estimation using the propensity score control group. The sequence of tables is similar to the analysis of the micro-region of Litoral do Camocim e Acaraú in the previous section. Starting with Tables 2.11 and 2.12 for the total number of workers and agricultural workers, respectively, the results are negative and significant, which means irrigation access decreased the wages and productivity of the region. One possible reason for this, as explained in the previous analysis, is the influence of other sectors of the economy or, more plausibly, the increase of family farmers who produce for their own consumption. In Table 2.12, in order of analize the influence on the agricultural wages, I have selected all sectors from the code 01101 to 01999, which is a subdivision of the CNAE list, and includes the production of “Agriculture, livestock, hunting and related services”. Therefore, it is possible that this sector moved to other non-irrigated areas, such as textile industry.
The Lula Government was also the background of changes in the legal frameworks of the PNAE, following the approval of Law No.11.947/2009 and Resolution No.38/2009 of the Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educação (FNDE, National Fund for Education Development) . Among these modifications, three guidelines stand out: the use of adequate and healthy eating habits, including the use of varied and safe foods, respecting the local food culture, traditions and healthy eating habits; the inclusion of food and nutrition education in the school curriculum; and the requirement of acquiring diversified food, produced locally and preferably by family agriculture, using at least 30% of the FNDE’s resources for this purpose, prioritizing the native production of indigenous communities, quilombolas, agrarian reform settlements, and organic and agroecological foods . Table 2 contains information on the performance of the PNAE throughout the Lula government, in relation to the number of students benefited and the amount of financial resources spent.
Políticas públicas tendem a ser compreendidas como o “Estado em ação”, ou seja, o Estado implantando um projeto de governo. Trata-se de ações procedentes de uma autoridade dotada de poder político e de legitimidade governamental que afeta um ou mais setores da sociedade. Muller e Surel (2004, p. 11), numa perspectiva cognitiva, entendem a ação do Estado como um “lugar privilegiado” no qual as complexas sociedades modernas “vão colocar o problema crucial de sua relação com o mundo através da construção de paradigmas ou de referenciais”. Os instrumentos que daí derivam favorecem a ação social "e os espaços de sentido no interior das quais os grupos sociais vão interagir”. Os dois autores analisam o caráter polissêmico do termo ‘política’. Sublinham que essa polissemia impõe cuidados na análise das políticas públicas, pois evocam perspectivas simultâneas como a da esfera da política (polity) –a distinção entre o mundo da política e a sociedade civil; a da atividade política (politics) – a atividade política em geral; e a da ação pública (policies) – processo pelo qual são elaborados e implementados programas de ação pública.
Regarding the contributions that Pronera brought to rural education, it is emphasized, according to Molina and Jesus (2010), the results obtained through the education projects. These results Hélder many workers and students, as well as over two hundred agreements among approximately sixty universities. However, it is worth considering that the Academic space also features much resistance to such interaction. Many universities have difficulties to accept the presence of students linked to social movements. This territory has historically been institutionalized to serve the economic and intellectualized elite. On the other hand, the contribution ofpublic universities to the program reveals that many teachers and students have sought new guidelines for higher education in the country with a view to meet the interests of those who are socially excluded. According to Gadotti (2003):
Approximately 65% to 85% of Cohesion Policy total investment will have to be applied in the first two objectives and the thematic concentration, that is, the allocation of resources by each political objective, will be applied at the national level. Another innovation relates to the method of allocating the funds, which will continue to be based on the Berlin formula adopted by the 1999 European Council, which is predominantly based on per capita GDP but incorporates new criteria for all categories regions, notably unemployment and education levels, climate change and the reception and integration of migrants, in order to better reflect the evolution of disparities in recent years and socio-economic reality on the ground. In terms of the architecture of cohesion policy, a substantial reduction in the number of European funding programs is proposed, from the current 58 to only 37, as well as a stronger relationship with the European Semester in order to improve the investment environment in Europe. In terms of its regulatory framework, it is proposed that it be simpler and more flexible and with less rules, more succinct and clear and common to the different European funds.
