Principle of Cavalieri

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O PRINCÍPIO DE CAVALIERI COMO MÉTODO DE DEMONSTRAÇÃO E FUNDAMENTAÇÃO PARA O CÁLCULO DE ÁREAS E VOLUMES

O PRINCÍPIO DE CAVALIERI COMO MÉTODO DE DEMONSTRAÇÃO E FUNDAMENTAÇÃO PARA O CÁLCULO DE ÁREAS E VOLUMES

It has been the Principle of Cavalieri , an effective axiom for demonstration areas cal- culation formulas and volumes , one math course content present throughout the Basic Education Brazil and always also found in external evaluations . The goal here is to show that the Cavalieri principle is very efficient and simple in the statement formulas areas of plane figures and volumes of solids , as this axiom simplifies the calculation of areas to measure segments and volumes in areas . Exposes the importance of such content in the basic training of students so that , we need to remedy the difficulties that they have , for about 30% of the race of Mathematics issues of external evidence is about geometry. Finally , we conclude that one should recognize the importance of this study for the construction of knowledge of the student and not try a ready-made thing , because only then it is more concrete learning.
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O princípio de Cavalieri e suas aplicações para cálculo de volumes

O princípio de Cavalieri e suas aplicações para cálculo de volumes

The work was constructed in order to reveal the inadequate teaching of the volume calculation in high school where, in most cases, formulas are placed so that students memorize in order to resolve issues involved, without any understanding of the content or how they came about. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present as an axiom the principle of Cavalieri, towards the same applications, generate a chain of ideas, and get to the formulas of the volumes of common geometric solids in high school: prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone and sphere, highlighting the clearest form of teaching that content to students.
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O Princípio de Cavalieri como método de demonstração e fundamentação para o cálculo de áreas e volumes

O Princípio de Cavalieri como método de demonstração e fundamentação para o cálculo de áreas e volumes

It has been the Principle of Cavalieri , an effective axiom for demonstration areas cal- culation formulas and volumes , one math course content present throughout the Basic Education Brazil and always also found in external evaluations . The goal here is to show that the Cavalieri principle is very efficient and simple in the statement formulas areas of plane figures and volumes of solids , as this axiom simplifies the calculation of areas to measure segments and volumes in areas . Exposes the importance of such content in the basic training of students so that , we need to remedy the difficulties that they have , for about 30% of the race of Mathematics issues of external evidence is about geometry. Finally , we conclude that one should recognize the importance of this study for the construction of knowledge of the student and not try a ready-made thing , because only then it is more concrete learning.
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The principle pf protection as a principle of international labor law

The principle pf protection as a principle of international labor law

The aim of this study is to explore the Principle of Protection as a Principle of International Labor Law and its application to International Labor Contracts, given the precariousness of working conditions, under the current perspective issued by the International Labor Organization - ILO. We will base this principle on the grounds of the employee's inadequacy given the need to protect the most vulnerable part of the relationship in question, as means of safeguarding the dignity of the human person, in this case, the worker. This is intended to protect the worker from the employer's arbitrariness. Given the current deterioration in working conditions, it is important to understand its content as a guiding principle applicable as a General Rule of International Labor Law.
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Principle of «concern for community»: beyond «social responsibility» in cooperatives

Principle of «concern for community»: beyond «social responsibility» in cooperatives

In Social Responsibility, it is clear that in companies decisions are taken by owners or their representatives. Even in companies with more participatory management processes, where employees can be heard and participate in decisions, such participation is permitted by the own- ers and will always be limited. Here we are, back to the reason that generates the action of Social Responsibility. If the company seeks to maximize results, then the actions of Social Responsibility will be cho- sen strategically among those choices that can» give more results» in terms of visibility and/or reputational capital. Thus, this «choice» is in- tended to have the maximum results with the application of the mini- mum resources possible. Some of these organizations do research to understand what society values most and then aim to optimize their Social Responsibility contributions based on these values.
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Optimum Gain Analysis Using the Principle of Game Theory

Optimum Gain Analysis Using the Principle of Game Theory

Game theory is concerned with discrete optimization problems involving two players with conflicting interests. Game problems can be classified into Discrete and Continuous. Discrete game problems are often represented in matrix forms, which take the form of either n x n or m x n matrix as illustrated below [1], [6]:

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The exclusivity principle and the set of quantun correlations

