como um dos focos prioritários do projeto, a avaliação dos resultados da aprendizagem dos alunos em termos de resultados obtidos através de testes padronizados (testes INVALSI), segundo uma lógica que vê os resultados escolares como indicadores fundamentais da qualidade da escola. Foi, portanto, reaberto, dentro da comissão de trabalho, o debate que, em várias ocasiões, no Ministério, tinha surgido em torno da possibilidade de dar à avaliação das crianças nas escolas o papel de analisar a qualidade da escolas; assim como a relação que é estabelecida entre a avaliação das crianças e a avaliação da oferta educacional (avaliação do contexto educacional). A escolha, até agora, era evitar a possibilidade, por parte de alguém, de introduzir testes padronizados para crianças que saem da escola de Educação Infantil, para evitar, portanto, qualquer forma de categorização precoce de crianças dentro de esquemas e padrões de desenvolvimento. As razões dadas (Bondioli & Savio, 2015b) foram colocadas no quadro já delineado pelo documento de endereço do Ministério, para escolas de Educação Infantil (Diretrizes nacionais para o currículo da escola de educação infantil e o primeiro ciclo de educação, MIUR, 2012) no qual se declara que a atividade de avaliação responde a uma função de caráter formativo que reconhece, acompanha, descreve e documenta os processos de crescimento, evita classificar e julgar o desempenho das crianças, uma vez que é orientada a explorar e encorajar o desenvolvimento de todos os potenciais (p.19).
opportunities to participate and their subjective well-being (Sandseter & Seland, 2016), suggesting, for instance, positive associations between children’s experience of being autonomous and being able to use the ECE classroom areas whenever they want, and liking the centre and being happier there. Three other studies analysed child outcomes in the context of case studies. One study investigated associations between teachers’ practices and children’s sense of belonging and autonomy (Freitas Luís et al., 2015), suggesting that children’s autonomy and sense of belonging increase when participation is promoted. Another study described multiple benefits of child participation, following the implementation of a professional development intervention, not only for children (e.g., increased autonomy, communication, persistence in problem solving, and self-care skills) but also for teachers (e.g., increased sensitivity and stimulation of learning
Under Uganda’s village health team (VHT) strategy, 5-6 CHWs are trained to carry out health promotion andeducation activities, including follow-ups for pregnant women and sick newborn referrals. Two CHWs in each village are additionally trained on iCCM. A typical CHW is trained on iCCM for six days, oversees 20-30 households and is responsible for diagnosing and treating children suffering from uncomplicated malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea, as well as referral of newborns with danger signs. CHWs are provided with colour coded Artemether/Lumefantrine combination to treat children aged 4 -59 months confirmed to have uncomplicated malaria through a rapid diagnostic test ; amoxicillin to treat uncomplicated pneumonia among children aged 2 -59 months and zinc and oral rehydration salts to treat uncomplicated diarrhoea in children aged 2 -59 months. Children showing danger signs are referred to the nearest health facility. Pre- referral rectal Artesunate is administered to children with danger signs attributable to severe malaria and pre-referral amoxicillin is provided to children with signs of severe pneumonia. The CHWs are supervised by staff from the nearest primary health facility. The PHFWs receive refresher courses on IMCI as part of their orientation to train and supervise the CHWs.
The teacher enters the class holding a teddy bear. She explains that she found it in the street and that it is not like all other teddy bears because it is blind, deaf and cannot walk. She encourages the children to talk about the reasons the bear was thrown away and asks the children “What shall we do about this?”. She discusses the children’s’ feelings and the bear’s feelings. She also discusses of ways that feelings of comfort, understanding and love can be communicat- ed without speech (the bear is deaf). She encourages each child to hold the bear gently and place it close to his/her heart. The children suggest that the bear stays with them in class. The teacher poses the problem “and what will happen to it when we all go home? I am sure it will feel very lonely and scared in an empty classroom”. The chil- dren suggest the bear goes home with them. The teacher poses an- other problem “who will take it home every day? We all want to take good care of it but we cannot all take it home with us”. The children propose they take turns. The teacher writes the name of each child (and her own name) on pieces of paper and places all names in a box. She shuffles the names and picks one. The child whose name is picked gets to take the bear home for that day and return it to school the next day. The child who takes the bear home is responsible for it and should take good care of it.
