A forma de ensino tem sido alvo de pesquisas buscando ser mais dinâmica e interativa com o aluno, em detrimento ao modelo tradicional, no qual o professor transmite o conhecimento e os alunos comportam-se como meros ouvintes e memorizadores de informação. A Aprendizagem Baseada e Problemas (ABP), da tradução de ProblemBasedLearning (PBL), tem se tornado atrativa no meio acadêmico. A ABP é uma forma inovadora em que os alunos trabalham com a meta de solucionar um problema real ou simulado a partir de um contexto. Este artigo é constituído por uma revisão básica da literatura sobre Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas e pelo desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta web educacional que auxilie o professor na aplicação dessa metodologia em sala de aula.
Objectives: To report a methodological experience of learning-based on problems in the discipline of Thanatology. Method: Experience report of professors of the baccalaureate degree in nursing using problem situations influenced by the methodology of questioning and problem-basedlearning. Results: The elaboration of three problem situations broadened the development of the formative process in Thanatology, favored reflections during the program of the discipline and approached the theory of real situations experienced by the students. Conclusions and implications for practice: This methodology was assessed as a viable and low-cost strategy in promoting empowerment on issues of death and dying. In addition, students self-assessed as reflective agents and builders of their own personal and professional growth.
This report shows a reflection on Problem-BasedLearning (PBL) methodology, in the discipline of Visual Education of the eighth grade and the possibility in promoting the teaching of visual arts. Initially some questions were raised about the inadequacy of traditional learning methods and teachers, to the current requirements in evolution, with new skills being essential, who leads to rethink strategies and update levels. The idea that students are not being prepared with the “XXI st century skills” was a motivation for the chosen thesis, in a need to find alternatives of change and to improve the teaching-learning binomial. Based on the above, the curriculum contents were adapted to the PBL methodology. The problem, whose response will allow the integration of such contents by the students was designed based on 3C3R model. Some of the strategies of this method are also described, always with the intent to compare their effects to traditional learning. The projects were performed in working groups, also analyzed, that led to the conclusion that their operation has characteristics of self-regulation and high complexity. It was also verified that there are some limitations associated to the PBL implementation related to the resistance of organizations to changes. The skills assessment is described following a protocol based organization Buck Institute for Education (BIE), which considers, prior to work quality, proactivity, autonomy, responsibility and the reflection skills of students. Finally the assessment of comprehension of this method by the students was possible by the completion of a survey whose results suggested levels of understanding of the process as a promoter of teaching, the tutor and students role, higher than expected.
To reflect critically on the role of scientific research in the public school of basic education, professors of the physical education discipline of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Mato Grosso do Sul, IFMS, Campus Campo Grande, developed with students of the education courses professional technical mid-level, between 2014 and 2017, research and extension activities incorporated into regular teaching activities. The research practices sought to stimulate students to investigate and seek solutions to everyday problems, with themes related to five axes: physical activity, sports, leisure, health and quality of life. Founded in the ProblemBased Learning approach, the work promoted learning situations in which students became active subjects of the process of investigation, analysis, understanding, proposition of strategy and intervention in concrete reality. Through the methodological approach of action research, the project begins in the first semester, stimulating students to identify collective problems significant in the daily school, followed by studies oriented on each subject and understanding about the scientific methodology. In the following semesters data collection, data collection and analysis instruments are developed and, at the end of the fourth semester, students demonstrate their learning with banners and presentation of the works at the Exhibition of Works, Technologies and Scientific Innovations and Of Physical Education - MoTICs / EF. In the opportunities in which the problems addressed lead to proposals with potential to improve or overcome the analyzed problem, the students are guided in the execution of extension actions for the intervention in the reality. During the development of the work students are encouraged to seek connections with the specific knowledge and practices of the professional formation of each course, allowing the continuation of the project in the accomplishment of the work of end of course (TCC), which reinforces the interest for the project due to meaningful learning promoted. The partial results reached indicate the appreciation, interest and recognition of the approach, considering the active role of students in the teaching and learning process, as well as the significant learning promoted throughout the project.