The exclusivity principle and the set of quantun correlations

No-signaling is certainly a property we should impose on the distributions in order to discard the unphysical ones, but it is not enough to single out the quantum set. The no-signaling distribution of a PR box can reach the algebraic maximum of the CHSH inequality, while the Tsirelson bound lies below this value. Nonetheless, the existence of such distributions would have strange consequences in the field of communication complexity. If the parties are allowed to share an arbitrary number of PR boxes, any distributed function would require only one bit of communication between the parties to be computed, making the notion of communication complexity meaningless. Although this does not contradict any principle, it goes against our experience that some problems are harder to solve then others. Although trivial communication complexity was found with violations strictly less than 4 , it is still not clear if the Tsirelson bound for the CHSH inequality is a critical value that separates trivial from nontrivial communication complexity.
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The research as a principle for the teaching and learning of mathematics

The research as a principle for the teaching and learning of mathematics

The investigation is, then, a skill which marks our human characteristic in the world, defined by Teresa Vergani (2009) with the term the creativity as destination, since the investigative spirit constitutes the driving force of our reason for living and knowing, that is, our continuing search for answers for everything. This strategy might lead the student to a mental maturity that could make them more independent and aware of their ability to rely on curiosity and on the possibility of seeking knowledge through research. When this approach is based on historical mathematics information, it might be constituted as a generating source of mathematical school knowledge, that is, when undertaken in the classroom it might result in meaningful learning, and is materialized through activities focusing on the historical development of mathematical concepts (Cf. Mendes, 2009b). The investigatory principles focused on finding solutions to issues emerging from the problematic contexts presented to the students will certainly contribute to that mathematics is viewed by them as science, language, game or art, since in them are interwoven four fundamental aspects of mathematics: the informative, the formative, the imaginative and the utilitarian, which formulate themselves amongst each other while being (re)used by society, school and the various cultural contexts. This is because insofar as the mathematical knowledge is deposited in the multiple experiences lived by the social groups, patterns arise, interpretive analogies and convergences (cognitive functions generated in the mind and by the mind of the learner human subject) which suggest the configuration of a generalizing language in which mathematics is to be structured. This language is characterized by the axiomatic presentation attributed to mathematics. The term learner is used by Hugo Assmann in the book Re-enchant education, to characterize the cognitive agent (individual, group, organization, institution, system) who is in active process of learning (Assmann, 1998, p.129).
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A contribution of the Bioethics of Intervention to rethinking the concept of “principle”

A contribution of the Bioethics of Intervention to rethinking the concept of “principle”

Principles are not eternal and immutable truths, nor can they be regarded as universal categories of guidance in all cases, for they are not flexible enough to cover all ethical situations. Whenever you try to impose principles on a particular issue or problem, you run the risk of creating some kind of distortion. Moral life is very complex, and situations may differ subtly or radically. Therefore, no framework of principles has ever been able to capture its completeness. Therefore, many ways are often taken, or when one way is exhausted, another one is sought.
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Teaching Keynes's principle of effective demand and chapter 19

Teaching Keynes's principle of effective demand and chapter 19

A similar approach is taken by Lavoie (2003) as well as by Dalziel and Lavoie (2003) who point out that the quantity of labour and the real wage, associated with the point of effective demand, can be determined by the interception between the notional demand for labour, that is the marginal labour-productivity schedule, and the aggregate-demand constraint translated into the real-wage vs. employment space:

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Lina Cavalieri, musa da Belle Époque: representações da feminilidade em cartões-postais.

Lina Cavalieri, musa da Belle Époque: representações da feminilidade em cartões-postais.

A amostra analisada parece evidenciar essa tendência, uma vez que foram localizados postais de Lina Cavalieri, assim como de outras musas do período, remetidos e recebidos por ambos os sexos. Por isso, pode-se propor que sua figura não serviu apenas para a satisfação masculina, como também para a inspiração, imitação, ou mesmo inveja feminina. Por exemplo, ao se constatar que tais imagens também eram trocadas entre mulheres, pode-se propor que, ao fazê-lo, é como se uma informasse à outra qual a referência a ser seguida em termos de feminilidade, de comportamento, quanto ao padrão a ser adotado no trajar, ou no uso de maquilagem, embora esta última ainda fosse empregada com reservas fora do círculo artístico. Essa troca de informações tinha início, no caso dos postais, por intermédio da sua escolha, que implicava a seleção de determinadas mensagens não-verbais, de caráter imagético e de agrado de seu futuro emitente.
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O método de máxima Lq -verossimilhança em modelos com erros de medição Jacqueline Cavalieri

