion of the weight of lipids in relation to pulp weight. Therefore, the expression of these characteristics on descendants, by cloning selected mother trees, is likely to be effective.