The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section two reviews some stylised fiscal facts for the EU, both in terms of spending and tax items. Section three presents available empirical evidence on public sector efficiency. Section four discusses the implications from Dupuit’s and Pigou’s intuition for the evaluation of the costs associated with inefficiency in publicservices provision. The analysis concentrates exclusively on the financing side. The provision of public goods is taken as fixed. Increased inefficiency translates into higher taxes. Following Pigou, we will argue that a true measure of the cost must take into account the “direct and the indirect damage”. This section then argues that for reasonable parameter values and given available estimates on public sector efficiency the “indirect damage” is likely significant. Such indirect damage is the higher the greater the provision of publicservices and the lesser the efficiency in their provision, as illustrated numerically. Section five concludes.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the efficiency of publicly provided private services at the regional level in Italy. We measure the performance of Italian regions regarding the provision of publicservices by constructing a so-called total regional performance indicator for strategic sectors such as general administration, energy, water and sewage, solid waste, transports. Using such composite indicator as an output measure, we then use a non-parametric methodology, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to estimate efficiency scores for public spending in the 20 Italian Regions in 2001. By means of frontier analysis we are able to identify regions that might qualify as “performing well” from those were some improvement might increase their efficiency. To our knowledge, this is a first effort of checking efficiency and productivity in Italian Regions using non-parametric analysis. Moreover, the relationship between citizens and policy makers as far as the demand for efficient publicservices is concerned will also be discussed.
This article analyzes the performance of psychologists in public mental health services in response to school demand in Bahia. To that end, the psychologists who work in the Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) answered a questionnaire with questions about their professional profile, the profile of the school demands and the practices and conceptions adopted in meeting these demands. The analysis pointed out, in relation to the professional profile, the presence of female psychologists, young, recently graduated in private educational institutions. Regarding the referral profile, the presence of poor and black students aged 6 to 12 years old, students of public primary education, referred by learning and behavior problems, stands out. In the care, an individualized view of the school complaint prevails, although there are professionals who incorporate critical elements. It expects, with the research, to contribute to the advances in the attendance to the school demands, present in publications in the field of the school and educational psychology in a critical perspective.
The Brazilian Ministry of Health has signaled a policy of evaluating the quality of primary care through the 1654 decree of 19.07.2011. Any organizational change interferes with the culture of any institution, especially when this change is directed toward the issue of quality. It involves processes, internal resources and people, and cannot be artificially produced by the power of the pen. In the health sector, management based on quality involves changes in business focus and technology, supported the rescue of professional-patient relationship, in the form of compensation of physicians and teams, in the qualification and training of professional, in qualifications in their own management, and in active participation of health professionals in the Agreement on these goals and quality parameters. Other instruments of quality assessment have been established within the Primary Care in public health sub-system, and its follow-up was interrupted. Qualifying the Primary is not just about evaluation, but also the selection of qualified professionals, qualification of services, monitoring results and valuation of health professionals involved with the new culture.
influence of political interests or economical certain, 3) The obligation to be and to work with honest, imparsial, and efficient, 4) The obligation to always work with manners, good against people it serves, and to a superior, colleagues and his subordinates, 5) An Obligation to prevent themselves from the difference between private interests with the position of public spaces, 6) Obligation not to take advantage of unnatural or his position for personal interest, 7) The obligation to always behave in such a way for the sake of maintaining and increasing trust and confidence on public integrity, impartiality and the effectiveness of publicservices by, 8) An obligation to carry out tasks and functions iktikad on the basis either, perseverance based on professional skills, knowledge, and sufficient experience, 9) Obligation to always maintain a balance between respect for rights and freedom of citizens with an obligation to precede the public interest, and did not impose restrictions that unnatural unreasonable restrictions, 10) An obligation to respect the rights of citizens for public information, 11) Sanctions law firm to offences
Excessive perinatal interventions (in mothers and newborns), independent of obstetric/fetal risks, have previously been reported in private health services of Brazil [9, 12] and Australia . Our study estimated the effect on rates of prematurity if, among low-risk women, rates of provider-initiated late preterm births were the same in private services as in publicservices. We found that the prematurity rate would decrease to 11% (from 9.5% to 8.4%) in private health services. This would indicate an annual reduction of approximately 6,600 preterm births nationally. It is essential to highlight that there would be a higher impact on preterm birth rates if provider-initiated late preterm births were prevented in women of high obstetric risk as well. Although this group corresponded to 24% of women, provider-initiated late preterm birth rate was more than five times higher when compared to women of low obstetric risk; with addi- tional differences between public and private services. Moreover, the potential for reduction of preterm birth rates in Brazil can be of greater magnitude if the comparison group is external (from high-income European countries) rather than Brazilian public health services, which is yet quite interventionist.
