All respondents remarked the relevance of the introduction of ICT in primaryschools, and especially emphasized the importance of interactive whiteboards. In their opinion, technologies can and should be complemented in the teaching and learning processes. The reasons presented to support these opinions are the fact that today's society is very technical, we are in the communication era. Because of that it would be inappropriate to teach without technology. Besides, these teachers believe that ICT prepares children for the next schooling cycle, when they will have to be able to search for relevant information and share it. “When entering the fifth grade, comparing a child who already had all these resources in primary school with another one who did not, and is just starting with ICT, there is a huge difference!”
ABSTRACT – Critical Thinking and Challenges for Education for Democrat- ic Citizenship: an ethnographic study in primaryschools in Greece. This article reports on an ethnographic multiple case study in Greece. It explores teachers’ practices regarding the education of critically thinking citizens ten years into the implementation of an integrated curriculum reform. By means of classroom observations and semi-structured interviews this research ex- plored the role of critical thinking in the classrooms. Findings suggest that teachers refrain from practices that advance critical thinking skills and pu- pils’ empowerment. Instead they tend to implement traditional practices, while their work is largely determined by the standards of achievement set by University Entrance Exams and parents’ aspirations. The article concludes that prevailing expectations in the Greek primary school interfere with the development of pedagogical relationships that would promote critical think- ing obstructing the attainment of the aims of the integrated curriculum re- form and compromising the project for democratic citizenship.
During the last few years, East-Europeans, predominantly Romanians, have become the second largest cultural minority in Catalonia (Spain). Spanish educational institutions now have students from more than twenty different cultures. This paper focuses on the educational background and the factors which characterize the educational experience of Romanian students prior to attending schools in Spain, and how this affects their experiences into Catalonian primaryschools. Twenty seven interviews were undertaken, of Catalonian and Romanian teachers, of experts and parents from the host primaryschools where the proportion of Romanian students was highest. Two focus-group sessions were carried out with school teachers from Romania. The analysis shows that there is some consistency between educational practices and values in Romania and the practices and values of the host schools. The ability of children to assimilate into the host school is directly influenced by their previous experience in the schools in their country of origin.
This study explores the challenges and opportunities in relation to developing distributed leadership practice in Irish post-primaryschools. It considers school leadership within the context of contemporary distributed leadership theory. Associated concepts such as distributed cognition and activity theory are used to frame the study. The study is situated in a space which acknowledges the current complex reality in our schools, where school leadership is characterised by increased workload and an ever-expanding role-definition. Drawing on the empirical findings from semi-structured interviews conducted with principals, deputy principals, post of responsibility holders and teachers in three case-study schools, the study probes: (1) how school leaders (re)construct a form of leadership suited to the needs of the current reality, by exploring their leadership and management styles; (2) how the internal conditions are created in which distributed leadership can function; (3) the challenges posed by distributed leadership and how they might be overcome. The findings clarify that school leadership is a construct beyond the scope of the principal alone. While there is widespread support for a distributed model of leadership, the concept does not explicitly form part of the discourse in the case-study schools. This poses challenges for school leaders and policy-makers to put mechanisms in place to re-culture schools, to develop teacher-leadership capacity and to reflect on the future direction of leadership in Irish post-primaryschools.
The current challenges of school education are undoubtedly the skills of teachers and educators in the field of information and communication technologies, including the use given to them in the context of the classroom. In this article is made an approach to the issues of utilization and monetization of these technological resources in schools, specifically for teachers in the first cycle of basic education in the municipality of Viseu. To this end, it was assumed as a methodological option, the development of a quantitative and qualitative research. The course addresses a quantitative non- probabilistic sample of 229 teachers of the 1st CEB (primaryschools), of the municipality of Viseu. The ride quality on the basis of reference covers the discursive devices of a purposive sample of two teachers of the 1st CEB a school contemplated by Technological Plan of Education. The findings reveal that the vast majority of teachers are positive about the benefits for students of 1st CEB with the use of ICT and in this follow-up, seem benefits on the one hand, inherent to the work of the teacher and the other inherent to the student.
The Ministry of Education in Portugal does not provide information regarding academic achievement of native and immigrant students separately; therefore it is not possible to evaluate the differences among students in public school, namely in primaryschools. This study aims to contribute to further explore this educational area by analysing the academic achievement of a sample of native and immigrant children in Lisbon, specifically immigrants of African origin. It also aims to expand our knowledge on the effect of the primaryschools’ ethnic composition on children’s academic achievement, cross-ethnic friendships, intergroup discrimination and school well-being. This research is relevant to extend our knowledge about education in Portugal, as only minimal research exists in social and educational psychology addressing the issues of the role of schools’ ethnic composition on important dimensions of children’s school life. It is also of great importance to address education policies regarding equality rights of native and immigrant Portuguese students are being guaranteed in order to foster equal opportunities for educational success.