Nano-metric MOS transistors are more prone to aging mechanisms such as bias temperature instability, hot carrier injection, and electromigration. To cope with these misbehaviors that often manifest as increasing propagation delays over circuits’ lifetime, designers tend to adopt large guard-bands, which translate in undesirable performance losses and higher power consumption. Tackling the problem involves accepting the unique characteristics of each device and periodically tunes the behavior using in-chip engines that infer circuits’ achievable performance from stress sensor data, usage patterns, and sub-circuit failures (Blanton 2014). The CASP methodology (Li 2008) is used in multi-core systems to schedule cores for testing while the remaining system keeps executing. The core is partitioned in independently repairable sub-circuits and a fault dictionary pinpoints test results of the potentially damaged ones. The dynamic k-Nearest Neighbor (DKNN, Ren 2014) algorithm uses diagnosis results to repair the likeliest faulty sub-circuit and updates the classifier to adapt to new fault patterns. This paper presents the hardware implementation of the DKNN approach and a proof of concept FPGA implementation.
This study is aimed to describe the construction of knowledge through active methodology in the classroom to preparing the student for the labor market and describes the advantages of using the ProblemBasedLearning (PBL) methodology in integration projects of higher education in Eniac – Fapi College offered in traditional classroom mode. The study was conducted in the first half of 2015 with students of Management and Marketing courses as a pilot in the application of PBL method in the classroom and consisted in the preparation of the planning, organization and execution of an artistic event. The results were satisfactory according to an evaluation made by the examination board composed by teachers who accompanied all the phases of the project creation and by the feedback given by students that experienced the problematic proposed as part of their professional training and was demonstrated by a supporting research. Thus, we could perceive the effectiveness of PBL methodology as an essential element in the formation of the student at the top level on the mentioned courses and may be extended to other courses offered by the institution.
development of personal and interpersonal, informational and decisional skills . The implementation of this methodology should include, namely, short traineeships of university students in firms, professional education of firms´ employees in universities, nomination of mentors to monitor student´s work in firms, nomination of students to convey scientific, social and management knowledge to firms´ employees, firms´ development of updated techniques and subsequent packages to support students´ academic works, and theoretical- practical conferences involving both universities and firms, students´ participation in firm´s meetings or employee´s participation in students´ groups pursuing specific academic works. The rational and integrated implementation of strategic management to the joint system universities/firms will bring significant mutual benefits: a closer look at management concept and instruments by students, and the awareness by firms of the practical results of the
ABSTRACT: This work presents the teacher’s reflections in the application of the ProblemBasedLearning (PBL) methodology in a Psychopharmacology discipline. The PBL is characterized by presenting a problem that does not have a predefined solution and does not focus much on solving the problem itself, but on the commitment to propose solutions. From the records of the actions carried out and a reflection process of the results of these actions, it was possible for the teacher to evaluate the process of implementing an active learningmethodology. The main characteristic of the PBL application is the need to change the teacher’s mentality and behavior, since it has to create an environment where the learning process becomes student-centered, and the teacher needs to instigate it to learn, demonstrating the importance and developing their autonomy. The use of methodologies that bring student closer to the situations that he will encounter in his professional life guarantees a greater engagement of them in the classes. The study presented here evidenced the importance of the inclusion of active methodologies in classrooms, since the ability of students to learn is better developed. However, since there is no ready formula for applying these methodologies, the understanding, choice and
New teaching methodologies have been used by teachers, which aim to seek alternative means that better meet the needs of students, boosting the quality and efficiency of teaching. ProblemBasedLearning (PBL) emerges as one of these innovative strategies, a student-centered learning method that through research takes on a major role in their own learning, promoting both individual and group knowledge development and enhancing their reasoning, critical thinking and understanding. This research aimed to identify the perception of undergraduate students in Accounting about the application of PBL.The work was developed with students from a Higher Education Institution of Triangulo Mineiro, enrolled in the Social Accounting discipline. For the development of the research, bibliographic and documentary surveys were used, and for the composition of the research the questionnaire was used as a data collection instrument, where the questions referred to the application of the PBL. Based on the research, it was observed that most students were satisfied with the methodology and interested in taking courses in this format, where each highlighted as advantages of its application: increased sense of leadership, responsibility, collectivity and thinking. critical, and improved communication skills. As limitations, the complexity of remembering issues previously seen that could contribute to the solution of the problem, as well as the difficulty of working in groups was highlighted.