Among adults, most were female (64%), 45.6% had income up to 1MW and 57.9% had from 5 to 11 years of schooling. Among older adults, 62.4% were female, 28% had equivalized household income up to 1MW and 61% had 4 or less years of schooling. The description of the main sociodemographic variables of the sample were described considering the sample weight. Adults and older adults used more private (45% and 56.5%, respectively) than publicservices (40.4% adults and 33.9%). Only 14.6% of adults and 9.6% of older adults used private health plan or insurance. Over 85% in both age groups evaluated the services as good or very good (Table 1). In the crude model, using the public service was associated with more dissatisfaction than using the private one (OR = 1.41; 95%CI: 1.29-1.54), but there was no difference in using the health plan (OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.86-1.10) among adults. Similar results were found among older adults. However, in the adjusted model, the difference in user sat- isfaction between the private and public service lost the statistical significance for both age groups. However, the proportion of adults who used the services by health plans was associated with more dissatisfaction than using the private service (OR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.01-1.30) (Table 2). DFMT was removed from the final model in both the adult and older adult groups. Sex was only removed from the final model in the adult group.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze factors associated with the use of dental services in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in the city of Olinda, northeastern Brazil. Methods: A quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted involving individuals over 18 years of age (n=492) registered at Family Health Units. Data analysis was per- formed with SPSS program (version 11.0) and involved 2 test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The number of individ- uals who sought dentists at publicservices (58.6%) was greater than that who sought dentists in the private sector (37.4%). Among those who used publicservices in the previous 12 months, only 18.9% had access to a dentist from a Family Health Unit. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the use of services was associated with toothaches in the previous six months and living in a rented home (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results show that access to dental services was highly limited, even in areas covered by an Oral Health Team. Moreover, access was potentiated by indicators of oral health needs and socio- economic status.
the messages which are transmitted are not always appropriate and/or suficient to lead people to adopt preventive behavior. This may occur due to misinfor- mation by the media itself or to dificulties that those who receive the messages have interpreting them. 22 This study indicates gender-related differences regarding sexual health. Although the need to include men in sexual health initiatives has been emphasized, especially in recent years, it tends to be women who seek more information on the doubts concerning this area. Men have a more distant and resistant attitude to preventive Table 2. Public health care services users’ knowledge about HPV, and the adequacy of that knowledge, according to sociodemographic characteristics. Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil, 2012.
A financial structure to implement and to operate the program should be developed, with subventions from the governments and shared responsibilities for the provider of the services; with an appropriate system of transparency and social control. A new and specific tariff for those services must be included in this planning, considering that the underprivileged ones should not bear those costs. According to Peixoto (2013), “the access to services of sanitation only for the ones who pay tariffs or fees has been contributing to the exclusion of the poorest part of the population from this social right”. A possible initiative, which was indeed applied in the rural energy program, would be to implement two Articles of Law 14,445/97 (Brasil 2007, Peixoto 2013). These are Article 29, which provides for “a subsidy policy for the users or localities which do not have capacity for payment or the economic scale to cover the costs of installations”, and Article 13, which provides for a fund to pay for the universalization of public sanitation services”. Finally, a transparency portal should be established with targets, investments, subsidies, funds, financing, loans, services provided and timelines; organization and public positions should be established for this universalization program in order to keep appropriate social control.
The use of drugs of abuse, both licit and il- licit, has been present throughout the history of humanity and in practically all known cultures; it is considered one of the major public health problems experienced by the Brazilian population, mainly because violence is frequently associated with the context of the drugs. The issue of drugs, notably those which are illicit, has become a fo- cus of concern for the authorities responsible for public health policies and public safety, due to the increasingly evident indications of their use by the population, and by the growing associa- tion between the traficking of drugs and urban violence. 1-3
The impact of Information Security incidents in scientific research organizations are observed by Burd (2006), who cite as consequences the damage to private data and intellectual property, financial losses, and threats to critical infrastructure, public safety and national security. Alexandria (2009) also points out many incidents in a research institute and their consequences, which include business interruption, unavailability of services and systems, and non-compliance with laws. Perkel (2010) includes website defacement, theft of personal information and passwords, stealing of computing resources, intellectual property, proprietary compounds, instrument designs, patient data and personal communications, and lawsuits, public embarrassment and loss of grants. According to Rezgui and Marks (2008), the compromise of information and systems can undermine the credibility and viability of academic organizations. Given these impacts, protecting information in a public research institute is crucial to comply with legal and ethical obligations, as well as protecting the image of the organization, and ensuring the continuity of its activities.
In this study, we found that having many residents in a household increases the prevalence of public service use. One possible explanation is that the increase in the number of residents in a home indicates a greater number of individuals who are dependent on the family income and therefore have a reduced ability to afford private services. Thus, the decision of which ser- vice to use would be based on the complete needs of all the people who depend on the same family income and not just those of the service user.