visited schools, teachers share bathrooms with students. In particular, having the bathroom accessed directly from within a classroom, as was the case in three of the surveyed schools, means that students and teachers are distracted each time the bathroom is used, besides compromising the students’ privacy. The location of bathrooms and the number of toilets per student are important factors to be considered in the school environment. The Brazilian Ministry of Education recommends that there be one toilet for every 20 children (Brasil 2006) in primaryschools. The general recommendation for schools based on a national standard (Creder 2006), is one toilet for every 75 boys and one for every 35 girls, while UNICEF (2012) recommends one toilet for every 25 girls or female staff members, and one toilet plus urinal for every 50 boys or male staff members. No school in our survey met the minimal recommendation of UNICEF regarding toilet availability (Figure 4). In one particular case, the school only had four toilets for 1176 students, all found dirty and in precarious conditions. These sanitary conditions were similar in 44% of schools and thus make it difficult to uphold the standard of access to decent bathrooms, as emphasized by WASH guidelines.
The demographic data indicate that the number of schoolchil- dren gradually decrease with increasing age in government-owned urban and ruralschools. This pattern may be due to a high rate of dropouts occasioned by lack of funds and/or parents sending their children to learn handwork/craftwork rather than to complete primaryeducation. Another point revealed by the demographic data is that fewer female than male children attend government- owned urban and ruralschools. Several socioeconomic and behavioural reasons may be involved in the female dropout rate , but it is probably due to three main reasons in this locality. First, parents considered it a waste of resources to invest in education of girls, and/or that educating a girl is a waste of resources as they will eventually be married out of the family. Second, some parents might believe that female children should stop attending school at puberty in order to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Third, in many parts of Africa, including Nigeria, female children are withdrawn from schools to be engaged as domestic house helpers or child labourers, especially in polygamous families. However, parents sending their wards to the private school give female children equal educational opportunity up to high-grade education. Higher socioeconomic and educational status of the parents may explain the attitude that female children should have opportunities to gain skills and capabilities equal to those available to male children. These demographic features are also similar among schoolchildren surveyed in Chad, Mali, Ghana, and Tanzania in Africa [16,17], and in Turkey . It is hoped that federal legislation making primaryeducation free and compulsory in Nigeria will increase the level of enrolment of girls.
Teachers in the two inner-city schools and the rural area school emphasised two other aspects of the curriculum that define the nature of their work. They referred to its extensiveness and its centralised char- acter. In particular, the teacher in the rural area school explained that it is not possible for teachers in one-teacher schools in rural areas to ad- just the school curriculum to pupils’ needs (he teaches Year 5 and Years 6 pupils in the same classroom). Therefore, these teachers’ time is sig- nificantly limited and so they are forced to focus on the so-called main subjects. The teacher in the underprivileged urban area school makes a similar observation. According to the teacher in the rural area school, due to time constraints, Greek Language and Mathematics are the sub- jects where emphasis is given as they are considered the most critical for pupils’ preparation for the University Entrance Exams. The teacher in the urban area school argues that the volume of the curriculum con- tent for the main subjects is large and there is never enough time for the proper teaching of other subjects.
Rural–urban disparity in economic and social development in Ghana has led to disparities in educational resources and variations in students’ achievement in different parts of the country. Nonetheless, senior high schools (SHSs) in rural and urbanschools follow the same curriculum, and their students write the same West Africa Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE), which qualifies them to access higher education in Ghana’s public universities. Urban SHSs are also recognized nationwide as good schools where students make it to university. Moreover, performance patterns with regard to admission of SHS graduates into university also vary between rural and urbanschools; consequently, some parents do everything to get their children in urban SHSs, even consenting to placement in visual arts, a program deemed appropriate only for academically weak students. This study therefore adopted the qualitative-quantitative research approach with interview, observation, and questionnaire administration to investigate the critical factors that affect academic performance of SHS students, particularly those in visual arts as case study. Findings from six public SHSs in Kumasi—two each in rural, peri-urban, and urban areas—revealed that urbanschools perform better than rural and peri-urbanschools because they attract and admit junior high school graduates with excellent Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) grades, have better infrastructure, more qualified teachers, prestigious names, and character that motivate their students to do well. This suggests that bridging the rural–urban gap in educational resources could promote quality teaching and learning, and thereby raise academic achievement for SHS students in Ghana.