Abstract. Teaching is a complex mission that requires not only the theoretical knowledge transmission, but furthermore requires to provide the students the necessary skills for solving real problems in their respective professional activities where complex issues and problems must be frequently faced. Over more than twenty years we have been experiencing an increase in scholar failure in the scientific area of mathematics, which means that Teaching Mathematics and related areas can be even a more complex and hard task. Scholar failure is a complex phenomenon that depends on various factors as social factors, scholar factors or biophysical factors. After numerous attempts made in order to reduce scholar failure our goal in this paper is to understand the role of “ProblemBasedLearning” and how this methodology can contribute to the solution of both: increasing mathematical courses success and increasing skills in the near future professionals in Portugal. Before designing a proposal for applying this technique in our institutions, we decided to conduct a survey to provide us with the necessary information about and the respective advantages and disadvantages of this methodology, so this is the brief review aim.
Abstract: The article presents a proposal for the use of an active methodologybased on ProblemBasedLearning (PBL) together with the use of virtual reality simulators (VR) with the objective of assisting in the learning and training of professionals in the areas of public and private security. Certain techniques, such as OMD (Observation, Memorization, Description) and IDA (Identify, Decide, Act), are not continually practiced because of the difficulty of implementing some kind of scalable, low cost training and generating adequate performance indicators . Field tests were carried out to validate the new proposal and verify the adherence of the methodology to the target audience. The purpose was to demonstrate that the PBL-based training modules with RV simulators are able to compose an educational technology platform with the goal of increasing engagement and improving the learning curve of the safety professional.
In this context, ML (machine learning) techniques have been successfully used to mine knowledge from information and data in different fields, such as, computer-vision, medicine, cyber security and so on (SINGH; ROY; MOHAN, 2017). For instance, Pang, Lee and Vaithyanathan (2002) analyzed the efficiency of different ML models to perform a sentiment classification, which usually involves intuition of experts, and thus pointed out that SVM (support vector machines) is effective to text categorization. Furthermore, Jiang and Chen (2014) indicated that there are well-established methods for chemical process risk management, such as HazOp, that can be adapted to supply chain networks, and then proposed an approach based on SVM to evaluate the supply chain’s risk, transforming it into a risk rating problem. More recently, Liu et al. (2018) utilized and compared different ML methods for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery.
The thesis is in the area of accounting education, which aim is to investigate the contribution of the Problem-BasedLearning (PBL) methodology in the development of the skills and competencies required by accounting professional. It has a qualitative approach, characterized as a method of investigation regarding the case study, as it was applied a pedagogical intervention in the discipline accounting skills in the Course of Accounting Sciences of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte - UFRN. The techniques of data collection used were survey; participant observation; analysis of content and documents. First, the student profile, learning style and content evaluation were identified. In the approach of the method, a real judicial process was introduced that deals with the determination of assets and deals in a Civil Court of the County of Natal. For the qualitative data analysis process, descriptive statistics were used. After the qualitative analysis, a quantitative treatment was given, with the non-parametric multivariate analysis, non-parametric variance, and Cronbach's Alpha. The results showed that the PBL methodology contributed to the performance of the technical competence, since the data obtained in the second application of the specific accounting skills knowledge survey shows that there was an increase in the number of correct answers by the students, compared to the results obtained before the application of the pedagogical intervention. Another important result was the findings in the content analysis on the accounting expert reports prepared by the students. From the ten established criteria regarding the form and the content of the expert's report determined by the standard, the students obtained 100% in five criteria and, in the others, obtained an additional 50% of adherence as determined by the norms approved by the CFC. With this, it is noticed that the student sought and built the knowledge developed in the pedagogical intervention. Regarding the professional skills developed, the results show, in the respondents' perception, that the students agreed that the PBL method adds more realism to the teaching of accounting skills; it offers to experience a behavior that knew and that had not yet been experienced; motivates group work; increases its effectiveness as a participant in problem solving and in group discussions. Another alternative of agreement among students was the development of critical thinking; with this, it is understood that the PBL method in the perception of the participants of the research develops the ability of critical sense, leadership and teamwork.
Esta pesquisa objetivou identificar e analisar as percepções de professores e alunos do Ensino Médio Integrado ao Ensino Técnico sobre ProblemBasedLearning (PBL). De abordagem qualitativa, procurou responder: Se a metodologia ativa PBL aplicada em sala de aula comparada com o método tradicional de ensino tem sido um diferencial para os alunos enfrentarem um mercado competitivo? Como população, este estudo se deteve em turmas de Ensino Médio Integrado, sendo uma turma mista do 1º ano, com alunos dos cursos de Administração, Informática e Mecatrônica e uma turma para cada um desses cursos, sendo elas do 3º ano, totalizando quatro turmas. Participaram três docentes e 103 alunos. Como instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados: a) entrevista semiestruturada com docentes e b) questionário com questões fechadas e abertas para os alunos. Os resultados demonstraram que os professores reconhecem a importância da PBL na formação dos estudantes e na preparação para o mercado.
