No differences were found in yolk percentage in eggs from both companies, although eggs from company A showed lower albumen percentage but higher eggshell percentage and thickness. The difference in albumen percentage found could be related to the breeding system adopted by the producer, since aspects as nutrition and age of birds can influence the egg weight and its composition. Storage time, as well as temperature and humidity can affect egg weight, however the period from 5 to 15 days after packing did not affect weight and percentage of yolk and albumen ofeggs in room temperature. According to Yannakopoulos and Tserveni-Gousi 13 , quaileggs present higher
There was no influence of dietary Se and Zn on egg quality as a function of storage temperature (p<0.05). In addition, internal quality parameters ofeggs stored under refrigeration or not were not different. This may be due to deficient supply of Zn and Se in the experimental because no optimal recommendations of these trace minerals (individually or not) for quails reared under Brazilian climate conditions were found in literature. However, temperature increase intensifies sensorial changes in eggs, reducing their quality, as eggs are susceptible to bacterial proliferation. According to Piccinin et al. (2004), the qualityof Japanese quaileggs stored at environmental temperature (25°C) is reduced faster than that those stored at 4°C (refrigerated).
Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were initially domesticated as pet song birds or as game birds then with time they were converted into valuable meat type birds (Kayang et al., 2004). Japanese quail is a domestic bird of economic importance for commercial meat production and lay unique flavor eggs (Mahmoud El-Tarabany, 2016). Japanese quail are the best meat producers among all the quails present in the world with an average adult live weight at four weeks of age of 200 grams (Ahmad, 2016). Japanese quails are excellent laboratory animals used for research purposes as they have low maintenance cost, short generation interval (3-4 generation per year), hardy, resist disease, high egg production and require lower space and equipment utility (Minvielle, 2004). Role of environment cannot be denied as commercial and intensive poultry production is associated with various stresses leading to the decrease of productive and reproductive performance of growing chickens, parent birds, and layers (Surai & Fisinin, 2016). Japanese quails are also affected by various environmental and management stresses that affect their productivity during humid hot season (Bello & Sulaiman, 2016).
In order to evaluate the performance and egg qualityof quails on different time feeding, One hundred ninety two Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) at 24 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with two replications and twelve treatments eight birds each. The treatments consisted of two different times of feeding at 6h and 16h. The performance was evaluated by the feed intake (g/bird/day), egg production (%), egg mass (g), feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg ), feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz) and viability (%). The egg quality was evaluated by the eggshell thickness (mm), percentage of albumen, yolk percentage and average egg weight (g). The feeding time at 16h favored the performance of Japanese quails at 26 and 34 wk of age considering egg production, egg mass and average egg weight. Thus, it is recommended to feed the quails at times that coincide with the highest egg laying intensity, which ranges from 16 to 19h.
Diffusion is the physical process through which mass is transferred under the influence of concentration gradients (VARZAKAS et al., 2005). The need for producing and collecting data in the field of physical properties of food industries, has led food scientists to study the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer. Material diffusion is important in at least three fields of food conversion: introduction or removal of solutes, drying, and aroma retention. Food scientists are also interested in diffusivity in order to understand the influence and preservation on food quality (ROQUES, 1987). Therefore, estimating diffusion coefficients or diffusivity is important for the determination of mass transfer rate (VARZAKAS et al., 2005).