The unsustainable growth of several cities, in Brazil and worldwide, implies negative effects that can interfere with the fundamental inputs for modern economies, such as water and energy. It is necessary to adopt a more sustainable growth model, adapting the cities development to new demands. Thereby, this study aimed to identify and analyze through online research, publicpolicies to encourage sustainability practices in Brazilian municipalities, considering that changes in effective depend, among other aspects, of incentive programs and specific legislation. We adopted the scope of the municipality as a method of territorial reduction, where publicpolicies were cataloged, and the results were finally recorded in the form of spreadsheets and graphs. The South Region presented a more expressive number of initiatives. We also verified that the most frequent subjects in
historically we have on the first penal code towards young offenders, known as the Mello Matos Code implemented in 1927, the correlation between youth and criminality. With the second one, a reformulation of the previous during the Military Regime and known as the Minors Code of 1979, such laws only depicted the connection between poverty, racism and violence. Abide by both, poverty situation became an indicative of familiar disruption and the children born in poor economic environments should be restrained into closed institutions due to their ‘inherent nature to cause social disorder’. These children were known as ‘minors’. Towards this ‘minor’, preventive actions ought to be taken. Towards these children seen as a social problem, a series of repressive practices were elaborated. Raniere and Maraschin (2011, p. 100) point out that in the history of Brazil such actions are directly connected to a correctional utopia, through which policies for youth came “so that the young offender could be reprogrammed in his illegal and undisciplined tendencies”: it is the promotion of a domestication of the transgressor.
The important historical feature of the period exam- ined by us was that the economic events of party and state, conducted in an agrarian sector in his chronolog- ic scopes, were aimed at the correction of defects of former politics in the village conducted from the be- ginning of collectivization. Politics of soviet guidance in area ofagriculture in 1958-1964 carried contradicto- ry enough and inconsistent character. From one side, it fully realized the necessity of changes for this sphere, with other, it could not renounce political and ideolog- ical principles and to give large freedom to the peas- antry
17 Thus, and in what concerns the IGP- “Algarve’s citrus fruit”, in order that this one integrates the majority of production and centrals of fruits , it has to suit the quality attributes more valued by the main distribution channels of the Algarve’s citrus fruit, the Supply Markets and the Purchasing Centrals of Hypermarkets and Supermarkets. Regarding this, it was highlighted above that these distribution channels have different requirement levels as to the citrus external aspect. The Provision Markets, which are those trading most of the fruits (58 %) give less importance to the external aspect of the citrus fruit than the Purchasing Centrals of Hypermarkets and Supermarkets. They give more importance to the amount of juice and sweetness the attributes that better suit the “present state” of the Algarve’s citrus fruit. So, this IGP should integrate two types of differentiation, with different requirements, according to the distribution channel to be used by the different types of agents. Worth of note is this specification should be agreed with the sector economic agents’ consensus, since it is known that a Geographic Indication must result from a collective agreement process, involving producers, traders, distributors, consumer associations and the public administration as a ruling entity. In an agro-food system all the stakeholders are independent and should coordinate their actions regarding a product, which, in spite of being protected, is subject to the development of technology and distribution (Fragata, 2003). Thus, the construction of this specific quality must be a process that gives origin to collective decisions, where the imposed constraints are pertinent and may be controlled by the stakeholders’ majority. As it is known, introducing a possibility of differentiation within a quality common convention, taking into account the market types, allows to integrate the diversity of interests and render the stakeholders more solidary.
Biomass is an important energy source, since it considers wastes discarded by other productive processes as inputs. As such, the determination of the most relevant variables, within an institutional dimension, exerts a significant influence to point out actions that should receive greater attention for the satisfactory implementation and monitoring of national publicpolicies. Therefore, the general objective of this study is to determine, within the institutional dimension of the State, the most relevant variables for the decision making ofpublicpolicies that consider the biomass source as an alternative to the energy matrix of the Brazilian territory. In order to reach the proposed objective, the method used for this research is qualitative and descriptive, using content analysis and the establishment of indexes for the determination of the variables. As a result, 12 most relevant variables have been considered, following the criterion of greater direct and / or indirect frequency, in the formation of these publicpolicies considering the reuse of waste and energy generation: 1) greenhouse effect, 2) contamination, 3) waste disposal, 4) inputs, 5) technology, 6) biofuel, 7) biogas, 8) electric power, 9) society, 10) composting, 11) costs, and 12) investments.