2. They require the learner to carefully study and research, to understand the scenario. 3. They encourage the user to develop multiple perspectives based on material from the case. We found several differences in the studies analyzed namely about, characteristics, the time of distribution to the students, and the number of students involved however, in all situations, the student had previous contact with text materials or even lectures. Class activities were structured around active and collaborative learning principles, and in all cases, except one (Ives et al., 1998), the class size was diminished compared to traditional lecture classes. The cases are generally discussed in groups ranging from 6-10 members depending on global class sizes. All case study classes are facilitated by a tutor, normally a faculty member. In some cases (Jesus et al., 2011) there are specific criteria for the selection of the tutor, based on professional activity or pedagogical training. Each group is then interviewed by the tutor at the end of the case study session. Normally the entire class is present for the interview, but individual questions are directed to one student at a time, with some extra questions, posed for anyone in the group to answer. The interview period lasts, on an average 5 -10 minutes for each group, and normally each student is asked to answer questions on a specific area/topic of the case study. To encourage a wider understanding of the case study, the questioning of each student can be broadened as the student shows the ability to answer more complex questions (Romero et al., 2004). There is also a possibility for other groups to intervene if requested.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The second and final year postgraduate students and senior residents of the Department of Anesthesiology in two tertiary referral hospital in central Kerala during the period from May 2015 to August 2015 were included in the study. The study design was an anonymous, questionnaire based cross sectional survey.
The objective of this work was to verify the use of Project BasedLearning with the application of the ProblemBasedLearning (PBL) method for extracurricular studies in Elementary School. The studies were based on PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais) predict basic contents of Physics in science classes, but according to the curriculum they end up having a smaller portion of development in the classroom. Starting from this assumption it was planned to apply a Project that contributed without causing impacts on the teacher's planning. Meetings were held according to the didactic sequence for the discussion and definition of the Project. As for the technical procedures, a Research-Action was carried out, initially analyzing the previous knowledge and after the Project verified the acquired knowledge. With the help of the teachers the students verified the "problem" and organized themselves in cooperative groups for the challenge of constructing a race car with recycled material propelled by air. Without using water or any electronic equipment, they began the research, discussion, collection and separation of materials, always with the support of the family and the members of the groups. It was also intended to answer the questions: Can Project-BasedLearning complement science teaching in the initial grades and contribute to meaningful learning? Within the methodological procedures, an Initial Diagnostic Assessment was applied for the analysis of the student's previous knowledge about the contents, Conceptual Map and final diagnostic evaluation to ascertain the evolution of the knowledge about the contents of Physics and the scientific argument developed. Also in the application phase was a "final race", in which the students in groups of six members participated, registered and discussed the results obtained by all the participating groups. He worried about analysis and records in general using some evaluation techniques, such as written records, testimonials and individual explanations of the phenomena observed. In order to verify the evolution of the scientific argumentation and the construction of the concepts from hypotheses we used the models of Toulmin and Lawson. A literature review was made on the current literature and on theoretical bases that support the active methodologies.
Aproveitando os resultados alcançados anteriormente, podem-se estabelecer alguns comentários no sentido de estabelecer algum tipo de estratégia que insira os alunos no entendimento do que é o método ProblemBasedLearning. A princípio pode ser interessante a elaboração de estratégias mistas, tal como Messari (2011) abordou. Algo que possibilite uma transição segura de uma prática difusa para uma estratégia mais bem delineada em termos de ritmo, estímulo ao estudo autodirigido e liberdade para aprender a aprender. O uso de ambiente virtual pode ficar a cargo de cada faculdade, dependendo do contexto, do tempo dos professores e da preferência dos alunos. Nesse caso tanto as aulas como as discussões – nesse período de transição – dependeriam em alguma medida do professor, de algum tipo de explicação, que iria diminuindo em uma proporção inversa ao investimento desse professor em estratégias que impulsionasse o aluno à participação na aula, até o ponto em que não fosse mais necessário o enxerto de nenhum tema.