that the recommendation of vitamin A for human beings is 2,615 UI/day, this would be equal to five quail enriched eggs. From this data, the cost of those five eggs to supply those requirements would be around R$0.27. But, a capsule containing the supplying recommendation of vitamin A/day costs, in average, R$0.14, thus there would be a higher cost of the same vitamin obtained from enriched eggs (27 cents). However, eggs can supply many other important nutrients, plus vitamin A, for human beings. Liberato & Sant’ana (2006) performed a study in Guatemala in order to achieve the recommended daily intake of vitamin A by people with high risk of deficiency of this vitamin and concluded that the per capita costs for enrichment was US$0.98; for the distribution of capsules was US$1.68 to US$1.86; and for programs of nutritional education that motivated the making of vegetable gardens was between US$3.10 to US$4.16. Retinol supplementation has no relation to the levels of cholesterol in eggs, therefore it is possible to produce enriched feed
sensitive to changes in protein and amino acid levels in rations, especially the amino acid methionine, than to changes in phosphorus levels. Furthermore, because the evaluations were done with fresh eggs, the effect of the storage time on these eggs could not be evaluated, because in general, albumen quality is more influenced by time and storage resistance. The data agree with those reported by Ribeiro et al. (2015), who found no changes in the percentage parameters of clear areas when adding phytase in the diet of laying quails. Similarly, Rezende et al. (2013), when evaluating the inclusion of phytase in the diet of light laying hens, found no differences in the evaluation of the Haugh units of poultry eggs.
significantly influenced embryonic mortality rates. The highest EWL% was found in early-dead eggs. This may be due to some functional alterations, such as poor albumen quality and/or other physical egg attribute, as pore count and eggshell thickness (Table 2) did not show any remarkable results (Soliman et al., 1994). On the other hand, Saylam & Sarica (1999) reported the highest egg weight loss in hatched (29.26%) Japanese quaileggs compared with infertile eggs and those with early and late embryo mortality. This disagreement may be attributed to the incubation conditions, breeding season, and/or flock age, as egg porosity and internal egg quality differences have been reported among different breeder ages (Massaro & Davis, 2004), ultimately leading to excessive weight loss. Hatched eggs presented the highest number of pores (Table 2), which may have allowed better regulation of gas and water vapor exchange between the embryo and the external environment. Saylam & Sarica (1999) also observed higher number of pores in hatched eggs. On the other hand, it is recognized that the embryo mobilizes the calcium required for hard tissues and bone development during embryonic development from two extra-embryonic sources: first from the yolk, and then from the eggshell (Tuan and Ono, 1986). Therefore, over the course of incubation, embryos in late dead, pipped, and hatched eggs mobilize more calcium from the eggshell, resulting in thinner eggshells. Our results confirmed this assumption, as the thickest eggshell was measured in infertile and early dead embryos compared with late dead, pipped, and hatched eggs (Table 2).
The number ofeggs is an important part of their production, as well as their quality. The qualityofeggs is conditional upon a number of factors, such as poultry species, genotype, nutrition, environment, oviposition time, and the age of hens. Several investigations have been carried out on the changes that occur in the egg characteristics of laying hens throughout the course of the laying period. However, little detailed new information is available on changes in the characteristics of the quail egg. The age of hens is another of the factors influencing egg weight. Johnston & Gous (2007) and Zita et al. (2009) showed that the egg weight increased with hen’s age. The egg weight was also affected by the age of the quails. Nazligul et al. (2001) and Orhan et al. (2001) found that egg weight increased with the age of the quail. The shape index of the eggs may be affected by the age of poultry. Van den Brand et al. (2004) describe a decrease in the egg shape index with the age of laying hens. Orhan et al. (2001) showed the same trends in Japanese quails.
The influence of age (85, 140, and 270 days) of European quails breeders on the egg quality and hatching, fertility and progeny performance was evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (females’ age x males’ age), with ten replicates and six birds per experimental unit (four females and two males). Egg production and quality were determined during 3 periods of 14 days and incubation parameters were evaluated in eggs obtained in five consecutive days. The live performance of the progenies was analyzed until 35 days. There was no effect of male age or any interaction between the age of males and females for the evaluated variable. The female’s age influenced egg production, egg weight and chick weight, with better results obtained for 140-d-old breeders. The age of females reduced the hatchability, increased the late mortality in incubated eggs, and had no effect on fertility, total embryo mortality or eggshell structure, when analyzed by electron microscopy. The number of sperm trapped in the outer perivitelline layer (sptz/mm²) was determined in 10 fertile eggs per experimental unit. Young females fertilized by young males (80 days) had reduced sptz/mm². Progeny live performance was not affected by breeder’s age. Breeders with 270 days retain fertility; however, their egg production, weight and hatchability of fertilized eggs is reduced. In conclusion, European quail breeders with 140 days of age have better egg quality, hatching and breeding results.