O texto considera inicialmente que o Governo Federal financia pesquisas básicas e aplicadas na expectativa de alcançar melhores condições de vida e bem-estar para seus cidadãos. Para isso, as novas ideias e descobertas devem ser compartilhadas e efetivamente disseminadas, tendo na Internet a ferramenta que possibilita que a informação esteja rapidamente disponível para os cidadãos conectados em rede. Ressalta que é interesse do país maximizar o impacto e a utilidade das pesquisas que financia possibilitando uma vasta gama de reusos da literatura revisada por pares, inclusive permitindo a análise computacional do estado da arte das tecnologias. Como a Lei tem a função de instruir as agências federais, seu texto apresenta os pré- requisitos para o desenvolvimento de uma política de acesso público à pesquisa. A Lei está direcionada às agências federais de grande porte – pelo valor do investimento em pesquisa extramuros, indicando como solução a manutenção de repositório institucional pela agência ou seleção de um repositório existente, devendo tais repositórios atuar de forma interoperável, com acesso público e preservação em longo prazo. Limita a obrigatoriedade do depósito a pós-prints (publicações revisadas) resultantes de pesquisas realizadas por seus funcionários ou pesquisadores financiados, estabelecendo, como prazo máximo de embargo, seis meses após a publicação. Assim, excluem documentos não revisados por pares e documentos primários de pesquisa como relatórios, anotações, conferências (dados abertos). Enfim, privilegiam o artigo, somente se não implicar em perdas de possíveis ganhos do autor com copyright ou patente. Ressaltam que as agências deverão estabelecer um padrão comum para coleção e depósito, mas não indica qual será. Como o FASTR ainda não tivesse sido aprovado pelo Congresso Americano, uma nova proposta foi submetida para análise das casas em 10 de março de 2014: “The Frontiers in Innovation, Research, Science and Technology Act” (FIRST). Em sua Seção 303 – Public Access to Research Articles and Data – estipula que no prazo máximo de 18 meses após publicação do Ato, o National Science and Technology Council deverá entregar um plano ao Congresso contendo as políticas, procedimentos e padrões de modo que as agências Federais sejam capazes de arquivar e recuperar material digital para disponibilização pública perpétua.
The Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of each technique was used to estimate costs of different tech- niques, using the latest version available in the laboratory. The tests were monitored by the researcher to confirm the validity of the SOP. This was also used as a guide for set- ting the maximum capacity, which consisted of determin- ing the maximum number of samples that could be pro- cessed for a technique given full capacity operation of equipment and an eight-hour work day. This number was designated as 100% usage of available capacity. For exam- ple, for DNA extraction using a GE kit, 12 blood samples was considered 100% capacity, because this is the maxi- mum number of samples that could be processed simulta- neously in the available microcentrifuge. Thus, for each technique, the value of 100% capacity is dependent on the equipment used. For comparison purposes, the analysis of 70%, 50% and 30% of available capacity scenarios was de- fined a priori. To calculate cost in these scenarios, variable costs were adjusted accordingly (for instance, half of the kit is used for six blood samples), whereas invariable costs were held constant (the amount of work hours is the same whether 12, six or three samples are processed). The perfor- mance of multiple techniques on a single machine [e.g., a Genetic Analyzer used to perform assays of microsatellite instability (MSI), multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and DNA sequencing] required the distribution of total usage hours per month at 100% capacity among the techniques; equal division among techniques was used in this model.
The disputes and changes being crafted in cities goes beyond the political struggle of resistance to the logic of economic production, and can be engendered from within. Thanks to its function of social reproduction, cities provide the apparatus of maintenance to the labor force that favors everyday encounters and also the space for the reproduction of the consumption structure that localize the provision of services. This makes of cities the quintessential site for changes and social innovation that emerge in urban spaces. Projects of solidary economy that acquire multiple forms across territories, startups engaged with the exercise of citizenship, and struggles of the extractive collaborative economy such as AirBnB and Uber are examples of the potentialities enabled by the city in changing the landscape in the productive arrangements. In such complex and dynamic social reality, marginal and liminal organized forms (Meira, 2014) coexist with new technologies that craft institutional spaces for democratic participation (Subirats, 2015b).