Objective: To evaluate the familial risk for children of earlychildhoodeducation to support educational practices and school-family integration. Method: This exploratory, descriptive quantitative. The data collection was performed in a school in a city in Minas Gerais, 2011. The subjects were 69 school families. We used a form with topics related to socioeconomic factors and clinical conditions of the members of the families concerned. The data was submitted to statistical analysis with variable frequency, enabling the establishment of priorities (risk level, sentries and factors influencing the risks). Results: The familial risk was between low and medium, the clinical criterion influence this classification. There is potential for development of chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity, alcoholism, smoking, and psychosocial disorders. Conclusion: The classification provided to identify the need for health educationin the pursuit of generating content and collective actions to raise awareness for the acquisition of healthy habits. Descriptors: Health care, Children’s health, Family, Education, Health.
This article aims to analyze the potentialities and limits of mathematical tasks, elaborated based on the didactic suitability criteria, to favor the development of space perception in children of EarlyChildhoodEducation. The criteria of didactic suitability, theoretical tools of the ontosemiotic approach, serve for analysis and evaluation of teaching and learning processes. This qualitative study was developed with the children of Group 3 in the Federal University of Bahia day-care center, through the implementation of task sequences. The results showed that, overall, the task ’s sequences had a level of didactic suitability from medium-high to high and, although they did not reach a high level of suitability, they played a coherent interrelationship, contributing with a favorable
Despite the existing evidence on teacher beliefs, research on the correlates of teachers’ ideas about children’s right to participate in ECE is still scarce. Existing studies suggest teachers’ ideas about participation seem to be influenced by the local culture (e.g., local practices and role of teachers), reflecting different guidelines and educational approaches, and documenting disparities between countries. For instance, the teachers’ role in creating the best conditions for children’s independent choices was frequently rated as one of the most important meanings of participation in Denmark, Estonia, Australia, and Sweden, but not in Greece (Broström et al., 2015). Also, teachers’ perceptions of practices supporting children’s expression and participation in daily activities are higher in public settings, and positively associated with group size (Lopes, Correia, & Aguiar, 2016) (cf. Appendix). However, other studies document teachers’ perception of group size as an obstacle to the promotion of children’s participation (e.g., Venninen et al., 2014). In addition, ECE teachers’ perceptions about practices characterized by decision making by the adult are negatively associated with teachers’ educationand classroom process (i.e., teacher-child interactions) quality (Lopes, Correia, and Aguiar, 2016). Another study reported small differences between ECE teachers’ and ECE student teacher’ ideas, with most experienced teachers perceiving participation as listening to others, feeling respect for them, and being part of the group to a greater extent than teachers with less experience, suggesting a group-oriented approach of more experienced teachers (Johansson & Sandberg, 2010).
Regarding observed process quality, we conﬁrmed the mediating role of Emotional Support. Speciﬁcally, decreased Decision Making by the Adult, as perceived by ECE teachers, was associated with increased Emotional Support, which was associated with increased Perceived Participation by children. This ﬁnding is consistent with research fo- cusing on the associations between participation and ECE quality (e.g., Correia & Aguiar, 2017; Houen et al., 2016; Sheridan, 2007; Sheridan & Samuelsson, 2001). Particularly, teachers in high-quality settings seem to promote more opportunities for children’s decision making (Sheridan, 2007) and initiative (Houen et al., 2016). It is also consistent with research emphasizing the importance of teachers’ sensitive and respectful attitudes (e.g., Bae, 2012; Freitas Luís et al., 2015; Mesquita- Pires, 2012). Emotional Support measures the extent to which teachers promote a positive climate in the ECE classroom, through positive re- lationships, aﬀect, communication, and respect. Further, this dimension captures teacher sensitivity, involving teachers ’ awareness of and re- sponsiveness to children ’s needs, assurance of children’s comfort. Im- portantly, however, it also captures teachers’ consideration for chil- dren ’s perspectives, through ﬂexibility, child-centeredness, and support for child autonomy, leadership, and expression (Pianta et al., 2008). Therefore, this study provided evidence that teachers’ subjective re- ports of Decision Making by the Adult (which re ﬂect the levels of re- ciprocity in the classroom) were associated with children ’s subjective experiences of participation, through observed (i.e., objective) high- quality proximal processes involving positive relationships, sensitive- ness, and ﬂexibility ( Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006).
Aliado a isso, para ter-se uma educação infantil inclusiva e de qualidade, é necessário que as secretarias de educação de cada estado e município, obedecendo às orientações do MEC sobre estimulação precoce, criem programas que articulem práticas e cuidados para as crianças da faixa etária atendida pela estimulação precoce. Somente assim haverá a institucionalização do programa e a sua inserção no Projeto Político Pedagógico (PPP) das creches e pré-escolas, que deve prever o AEE (Atendimento Educacional Especializado) e outros serviços que garantam a educação especial.