ing” the knowledge of the students during the pedagogical practice of the cultural curriculum of Physical Education can be done through several ways. Visiting spaces of cultural manifestation, analyzing and interpreting videos and books, demonstrations from practicing, among other things, allow a greater understanding of the meanings of the body practice. Thus, we consider that the students need to know, manipu- late, use and experience materials and equipment that closer resemble the official ones.
A trip was m ade to schools in the study area and coordinates of each school were obtain ed using the Garm in 75S H andheld GPS receiver and the attribute data was obtained from Zaria Local Education Authority (LEA) which includes the nam es of existing schools, street, year of establishm ent, school code, num ber of teachers per each school, n um ber of classroom s each school. This inform ation was further confirm ed at the schools through questionn aires. These data are useful for various types of analysis which will greatly assist in the efficient and effective plannin g an d m an agem ent of school resources. The digital base m ap of the study area was obtain ed by digitizin g Google Pro 20 0 8 satellite im age. In digitizing the feature classes, the Google satellite im age was used to m ap the features classes. First, it was downloaded from the internet so that the satellite im age could be seen for accurate m apping. The digitizing exercise then started by adding the layers that were created in Arc Catalog. The start editing was activated in the editor tool and features classes were digitized by selectin g the “create New Features” in the Task drop-down m enu. The pencil icon was clicked and the pointer becom es a sm all crosshair sym bol. A hom ogen eous area was picked and the vertices of the poly-gon were created by “tracing” the boundary an d clicking at each vertex.
Brazil has, since 2008, been the seat of heated debates on putting music back into public and private schools. Recent legislation (Law 11.769) declared music a required subject in all Brazilian schools from preschool through high school. Much has been discussed, however, as to the professionals who will take on this challenge, the methodology and content involved as well as the role of music in the schools. Here, I present some personal observations and reflections based on experiences during my career as a music educator in a Waldorf school as well as a professor in Music Education programs at two universities in São Paulo State. In supervising student teachers or giving pedagogy courses, I am witness to innumerous queries from musicians and music educators having to do with the return of music to the schools. This paper describes the intent the music education curriculum used inside Waldorf schools. Waldorf education in Brazil has an over 50-year history since its beginnings in 1955. The many trails already forged offer possibilities and recommendations for Music Education both in traditional schools as well as in educational social programs. This text offers a brief description of Waldorf pedagogy and will describe the music curriculum used from preschool through high school. I also discuss the human formation of teachers, of their knowledge, abilities, attitudes and skills. Finally, I present suggestions for possible applications of these experiences for music education in other contexts.
IWBs are large, touch-sensitive boards, which control a computer connected to a digital projector. Often referred to by brand names such as “Smartboards”, IWB technology comprises a computer linked to a data projector and a touch-sensitive board. The image generated by a computer is projected onto a touch sensitive screen, where a touch is the equivalent to a mouse click. Each IWB within a school can be networked together allowing files to be shared between classes, each with access to the Internet (Kennewell, 2006). Software provided with the board or obtained separately offers a variety of functions, such as flipcharts, dry-wipe boards, overhead projectors, slide projectors, and video-players, and others which have not previously been possible on a large, vertical display . As some authors remarked , IWBs are a relatively new technology to education. Therefore, there is still a lack of consistent academic studies, although a number of reports and summaries of small-scale research projects mainly undertaken in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia can be found. In Portugal, the introduction of this technology to education is much more recent. Consequently, literature on its impact on learning and teaching processes is much scarcer. However, at least three Master thesis authors ,  and  chose IWBs for their research projects. Besides, a few articles have been published, although no one specifically focus on the use of this technology in primaryschools.