Research on cities have received increased attention over the years. Urban spaces are, on the one hand, a significant target of speculative financial investments and commodification of life, generating dynamics that are very difficult to contain within the competencies of local governments. At the same time, cities are the central space of everyday life, where there is resistance at many levels seeking to defend the conditions of living and subsistence of the majority of citizens. This special issue presents exciting contributions to the debate on publicpolicies and the city. The articles published approach cities as urban spaces of diversity and encounters; the arena of discursive and material struggles; contradictory embeddedness of commodification and resistance; the focus of institutional disputes between exclusion and participation; and finally, changing spaces that respond to the need for new management technologies at a local level. Drawing on various theoretical frameworks and rich empirical discussions, this special issue reclaims cities as central spaces of everyday life, which are particularly important for protection and emancipation in a global scenario of uncertainty.
With the exception of Italy, all the countries have some form of minimum income schemes at a national level. The four countries can be divided into four groups (Frazier and Marlier, 2009): i) a relatively simple and comprehensive scheme open to all those with insufficient means to support themselves (Portugal); ii) a quite simple and categorical scheme with rather restricted eligibility and coverage of people in need of financial assistance (Poland); iii) a complex set of different, often categorical, schemes (Spain); iv) limited arrangements which is restricted to quite categories of people and not cover many of those in need (Italy) 18 .
Roofless Workers’ Movement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem-Teto – MTST) and the National Movement of the Struggle for Housing (Movimento Nacional de Luta pela Moradia - MNLM). The Coordination of Social Movements (Coordenação dos Movimentos Sociais – CMS) was also created, combining several movements related to the housing issue (GOHN, 2010). Participation in the social movements by means of the associations and cooperatives in housing policy is still a result of these struggles and pressures. Housing programs - such as Residential Lease Program (Programa de Arrendamento Residencial - PAR) - allowed the cooperatives to participate, however, did not encompass self-management. Other programs were created, such as: the Solidary Credit Program (Programa Crédito Solidário - PCS), created in 2004 and applied to families grouped by a cooperative, association or private non-profit entity, using resources from the Social Development Fund (Fundo de Desenvolvimento Social - FDS) to buy or remodel the house; the Social housing Production Program (Programa Produção Social da Moradia), created in 2008; and the program My House My Life Entities (Minha Casa Minha Vida Entidades - MCMV-E), created in 2009, allowing access to participate in associations, cooperatives and non-profit entities whose goal is to promote social housing.
The rotational slash-and-burn agricultural system, largely dependent on the duration of the fallow period to restore the productivity of the land, is still extensively practiced by small land holders in the Northeastern Pará State, Brazil. Clear signs of agronomic and ecological failure of this system have been represented by consistently decreasing crop yields, fallow period shortening, and structural and compositional depletion of the natural recovering vegetation (capoeira). The SHIFT-capoeira research project (ENV-25) has been developing and introducing fire-free alternative management practices such as (i) the enrichment of the capoeira vegetation to improve biomass production and nutrient recovery/fixation, (ii) use of a bush-chopper that allow the mulching (instead of burning) of the biomass, (iii) mulch management/fertilization for optimal weed control and crop absorption of stocked nutrients, and (iv) crop rotation/association/cultivation techniques that are, on the one hand, adapted to fire-free agricultural production, and on the other, more suited to fulfil the household as well as the commercial needs of the farmers. The focus of this study is the evaluation of the contribution of these management alternatives for the sustainability of the agricultural activity developed by the small land holders in Northeastern Pará, with special reference to the non- monetary gains in terms of ecological function restoration and natural resources conservation afforded by fire-free management practices. The final purpose of the research effort is to draw indications ofpublicpolicies directed to improving the efficacy of the development programs dedicated to the small land-holders of the region.