Just as with broiler chicks, the qualityof neonate quails will inﬂuence their growth performance in the ﬁeld. Moreover, there are several factors that can affect the qualityof quails. According to Nazareno et al. (2014), in a study on incubation of Japanese quail breeders, the main factors regarding variation of hatching results were in relation to the storage condition of the eggs before incubation, the health of the batch of reproducers, and the age of the breeders. Likewise, Mahmud et al. (2011) reported that the physicochemical qualityofeggs stored for long periods of time diminished, which led to losses in relation to embryo development and survival, thus harming the incubation results.
In the classiﬁcation problems, usage of various data- mining algorithms for animal science has recently been recorded for beef cattle (Grzesiak et al., 2014; Kucukonder et al., 2015), dairy cattle (Grzesiak et al., 2010; Grzesiak et al., 2011; Zaborski et al., 2014; Bayram et al., 2015), and ﬁsheries science (Topal et al., 2010). Yet, application of data-mining algorithms for poultry science has been scarce for Japanese quail (Kucukonder et al., 2014; Uckardes et al., 2014) and Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) (Karabag et al., 2010). Among the researchers, Uckardes et al. (2014) preferred CHAID (chi-square automatic interaction detector) data-mining algorithm to identify the effects of genotype, season, and cage stocking on fertility for Japanese quail, while Kucukonder et al. (2014) described the inﬂuence of season, selection, and cage stocking on fertility of Japanese quail with several classiﬁcation algorithms. However, we have not yet found the published article on establishing the effect of some egg quality characteristics on fertility for Japanese quaileggs having economic importance for poultry production. The goal of the study was to establish egg quality traits (egg weight, egg width, egg height, and shape index) effecting fertility with the aid of CART data-mining algorithm. It is necessary for quail breeders to recognize proper cut-off values of egg quality characteristics that guarantee fertilized Japanese quaileggs at good quality.
Natural pigments have already been applied in poultry production, and demonstrated satisfactory results. Zahrrojian et al. (2013) studied the effects of the dietary addition of marine algae (Spirulina platensis) at 0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% on egg quality and production performance of laying chickens and observed a significant increase in egg yolk color when hens were fed with Spirulina. The authors suggest the addition of 2.0-2.5% Spirulina to the diet to produce an aesthetically pleasing yolk color. Mirzah & Djulardi (2017) conducted an experiment to determine the effect of marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower extract (MFE) as a feed additive on performance and egg qualityof laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The authors concluded that 15 ppm MFE in the diet improved the performance, improved egg quality, reduced egg cholesterol levels and increased egg yolk color ofquaileggs.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestible tryptophan level (dig. Trp) for laying Japanese quail diets. Four hundred Japanese quail aging 21 to 30 weeks were housed in laying cages, with initial average weight of 158.50 g and egg production of 84.50%. The experimental arrangement consisted on a randomized design, containing eight blocks, five of tryptophan levels (0.12, 0.16, 0.20, 0.24 and 0.28% dig. Trp), eight replicates of ten birds and three experimental periods of 21 days. The evaluated parameters were feed intake (g/bird/day), egg production (%/bird/day), average weight ofeggs (g), weights of yolk (g), albumen (g), shell (g), percentage of shell (%), specific gravity (g/cm3) and Haugh units. The tryptophan level affected (P<0.05) all parameters, except feed intake, average eggs weight and weight of yolk. The performance of quails using the statistical adjustment through quadratic regression, broken-line regression model, suggested that the minimum requirement of diets of digestible tryptophan is 0.21% of the diet, allowed the daily intake of 45.0 mg of tryptophan per bird, and the corresponding ratio between digestible tryptophan and digestible lysine was 21%.