Benchmark model analysis Since we have calibrated parameters, we can now study some of the model’s objects. Next, we study the human capital production function (3) and (4). Its functional form does not follow a standard CES specification, so that it does not display constant elasticity of substitution between educational expenditures in basic and tertiary education. Figure 3 shows an isoquant associated with a private college student with median h and ˆπ, supposing that this student goes to private school when young. Dotted lines show the points in the curves where this student is located. The elasticity of substitution between inputs in basic and tertiary education is an increasing function of the Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution (MRTS). That is, as the MRTS increases and we move from right to left along the isoquant, the two inputs become more complementary. For the case of this student, since the elasticity of substitution is smaller than one, investments in basic and college education are complementary inputs of the human capital production function. This result is in line with the literature on human capital formation (Cunha et al., 2006), which finds that inputs in different educational stages are complementary.
wide in Argentina, there are no official regulations on actions to carry out when cases of lice infestation are detected at schools. Some teachers send children back home to be deloused; others ignore the presence of the parasite. Children with myasis and/or secondary pyodermatitis derived from an intense infestation with P. capitis have often been detected. It is necessary to look for control and preventive measures for lice infes- tation and it is urgent to know the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Argentina.
Medical schools and their afﬁ liated teaching hospitals should explicitly recognize and vigorously promote translational and clinical research as a core mission, and grant it a high priority for institutional funding. Leaders of institutions that have had success in developing translational and clinical science highly value this ﬁ eld of science, and visibly foster a supportive institutional culture. The leadership of every medical school has discretionary funds to invest in its missions, and institutions that value translational and clinical research make it a high priority for funding. Support is provided for trainees, junior faculty, and core infrastructure to create viable and appealing career paths for translational and clinical investigators. Successful institutions do not need large endowments or resources— impressive translational and clinical research programs can be built by targeting investments in focused areas, leveraging available resources through sponsored programs, and maximizing collaborations.
The university is rethinking the interaction of the medicine course with the health services, attempting to amplify practice scenarios and improve the interaction with the community. Teaching- service integration experiences reduce the distance between universities and health institutions in the reorganization of education and healthcare, and also in relation to permanent education: “The higher education institution is striving to improve the current healthcare scenario and to offer better practice scenarios to students” (CAES 23315 – A).
This study aimed to explore Iranian primary school students’ attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge and attitudes of 597 primary school students from all areas of Ahwaz were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in November 2007. None of the students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and results indicated that there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Sneezing and coughing, contaminated food, water or hands were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. The knowledge increased with age (P<0.001). The sources of pupils’ information primarily included: Television (66.8%), family members (20.2%), friends (10.6%) and school teachers (2.4%). Also some pupils believed that there was some treatment (38.3%) or an effective vaccine (63.4%) for HIV/AIDS. The result of this study revealed that most primary school students in Ahvaz had a lack of proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS. There is a need to promote an AIDS education in Ahvaz and also all Iranian schools, to improve socio-cultural factors in next years.
The stress management activities reported by the respondents were shown in Table IV. The four most frequently reported activities were sleeping (57.5%), talking to neighbours and friends (57.1%), self-relaxing (44.0%), and watching television (42.2%). The least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports (32.3%). Primary school teachers were significantly more likely than secondary school teachers to manage stress by sleeping, talking to neighbours and friends, watching television and shopping, whereas secondary school teachers were more likely than the primary school teachers to do more exercises or sports to manage their stress. For gender difference, male teachers were more likely than female teachers to manage stress by listening to music and doing more exercises or sports. On the other hand, female teachers were significantly more likely than male teachers to report sleeping, talking to neighbours and friends, watching television and shopping as their choices of stress management activities. The life style and choice of activities of male teachers seem healthier or relatively better for health than those of female teachers.