The new Secretary of State, Michael Gove, introduced a new educa- tion agenda stopping many of the initiatives of the previous govern- ment. This included curriculum, assessment, funding and the use of incentives and accountability to increase the number of Academies and Free schools which were autonomous and directly funded by cen- tral government and not local government. Further to this, schools were encouraged to group together in Multi Academy Trusts (MATs) as a way of supporting each other and changing the fortunes of weaker schools.
the effect of current limitations in learning spaces compared with homes 52%, as well as qualitative factors (attention to aesthetic qualities in school building and furniture compared with traditional simple schools 49%, the availability of educational facilities including salons with equipment necessary for doing visual arts and various sports and availability of modern recreational facilities designed in schools for different contests 48.7%, and the effect of colors used in the design of external and internal walls specifically happy colors 43.4% )are the most effective factors contributing to an enthusiastic welcome from students.
Mitchell et al. (2007) states that it is necessary to look at the relationship between the built environment and humans as a complex interplay between building occupants (who they are and what they do) and an array of physical, chemical, biological, and design factors. This evolution in understanding has profound implications for the design and operation of buildings, how the buildings are used, and the prevention and management of health problems that occur in building occupants (Mitchell et al., 2007). Emissions from materials and products used indoors are meaningful pollutant sources, very often of greater importance to IAQ than either bio-effluents or pollutants from outdoor air (Clausen et al., 2011). Outdoor pollutants including pollen and traffic and factory emissions enter buildings through open windows, ventilation system air intakes, and building leaks and cracks. These contaminants, along with those that arise inside the building, concentrate in tightly sealed buildings with inadequate ventilation (Annesi-Maesano et al., 2013). Whether planned or not, buildings have multiple openings that allow the penetration and internal movement of air, water, and contaminants (Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning, 2006). Different building types and indoor air spore burden can be partly attributed to building age and construction materials. For example, old school buildings may have less insulation, and leakier structures (Turunen et al., 2014); a wooden, organic frame may behave differently than a concrete frame (Meklin et al., 2002a); some buildings have old ventilation systems, or perhaps rely only on natural ventilation (Turunen et al., 2014). These background factors should be considered in order to understand the contribution of moisture damage to the microbial status of buildings (Meklin et al., 2002a).
The advent of Geographic Inform ation System s (GIS) has m ade it possible to display a variety of phenom ena in graphic form s (m aps and charts) that are easily appreciated. GIS tools have been used to create com prehensive data bases that provide the fram ework and organization of spatial as well as non - spatial data thereby m aking it helpful in planning and decision m aking. In the education sector, GIS has been applied as a tool for Educational Decision Support System (EDSS). This realm of GIS applicability EDSS has been dem onstrated in various studies. These studies include Ban skota (n.d), H ite (20 0 8 ), Aliyu, Sule & Youngu (20 12), Abbas (20 12) an d, Olubadewo, Abdulkarim & Ahm ed (20 13). This paper is a further dem onstration of how GIS can be used to display education inform ation graphically. Zaria, a town in Kaduna State, Nigeria is the locale of the study that is concerned about public prim ary schools in a part of the town . It appears such a study has n ot been don e before now. It is hoped that the study will help in the m anagem ent of the schools involved. A 1 km buffer zon e was created to investigate whether there are pupils that have to walk m ore than a kilom etre before getting to school. Apart from attributes of location, year of establishm ent, enrolm ent, n um ber of classroom s an d teachers, other aspects of school attributes were not in cluded.
two other primaryschools (Chaani and Mahonda) to re- solve ambiguities in translation and ascertain its perfor- mance against verbal interview technique (data not shown). The final questionnaire used a combination of both simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers as well as multiple choice responses. A total of 18 questions were posed which were assigned to one of three separate sections: section 1 – 4 questions (1.0. to 1.3.) on KA on general awareness of local diseases, section 2 – 7 questions (2.0. to 2.6.) on KA for malaria and section 3 – 7 questions (3.0. to 3.6.) on KA for urinary schistosomiasis. The questions were devel- oped upon the messages to be found within Juma na Kichocho. The questionnaire forms can be downloaded in English or Kiswahili formats from: http://www. nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/schisto/jrs/unguja.html.
Methods and Findings: Three primaryschools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4–15 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (x 2 = 18.85, df = 2, p,0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two
Comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. The results of t tests (for two-category) and one-way ANOVAs (for more-than-two-category) (Table I) showed no significant gender difference. Both male and female teachers in Hong Kong seem to experience the same level of perceived stress. However, teachers of primaryschools showed significantly higher perceived stress level than those of secondary schools. Career instability due to related issues of class cuts and surplus teacher could be the main reasons for the significantly higher stress level of the primary school teachers in Hong Kong. No significant difference in perceived stress level was found between teachers with different years of teaching experience. Nevertheless, teachers without a degree were found to perceive a higher stress level as compared to those holding a degree.