In recent years, however, the subject of evaluation in the field of earlychildhoodeducation has acquired social problem status, becom- ing susceptible to public political policies (Rosemberg, 2013). The legal framework instituted after the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Con- stitution (Brazil, 1988) has led to debates on this matter, both within governments and civil society, anchored in the argument of the impor- tance of guaranteeing access to a quality basic education for small chil- dren. Various proposals regarding the different paths to be followed in the evaluation of this stage are disseminated by governmental and non- governmental bodies, and express different conceptions of quality to guide public policy actions (Rosemberg, 2013; Sousa, 2018).
During the same period, we started the process to increase resources and support for Primary Health Care Professionals. We identified key elements from hospital and community services in order to: define roles, define referencing criteria, and develop consultation conditions from specialized care professionals (e.g. psychiatrists) for PHCPs. Following the initial training and increasing of resources and support for PHCPs we constituted working groups to develop the programme components and materials. Each group addressed one of the dimensions of care selected from the initial assessment: antenatal care, antenatal education, and home visits. The groups were multidisciplinary and included: nurses and family doctors from PHC, a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a public health doctor. The groups established the goals, strategies and activities for each dimension of care as a result of confronting their practices with evidence based programs and literature recommendations. Each group was also responsible to select or develop the necessary tools to support the implementation (e.g. psychosocial assessment tools, flyers). The groups worked with close interaction in order to guarantee complementarities between the dimensions and comprehensiveness of care. As a result of this work we got:
Many behavioral and mental functions are reined during youthful play. he more complex the social life of a species, the bigger the brain size, the longer the period before juveniles reach mature adulthood, and also the longer the young can play without the burdens and obligations of adult life. In this respect Pank- sepp’s (2007) study of Attention Deicit and Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHA) is interesting. Animals that have little play when young show stereotyped behavior toward peers and are deicient in regulating their aggressive urges when adults (Kempes, Den Heijer, Korteweg, Louwerse, & Sterck, 2009; Potegal and Einon, 1989). Although relevant research in human youngsters is scarce, there are good reasons for suggesting that play-deprived children also have less reined behav- ioral and mental skills for self-control. Studies show that problems with the inhi- bition of natural impulses are related to the development of ADHD and that daily sessions of playing rough-and-tumble diminish ADHD symptoms in boys.
There are very strong evidence that maternal labor supply has a negative impact on the skill formation of their children, as for instance, Carneiro and Rodrigues (2009) and Agostinelli and Sorrenti (2018). The latter article also shows that childhood family income matters - increasing by thousand dollars the family income improves cognitive development by 4.4 percent of a standard deviation - but this effect is dominated by parental quality time. Using large longitudinal survey data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, Bono et al. (2016) estimates that maternal time is a quantitatively important determinant of skill formation and that its effect declines with child age. The article finds evidence of long-term effects of early maternal time inputs on cognitive skill development 29 . The Perry Program, and many similar programs of early intervention, include visits to the parents’ houses as a form of increasing their participation in the education of their children. The evidence, hence, on parenting time and family environment having positive impact on the skills of their children is solid. It is not clear, however, how these factors have evolved, or even improved, in the recent times. In the introduction and parts of the article, we argued that the variable x is a reduced form variable that includes or represents factors affecting earlychildhood human capital. In this section, however, we add a separated and stylized variable representing effective parenting time ( a proxy for qualityand total parenting time) to the human capital function. Our objective is to evaluate how the addition of this variable changes the main results of Sections 5 and 6.
Therefore, the general scenario of services offered in 2015 corroborates the idea that ECE in this municipality has a level of high-quality standards, despite the lack of data to evaluate that thoroughly. Even though 573 children remained in the waitlist in 2016, the collected data – based on quantitative indicators and the contact with stakeholders – indicate Telêmaco Borba might be a case of success, with a partial streamlining of the ECE services’ reach, maintaining high-quality standards. All interviewees agree the situation was improved, but each of them underscores his own role in such advancements. That raises up questions concerning the evaluation of the CATs’ effects, being complex to determine if the expansion of enrollment is due to the CAT signing or other initiatives by stakeholders. Therefore, we analyze the different and contradictory narratives in the following session. Those narratives show disagreements regarding what caused improvements in the enforcement of the right to ECE, pointing to the intensification of disputes between administration and PPO.