The 21st Century English education system could be said to be bipo- lar. On the one hand, one could walk into a classroom in a typical primary school today and believe that, aside from technological ad- vances, nothing has significantly changed in the last 50 years. The classrooms look the same, there is still one teacher standing at the front of 30 pupils with possibly one teaching assistant working with a small group of children. Desks are still commonly grouped or in rows, walls are adorned with colourful examples of pupils’ ‘best’ work and the school day consists of hour long lessons punctuated by a morning break and lunch hour. You would still hear the earnest chatter of pu- pils collaboratively discussing the task set; the teacher periodically stopping the work to ensure understanding and the bell ringing to mark the end of a lesson. However, walk to the Headteacher’s office and much has changed.
Até o final do século XX a mídia predominante em diferentes partes do mundo na EaD era o material impresso. Estudos de Carmo (1997) sobre a EaD em diversos países entre os quais China, Austrália, Sri Lanka, Ilha Fidji, Papua/Nova Guiné, mostram a preponderância do material impresso complementado pelo uso do rádio e da televisão. Na comunidade européia o relatório do Projeto Teeode - Technology Enhanced Evaluation in Open and Distance Education - indicou que o material impresso era o principal meio de suporte para a EaD, mas nessa época começava a aparecer o uso das TIC e da web, embora os alunos tivessem dificuldades de acesso à internet (BARTOLOME; UNDERWOOD, 1999).
Refractive error is one of the most common causes of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Due to the high magnitude of uncorrected refractive errors, myopia is considered as one of the important public health problems, especially in the urban population in India. It has been given high priority under the National Programme for Control of Blindness.
Smoking is one of the main risk factors both for mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for noncommunicable chronic diseases in Brazil and globally [1-3]. A study published in 2011 estimated the tobacco-related burden in Brazil and found that smoking was accountable in that year for 147,072 deaths and 2.69 million DALYs, representing a direct cost for the health system of $23.37 billion Brazilian real (US $7.37 billion) . According to a large national study that was conducted in 2012 with 61,037 9th graders in Brazil, over 30.0% of 13- to 15-year-olds try smoking before the age of 12 (National School Health Survey—PeNSE) . The newest data from the 2016 ERICA study with 74,589 Brazilian 12- to 17-year-old participants revealed a current smoking prevalence of 5.7% in this young age group with more smokers in public than in private schools (5.9% vs 4.4%) . Although smoking rates among adolescents and emerging adults have substantially declined since the early 2000s, prevalence is still high and strong socioeconomic and educational inequalities in smoking exist in Brazil .
Resuming, it is interesting to note the double articulation used in the speech of Professor Johnson: while there is a simplicity in the effec- tiveness of bilingual education for the deaf, there is the not listening and the reproduction of the sameness, promoted by a strand of thought that standardizes the education by logic of the oral language; an educa- tion geared towards failure and not anchored to the singularity marked by deafness, that sees the deaf through the sign language for their visual and cultural productions. Why such difficulty in consolidating bilin- gual policies? It could be said that, although it is easy to argue that sen- sitive education for the deaf is done by sign language, as the language of instruction and not as a co-adjuvant of the main language, Portuguese, however, in practice, the main, larger language is presented as an ex- clusive work, as the predominant model kept in the school curriculum. Would it be thinking the perpetuation of an inclusion that excludes the deaf difference? Regarding the theme of inclusion as a domination by the other, in the double articulation include-exclude, Veiga-Neto and Lopes (2011), at an event sponsored by the Pontifícia Universidade Ca- tólica de São Paulo (PUCSP), the VII International Colloquium Michel Foucault, in October 2011, developed a theoretical articulation on the inclusion system in Brazil, fracturing his sense elsewhere, as an action which currently extends to all bodies, not just those who have been na- med as “abnormal, excluded, delinquents, handicapped, etc.”. (Veiga- -Neto; Lopes, 2011, no page). A machinery of agglutination and pro- duction of sameness. This study was promoted from the philosophical reading of Michel Foucault, the final works of his writings that resume the concept of ethics and aesthetics of existence, to consider the possi- bility of enrollment of deafness not by the prevailing logic, but by the ir- ruption of other forms of enunciation. They announced, however, that: