Public health interventions

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Scrub typhus in mainland China, 2006-2012: the need for targeted public health interventions.

Scrub typhus in mainland China, 2006-2012: the need for targeted public health interventions.

risk and 15% of the study period. The spatial reference was the geographical centre of each county and statistical sig- nificance of clusters was assessed using p- value,0.05. The results of this analysis identified a significant primary cluster (cluster 1) of scrub typhus cases located in 176 counties of Guangdong Province, Fujian Province, Jiangxi Province, and Guangxi Province, which occurred during May–November 2012 (RR = 20.81, p, 0.01; Figure 1). Public health interventions to limit scrub typhus transmission, such as health promotion, environmental man- agement, and rodent and vector control, should be prioritized in these regions. Our study also identified five secondary clusters (clusters 2–6). The secondary clusters were dispersed throughout the Southwest, East and Northeast of China (Figure 1). Cluster 2, located in 107 counties of Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces, occurred between June 2012 and September 2012 (RR = 39.27, p,0.01). Cluster 3, mainly located in 215 counties of Jiangsu, Anhui, and Shandong Provinces, occurred between October and November 2012 (RR = 24.65, p,0.01). Cluster 4, located in two counties of
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An overview of systematic reviews of economic evaluations of pharmacy-based public health interventions : addressing methodological challenges

An overview of systematic reviews of economic evaluations of pharmacy-based public health interventions : addressing methodological challenges

In recent years, governments in various countries have in- troduced profound changes to pharmacy remuneration sys- tems in the components related to equitable, safe, and quality access to medicines and to efficiency and/or quality incentives. These two components are the most important in pharmacy remuneration systems. However, the network of pharmacies provides a unique opportunity for govern- ments to implement relevant public health interventions, that fit within national, regional and local health policies, in close collaboration with primary care. In several countries, governments have already contracted with pharmacies to pay for relevant interventions. However, as for any other health technology, public health interventions provided by community pharmacists must seek to demonstrate effect- iveness and economic benefits to be reimbursed by public payers.
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Rev. Saúde Pública  vol.50

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.50

In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and relected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades. hus, the journal has followed the success of public health interventions that permitted to control or eliminate numerous infectious diseases – which were responsible, in the past, for high rates of morbidity and mortality –, and also followed the reemergence of diseases already controlled and the emergence of until then unknown diseases, with a strong impact on the Brazilian population, establishing a little predictable and very challenging path.
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Comparison of Immunization in Iran and Turkey between Years 1980- 2013

Comparison of Immunization in Iran and Turkey between Years 1980- 2013

Thanks to the progress accomplished by countries, immunization is today one of the safest, most cost-effective, and powerful means of preventing deaths and improving lives. Over the years, all countries of the world have incorporated an increasingly broad immunization agenda in their public health interventions. Immunization programmes are now routinely reaching over 80 percent of children under one year of age. The continued discovery, research and development of new and improved vaccines has made immunization even more effective in combating major causes of childhood illness and death. Indeed, the number of vaccines available today to protect infants, children and also now adolescents and adults against infectious diseases has increased substantially.
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A public health approach to health and retirement

A public health approach to health and retirement

In Table 2 we present a summary of the international studies, published between 1992 and 2013, which aimed to investigate the effects of retirement on different health states (chronic diseases and self-perceived health). The search provided us with 16 different studies. One study found no effects of retirement on cancer, while another study found no effects of retirement on chronic respiratory diseases. In what concerns cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, three studies were found, two of which described retirement as a risk factor, and the third found an absence of association. Nine studies focused on the impact of retirement on mental health and two on antidepressant use (Table 2). From those nine stud- ies, four described a negative effect of retirement on mental health; three described a positive effect; and one described an absence of association (Table 2). One study found a positive effect of retirement on the antidepressant use and other found a lack of association (Table 2). Regarding diabetes, both two studies about the impact of retirement on diabetes reported the absence of a significant association (Table 2). Finally, con- cerning the self-perceived health, in the seven studies present in Table 2, five described positive effects of retirement, one found negative effects, and another one found no effects of retirement on self-perceived health.
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Knowledge transfer on complex social interventions in public health: a scoping study.

Knowledge transfer on complex social interventions in public health: a scoping study.

Whether they are endeavoring to improve public health or reduce health-related social inequities, public health officials suggest and initiate increasingly complex interventions [1]. Indeed, the problems they face are most often multidisciplinary because of the diverse social determinants of health [2]. These problems therefore require responses that are adapted to local contexts and involve the participation of a number of people. They differ from clinical interventions, for which the objective is to prevent and treat illness in individuals and which can be handled in a standardized manner [1]. These complex social interventions: are based on the presumption that they will produce better results than standard individual interventions; involve the action of several players in the field; consist of a chain process involving several professionals and adapt to the social context in which they occur. The implementation of these interventions is not linear. It uses the bottom-up or top-down model and offers the ability to return to earlier stages of the implementation to adjust and adequately meet the needs of the supporting environment [3–5]. To illuminate the complexity of these interventions their characteristics are illustrat-
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Key words Public health, School health, Vaccina-

Key words Public health, School health, Vaccina-

Abstract A cross-sectional study in conjunction with a health extension program was conduct- ed with 605 adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years from 22 public schools in Divinópolis, Brazil. The aim of the study was to determine the vaccination status of the adolescents and their level of knowledge of communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases. Three-stage cluster sampling was used comprising schools, classes, and students. The findings show that vaccination coverage among adolescents was 45.1% and yel- low fever was shown to have the lowest coverage rate (64%). The most mentioned diseases when the adolescents were asked which vaccinations they had had were infantile paralysis (60.7%), yellow fever (56%), tetanus (34%), and measles (28.6%).Extension activities were conducted with 6,650 people, comprising vaccination (2,334 doses administered), aimed at expanding vaccination coverage, and health education activities with 2,839 adolescents directed at sexually transmit- ted diseases, family planning; and licit and illicit drugs. The study had a positive impact in terms of the expansion of vaccination coverage and the extension activities played an essential role in in- creasing the adolescents’ knowledge of the themes addressed.
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Key words Public health, School health, Vaccina-

Key words Public health, School health, Vaccina-

with a health extension program was conduct- ed with 605 adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years from 22 public schools in Divinópolis, Brazil. The aim of the study was to determine the vaccination status of the adolescents and their level of knowledge of communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases. Three-stage cluster sampling was used comprising schools, classes, and students. The findings show that vaccination coverage among adolescents was 45.1% and yel- low fever was shown to have the lowest coverage rate (64%). The most mentioned diseases when the adolescents were asked which vaccinations they had had were infantile paralysis (60.7%), yellow fever (56%), tetanus (34%), and measles (28.6%).Extension activities were conducted with 6,650 people, comprising vaccination (2,334 doses administered), aimed at expanding vaccination coverage, and health education activities with 2,839 adolescents directed at sexually transmit- ted diseases, family planning; and licit and illicit drugs. The study had a positive impact in terms of the expansion of vaccination coverage and the extension activities played an essential role in in- creasing the adolescents’ knowledge of the themes addressed.
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Challenges and strategies to improve the availability and geographic accessibility of physicians in Portugal

Challenges and strategies to improve the availability and geographic accessibility of physicians in Portugal

market in Portugal. We conducted a structured search in PubMed and the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS)), in government and other rele- vant websites and in newspapers available online. In paral- lel, we consulted six informants (a researcher, three professionals from the Ministry of Health (MoH) and two from the NHS) to validate our data collection strategy and eventually give us access to unpublished documents. The search strategy is described in Additional file 1: Table S1. Selected documents were classified as (I) official docu- ments of the Portuguese government, such as National Health Plans, relevant legislation, technical and policy analysis reports and policy statements; (II) scientific re- search documents including peer-reviewed articles and re- search reports; and (III) newspaper articles.
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A Century of Tuberculosis Epidemiology in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere: The Differential Impact of Control Interventions.

A Century of Tuberculosis Epidemiology in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere: The Differential Impact of Control Interventions.

Estimated mid-year populations of Cape Town were extracted from the MoH annual reports and the National Department of Health Information System Programme [9, 10]. HIV preva- lence was estimated from the Actuarial Society of South Africa Western Cape AIDS and Demo- graphic model 2008 [11]. The annual mid-year populations of New York 1912–1950 were sourced from the report of the New York Tuberculosis and Health Organisation [2], thereafter calculated from the 10-yearly censuses of New York [12, 13]. Cape Town and New York’s administrative definition remained the same over time. In 1965, London County Council was combined with Outer London to form the Greater London Area. As this became the
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Journal of Public Health

Journal of Public Health

One of the major problems in research and health practice related to impairment is the inaccuracy of definitions all over the world, which makes it difficult to exchange infor- mation obtained by different authors. In this paper, the concepts of impairment, disabil- ity and handicap are discussed based on the publication by the National Secretariat for Rehabilitation of the World Health Organization (Portugal, 1989) and the analysis of recent publications related to this subject. Four categories were established: a) con- cepts; b) application of concepts; c) questions related to terminology and; d) theoretical models and their implication. Disparities, consistencies and breadth of this literature were also analyzed giving emphasis to the importance of the terminology used to provide general understanding and better communication between experts.
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en 1678 4464 csp 32 12 eED011216

en 1678 4464 csp 32 12 eED011216

From 1988 until 2016, the consolidation of a universal health system was not a central issue in the government agenda. Nonetheless, historical-structural characteristics which limit the universalization of health were counterbalanced by specific national policies. These policies boosted the expansion of public service supply and access and the reorien- tation of the health care model, especially in basic care, producing improvements in public health indicators 4,5 .

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Teaching of public health in a university : Responsibilities of a school of public health

Teaching of public health in a university : Responsibilities of a school of public health

ate instruction of various professional groups to be employed in community health programs, leaving instruction of all other students to their respective colleges as un[r]

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Significance of immunization for public health

Significance of immunization for public health

Anti-vaccination movement in Serbia, culminating in the 2009/2010 swine flu pandemic, now shows its adverse effects on vaccination coverage as the increasing number of diseased children and the announced measles epidemic in a few parts of our country. Public confidence in vaccines and vaccination has been weakened, so in time it could compro- mise all the positive effects of immunization that were diffi- cult to obtain over decades. Anti-vaccination movement worldwide tends to lessen the significance and points out, even fabricates, adverse effects of immunization, with no ar- guments and proofs, all the time doubtful about the ethics and humanity of the promoters of immunization, that is he- alth workers. Every single negative information about vacci- nation spreads around quickly, also thanks to the Internet. Unfortunately, this is not the first time since that anti- vaccination movement appeared in history before. In the 70s in England spread the story about adverse effects of the whooping cough vaccine, about it as a conspiracy hatched by pharmacology, that resulted in the decrease of the vaccinati- on coverage to 39%. Whooping cough, eradicated disease, came back and killed a great number of children, then people started to vaccinate children again. If anti-vaccination mo- vement succeeded today, it would be easy to imagine the consequences. So, countries that take care of their nations work hard to promote immunization.
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Public health in El Salvador

Public health in El Salvador

Among the important developments which should be mentioned are: the establishment of the Model Health Unit at Santa Tecla, and the later ones at Santa Ana and [r]

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Pan American Public Health Association

Pan American Public Health Association

The Pan American Sanitary Bureau has given support during the past ten years to the United States-Mexico Border Public Health Association which has been composed of members [r]

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New perspectives in public health

New perspectives in public health

After years of delay, epidemiologists are beginning to capture an interest and a par- ticipation in the validation of disease cause and effect. The shift from th[r]

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Electromagnetic fields and public health

Electromagnetic fields and public health

At a working meeting in Vienna, held 22–25 October 1997, Project manager Michael Repacholi stated, “Health research in this area has been largely ad hoc and totally uncoordinated at the international level. As a result, the picture of possi- ble adverse effects from EMF exposure is incom- plete, which has given rise to a combination of both real and perceived fears.”

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a Public Health Informatics Approach :: Brapci ::

a Public Health Informatics Approach :: Brapci ::

A seção 11 aborda o caso dos recursos humanos para operar este tipo de sistema nas suas diferentes eta- pas recomenda uma maior informatização dos sistemas e capacitação na área de inf[r]

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Rev. bras. epidemiol.  vol.15 número4

Rev. bras. epidemiol. vol.15 número4

As a result of the Forum, a meeting be- tween ABRASCO and SciELO took place in December 2012, to develop a proposal for the creation of a cooperative network of the scien- tific journals in the area of Collective Health, aiming to reduce editorial production costs and support the development of scientific editorial services in this area.

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