O método de máxima Lq -verossimilhança em modelos com erros de medição Jacqueline Cavalieri

measurement error models, in particular, the structural model. The new estimator extends the classical maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and its based on the minimization, by means of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, of the discrepancy between a distribuiton in a family and one that modifies the true distribution by the degree of distortion q. Depending on the choice of q, the transformed distribution can diminish or emphasize the role of extreme observations, unlike the ML method that equally weights each observation. For small and moderate sample sizes, the ML q E can trade bias for precision, causing a
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THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUSTAINABILITY AS AN ECONOMIC-ECOLOGICAL-SPATIAL PRINCIPLE

THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUSTAINABILITY AS AN ECONOMIC-ECOLOGICAL-SPATIAL PRINCIPLE

In the midst of the diversity of situations in different countries, it is interesting to record a paradigmatic example. Oslo was the favorite candidate for the 2022 Winter Games. In addition to its well-known capacity for organization, its economic power and indisputable tradition in winter sports the Oslo 2022 project shone from the environmental perspective and simply presented the formidable “zero removal” index of people. After the magnificent event in Sochi 2014 (the most expensive winter sporting event in history: U$ 51 billion) and the similar prospects for 2018, the Norwegian project suited the Olympic movement, which was concerned with reducing the wear and tear of its image. This was also the case with London 2012, which took place after two “he- avy” editions (Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008), both of which had high environmental costs and disregarded human rights, Oslo would serve to ease pressures and criticisms of the Olympic sys- tem. However, the city pulled out of the race in October 2014, after extensive consultation with civil society. There is no doubt that Oslo would have been selected by the IOC if it had continued with its bid. Taking into account other withdrawals, only two cities maintained their candidacy for 2022: Beijing (with the expensive resource of abundant artificial snow) and Almaty, in Kazakhstan. Beijing was chosen and certainly presages a new wave of concerns and criticisms of the Olympic industry and its environmental impacts. At the same time, the last edition of the Winter Games, in Pyeongchang (South Korea) sparked protests from environmentalists about the destruction of tens of thousands of trees in virgin forest to build ski facilities. 4
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Richness patterns, species distributions and the principle of extreme deconstruction

Richness patterns, species distributions and the principle of extreme deconstruction

Phylogenetic relationships among species were established at genus level using a phylogenetic tree that was built by combining the phylogenies by Lenk et al. (2001), Malhotra & Thorpe (2004) and Castoe & Parkinson (2006). Sets of basal and derived species were identified, respectively, using the lower and upper quartiles of the count of number of nodes between each species and the root of the tree (see Hawkins et al ., 2005, 2006, 2007). We also used this same phylogeny in a phylogenetic eigenvector regression (PVR) (Diniz-Filho et al ., 1998) to summarize the relationships among taxa (see Diniz-Filho et al ., 2007, and Ramirez et al ., 2008, for recent applications in macroecology). The first 20 eigenvectors of the matrix among genera were retained for further analyses and used to evaluate the relative magnitude of phylogenetic effects on macroecological traits across the 228 species (body size, range size and fit of individual species’ distribution models; see below), as well as to take into account the phylogenetic non-independence among species when testing relationships among these traits. The association of macroecological traits with the phylogenetic eigenvectors was established through multiple regression techniques in which minimum models where reached through a simplification process based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC) (Burnham & Anderson, 2002; Diniz-Filho et al ., 2008).
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Scientific basis of the homeopathic healing principle in modern pharmacology