The Classroom Diary is a register of things that happen, desires, conflicts, or accounts of events that any group member wants to register. It consists of four columns: “We liked”, “We didn’t like”, “We did” and “We wanted”. The first three columns enable the group to do a sociomoral evaluation of the week and the fourth to plan the following week. During the week, any child or adult can register what they want in the diary. They can draw or ask an adult to write for them and the child can illustrate this afterwards. At the end of the week, during the Friday afternoon council, the contents are analyzed. One child is invited to read (usually the one who wrote the sentence) and everybody takes part in the discussion. Negative events like “I don’t like it when John kicks me” or “I don’t like it that Jane spoils my drawings” are briefly but seriously discussed with all the children implicated speaking. Sometimes they give rise to a new social rule, written in the Social Rules Chart. The social rules chart is a register of the rules that are agreed to regulate the classroom group. They are always discussed with the group and arise from a real need for the rule. Working in a group is not unproblematic so, some rules have to be explicit in order to help children to work and to solve problems. They are written and illustrated by the children and are fixed upon the wall in order that they are not forgotten. Another instrument used by MEM classrooms is the responsibilities chart . Classrooms are places were a lot of work has to be done. The sociocentric approach of the MEM classes gives the children from a very young age the responsibility for certain duties like taking care of materials, preparing meals, watering the plants or feeding the animals, cleaning the tables, etc. These routines are assigned weekly to the children rotatively in the council meeting of Monday morning.
It is understood of the exposed, the relevance that the infancy acquired in the public policies in the period in question, this as an answer to the society action organized and the pressure of the social movements, generating with this an imperative for changes in the understanding of children. However, it perceives that there is a lot to be done to guarantee the rights legally achieved concretely, even when it is thought in the chil- dren that belong to the social groups destitute of survival conditions. It is at least frightening to know that in a society of classes, according to the IBGE datum (2008), a considerable percentage of families with children (45%) survive with less than a half of minimum salary. How to deal with this reality of millions of children in the outskirt of the capitalist system if their existence is most of the time denied?
The use of salivary chair side tests have demonstrated several advantages in this context: they improve patient-doctor communication, help in motivation and increase patients´ oral heath awareness by early detection of problems. Caries activity tests have been used in dental research for many years and some tests have been adapted for chair side usage. Saliva is the major component of most caries activity tests. Presently, there is no ideal test, but caries activity tests are considerate a valuable aid to motivate patients in a plaque control program and help categorize patients in high, medium and low caries activity (Prabhakar, 2009).
further explore other treasures, demonstrating their taking to the app. Students that were normally very quiet or who felt uncomfortable speaking in front of groups or in the classroom change their behavior, proving to be more dynamic and participative. Fre- quently they expressed phrases such as, “uauu”, “fantastic”, “amazing”, etc. All the participants found the experience very attractive and enjoyable. They also expressed that the most interesting skill was exploring and manipulating of the app; being an ex- perience they wanted to repeat soon.
Assim, a Toolbox e os seus conteúdos foram analisados e avaliados por diferentes stakeholders identificados, local e nacionalmente, por cada parceiro do projeto como colaboradores privilegiados e outros profissionais na área da educação de infância. Cada parceiro, em cada país, planeou e organizou diferentes estratégias com vista à valorização e disseminação/divulgação do projeto e das práticas da Toolbox tendo como objetivo comum reunir comentários e contributos sobre o conteúdo da mesma e perceber a sua pertinência para os profissionais de educação de infância desse mesmo país. Pretende-se, contudo, que as práticas não sejam entendidas como um modelo restrito mas como exemplos interessantes e inovadores, adaptáveis às especificidades dos contextos educativos.
Secondary Education is the highway between primary schooling, tertiary (higher) educationand the labor market. Its ability to connect these destinations and take young people where they want to go in life is crucial. Moreover, demand for access to higher levels of education is growing dramatically as countries approach universal primary education. The global “Education for All” (EFA) effort provides added momentum for the growth in Secondary Education. Furthermore, globalization and the increasing demand for a more sophisticated labor force, combined with the growth of knowledge-based economies gives a sense of urgency to the heightened demand for Secondary Education. In today’s world, Secondary Education has a vital mission, which combines the policy peculiarities of being at the same time terminal and preparatory, compulsory and post- compulsory, uniform and diverse, general and vocational. Secondary Education is now being recognized as the cornerstone of educational systems in the 21st century. Quality Secondary