In school year 1939-1940 in Greece there were open 29 primaryschools with 60 teachers and 950 pupils and 4 secondary schools with 54 teachers and 477 pupils, namely: a commercial high school for boys and a professional gymnasium for girls in Salonic, a boys’ high school in Grebena and a gymnasium in Ianina. Apart from each of the secondary schools there also functioned a boarding school supported by the Romanian state. The analytical curriculum was the official one in Romania, supplemented by the Greek language, the history and the geography of Greece. During the war, the premises and the furniture of the Romanian schools were damaged and, as a consequence, the schools were closed (1940-1941). In the autumn of 1941 they were reopened, but the bombings turned the teaching activity into a very difficult task.
One important development that is currently evolving within the Malaysian educational system is the newfound role of English as a medium of instruction. As of the beginning of 2003, science and mathematics are being taught in English in the national and vernacular primaryschools and the secondary schools. This is being implemented in stages and will eventually cover all standards and forms in the primary, secondary and post-secondary classes by 2008. Significantly, this policy is a clear departure from former language policy, which was underpinned by the euphoria of linguistic nationalism as a notion of nation building. The partial reintroduction of English as a medium of instruction in place of the Malay language, the national language, is undeniably a market driven policy responding to the emergence of English as a global language in the era of globalisation. It is evident that English is now entrenched worldwide and Malaysia has to keep abreast of current global trends or risk losing its competitive edge in the global economy, which has been transformed by the massive increase in the flow of information in English via information and communications technology, as well as a new economic emphasis of turning this information into productive knowledge. Competency in English has now become a crucial aspect of human capital development, especially in the areas of science, engineering and technology. Thus, the implementation of the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English is in line with current development and ultimately, it is hoped that this would help to strengthen the students’ proficiency in English, enabling them to access new frontiers of knowledge in science, engineering and technology. This then is the underlying rationale of implementing the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English.
It is a fact that geographers in our country have not discussed this problem sufficiently. Some authors from the domain of pedagogic, psychological and sociologic sciences studied this problem little bit more than others (Uzelac V.., 1991; Matthews H., 2002; Plut D., 2003; Кundačina М., 2006). D. Plut et al studied the understanding of nature and the relationship of man towards it in the textbooks for lower grades of primary school. They concluded that only 2% of theses deal with characteristics of nature, and 7% of theses deal with the relationship between man and nature and that materialist-utilitarian relationship dominates towards nature that is economic-ecologic approach in perceiving the relationship between nature and man (Plut D. et al, 1993). О. Samardžić has studied 29 textbooks of different school subjects using the procedure of content analysis. He states that active behavior of man towards nature is emphasized in about 10 % of the units of analysis, passive behavior of man towards nature is emphasized in 3,5 % of units of analysis and that there is no word about the behavior of man towards the environment in almost 87 % of the units of analysis. Such results made him conclude that the possibilities of incorporating ecologic contents in the textbooks of primaryschools are not sufficiently used (Kundačina M., 2006). V. Uzelac, studying this problem, has come to the conclusion that the textbooks from ecologic - educational point of view are insufficiently coordinated with the curriculums of educational work and that ecologic contents in them are insufficiently and not functionally presented. They are more directed to spreading knowledge than to sending ecologic messages and developing of ecologic values (Uzelac V. 1991).
In the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, data on the magni- tude of the problem of high BP in children are scarce, and in the city of Vila Velha, they are absent. As a result, little or no attention has been given by the public health policies to this problem, whose worldwide impact is increasingly evi- dent. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of elevated BP levels in children enrolled in primaryschools in the city of Vila Velha, Brazil, to esti- mate the reported frequency of previous measurements of BP in these children, to identify anthropometric predictors associated with a higher risk of high BP, and to evaluate the presence of an association between high BP and socioeco- nomic, perinatal, and family characteristics in the sample.
Geography has been a subject taught in Singapore schools even before she gained independence. However, is the subject taught to “train future citizens to imagine accurately the condition of the great world stage and so to help them to think sanely about political and social problems of the world around” (Lidstone & Stoltman, 2007, p. 1)? In short, does school geography in Singapore imbue in students the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are required to engage with a fast changing world? The subject has undergone several national level curriculum reviews at primary, secondary and tertiary levels through the last six decades. Today, geography does not exist as a separate subject in primary school. Rather, it is taught within the subject of Social Studies at primaryschools in Singapore. At the secondary school level, geography is a compulsory subject for lower secondary but is an elective subject at upper secondary level. Geography remains an elective subject at pre-university and university education in Singapore.
In Huelva, the following typologies have been identified: linear, compact, intersecting, juxtaposition, sports and prism. The typologies have been divided into the following sub-typologies: linear (L-shape, small straight, medium straight, large straight, and various), compact (without yard, H-shape, compact, with yard, symmetrical), intersecting (volume, irregular, fusion, E-shape, multiple, nexus, swastika), juxtaposition, sports and prism (with/without annex). It has also been observed that most primaryschools in Huelva were built in the 80's and most of them are minor to 1000 m 2 . Regarding the vertical