Scientific basis of the homeopathic healing principle in modern pharmacology

Important symptoms of persistent diseases have never yet been treated with such palliative, antagonistic remedies, without the opposite state, a relapse - indeed, a palpable aggravation of the malady - occurring a few hours afterwards. For a persistent tendency to sleepiness during the day the physician prescribed coffee, whose primary action is to enliven; and when it had exhausted its action the day - somnolence increased; - for frequent waking at night he gave in the evening, without heeding the other symptoms of the disease, opium, which by virtue of its primary action produced the same night (stupefied, dull) sleep, but the subsequent nights were still more sleepless than before; - to chronic diarrheas he opposed, without regarding the other morbid signs, the same opium, whose primary action is to constipate the bowels, and after a transient stoppage of the diarrhea it subsequently became all the worse; - violent and frequently recurring pains of all kinds he could suppress with opium for but a short time; they then always returned in greater, often intolerable severity, or some much worse affection came in their stead. […] weakness of the bladder, with consequent retention of urine, was sought to be conquered by the antipathic work of cantharides to stimulate the urinary passages whereby evacuation of the urine was certainly at first effected but thereafter the bladder becomes less capable of stimulation and less able to contract, and paralysis of the bladder is imminent; - with large doses of purgative drugs and laxative salts, which excite the bowels to frequent evacuation, it was sought to remove a chronic tendency to constipation, but in the secondary action the bowels became still more confined; […] severely burnt parts feel instantaneous alleviation from the application of cold water, but the burning pain afterwards increases to an incredible degree, and the inflammation spreads and rises to a still greater height […] How often, in one word, the disease is aggravated, or something even worse is effected by the secondary action of such antagonistic (antipathic) remedies, the old school with its false theories does not perceive, but experience teaches it in a terrible manner (Organon of medicine, § 59) [49].
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The process of adoption of the principle of subsidiarity in the European Community

The process of adoption of the principle of subsidiarity in the European Community

Al mismo tiempo, el Parlamento Europeo, que tenia un gran interés de incluir el PS más ampliamente, en su estrategia de maximización de sus competencias, incorporó una [r]

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Fixed-Term contracts and principle of equal treatment in Portugal

Fixed-Term contracts and principle of equal treatment in Portugal

In principle, according to article 143, the termination of a term employment contract for a reason not attributable to the employee bars the employer (or any other society that belongs to the same group of corporations or that has a common organizational structure with the employer) from hiring an employee for the same position or from entering into a services contract with the same person with the same object for at least a period equal to one-third of the length of the contract, including renewals. Even the hiring of the same employee for the same position will be allowed if one of the following circumstances occurs: seasonal activities, further absence of the replaced employee, exceptional increase of the undertaking activities after the termination of the term-contract and if the employee was previously contracted as an employee in search of his/her first job. A contract entered in breach of article 143(1) is considered an open-ended contract (article 147(1)(d)) and all work rendered by the worker to the employer is counted in determining the worker’s seniority.
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Abstract A contribution of the Bioethics of Intervention to rethinking the concept of “principle”

Abstract A contribution of the Bioethics of Intervention to rethinking the concept of “principle”

The word “principle” has acquired an increasing semantic range over the centuries and continues to be used today in the search for the solution of moral conflicts. The present study begins by analyzing the different concepts of principle in Philosophy and Law. In addition to these fields, the research sought to study the interpretation of bioethics about the idea of principle, especially in the case of principlism. It was observed that the basic notion of principle has been used in the three fields analyzed - philosophy, law and bioethics - in a vertical way. Having presented the different concepts of principle (relative and absolute), these are discussed in a critical comparative way, and compared with the presumably universal notion of common morality. Finally, the text discusses the possibility of constructing a horizontal approach to these principles, using as reference the respect for moral pluralism, in the theoretical-applied line proposed by the Bioethics of Intervention.
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NASCIMENTO E METAMORFOSE DE UMA TEORIA MATEMÁTICA: A GEOMETRIA DOS INDIVISÍVIES NA ITÁLIA (GALILEO, CAVALIERI, TORRICELLI)

NASCIMENTO E METAMORFOSE DE UMA TEORIA MATEMÁTICA: A GEOMETRIA DOS INDIVISÍVIES NA ITÁLIA (GALILEO, CAVALIERI, TORRICELLI)

Pelo contrário, autorizando a pulveriza@o indefinida das figuras (proposição 2 do liwo tI da Geometria), Cavalieri apa1a a diferença entre congruência e igualdade de d[r]

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Exposing the “One China” Principle

Exposing the “One China” Principle

In 1992, when the governments from both sides across the Taiwan Strait began having contacts, both of them, at the People’s Republic of China (PRC)’s request, expressed verbally, and in relation to functional issues, that they advocated the “one China” principle, though what “one China” actually meant was open to different interpretations, and the shift that elevated the 1992 “one China” interpretations from the functional level to the political level did not occur until April 2005. Since President Tsai Ing-wen was sworn in and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) became the ruling party of the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan in early 2016, the PRC has used Tsai’s rejection of this so-called “1992 consensus” as a pretext to discontinue all intergovernmental communication channels with the ROC on Taiwan, while also cutting down on cross-strait civil exchanges in travel and education. This thinkpiece article aims to scrutinise this “one China” principle, how it has developed over the years, and expose its underlying realities.
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