Long storage periods may increase embryo mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage period on the weight loss, eggshell surface temperature, hatchability, and embryonic mortality of Japanese quaileggs. Two hundred fertile eggs were collected from a flock of 30-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The eggs were collected for 10 consecutive days after lay, and immediately incubated. A completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments, corresponding to the number of days eggs were stored between egg collection and setting, with 20 replicates each, was applied. Egg weight loss increased with storage period duration, starting on day 6 (2.1%, on average) and reached 3.26%, on average, in eggs stored for 10 days. The highest hatchability (p>0.05) was obtained in eggs stored for two days, which also lost the least weight (1.20%). Storage period did not influence eggshell surface temperature (p>0.05) during incubation, but higher temperatures (p<0.05) were measured on days 10 and 15 of incubation compared with day 5. Eggs stored for ten days presented the highest weight loss, and therefore, a storage period of up to five days is recommended to maintain the qualityof incubated Japanese quaileggs. Furthermore, egg surface temperature increases during the second half of the incubation period as a result of increasing embryonic metabolic rate.
Quail breeding is an expanding industry, responsible for generating jobs and income at all levels of the production chain (MOURA et al., 2010a). Quail rearing proves interesting because of the small physical space required, in addition to several inherent characteristics of the animal, such as low feed intake, short breeding interval, early sexual maturity and persistence in high egg production. In addition, the high qualityof final product and the easy breeding and management of these birds should be highlighted (BARRETO et al., 2007), as the egg is the main product for commercial exploitation (MOURA et al., 2010b).
The main research interest in the recent years accentuates on the ecological animal production [6,13,15] and organic technologies of animal raising [8,9,10]. The modern animal husbandry incorporated natural feed additives as substitute for nutritive antibiotics and other allopathic medicine largely due to concerns over bacterial resistance. Such additives are phytobiotics. They are products of plant origin added to the feed or to the drink water in order to improve performance, gut health and immunity . To this group of products belongs Bulgarian dry extract of the annual herb Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) commercially known as VemoHerb-T, produced by the ﬁrm “Vemo 99” Ltd, Soﬁa. It is made from the whole aerial plant’s part harvested during the ﬂowering period by extraction in water-ethanol mixtures. The TT extract is easy soluble in water and has strong bitter taste. The biologically active substances of VemoHerb T are: steroidal saponins of furostanol type determined as protodioscin (55 to 65%); dubbing substances, calculated as tanin (not more than 10%); ﬂavonoids, determined as rutin (not more than 10%).The qualitative indices of this product are controlled in accordance with company documentation . TT extract improves the reproductive functions [4,7], productivity [17,18] and health [5,14] in animals.Our earlier studies demonstrated positive effect of VemoherbT addition on the laying capacity and egg quality in hens [2,3] and Guinea fowls . To our knowledge there are no information regarding the effect of TT supplementation on this parameters in quails. The objective of the current study was to examined the inﬂuence of VemoHerb T supplementation on laying productivity in Japanese quails and on their eggs’ morphological and sensor properties
utilization of PABM could interact with strains of birds. It is possible that fast growing strains could assimilate less of dietary nutrients, including vitamins, into eggs than slow-growing chickens. The consequences on physical egg characteristics are also unknown. It is generally understood that improvement in one trait should consider the effect it will have on other desirable characteristics. Given that PABM have superior level of starch and crude protein as compared to white maize, it is important to assess its effect on the egg quality traits (Pillay et al., 2013). To date, there is no information on how the PABM affects the performance of egg laying birds. It is also unclear whether bird strains respond differently when fed on PABM.
carcasses (112 g) to that found in our study in 42-day-old birds. Meanwhile, Kluczek  found the weight of eviscerated carcass with neck be clearly higher (147.3 g). Dressing percentage was higher in 42-day-old birds but the difference between the analysed groups was not signiicant. In another study, Seker et al.  also obtained higher dressing percentage in older quails. In 42-day-old quail, Kluczek  found dressing percentage (61.1%) to be lower than in our study. In a study Maiorano et al. , dressing percentage of Japanese quails reared to 35 days age was lower and varied from 58.3% to 61.8% according to feeding group.