Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of seasoning Cobrançosa table olives in a brine with aromatic ingredients, in order to mask the bitter taste given by KCl when added to reduced-sodium fermentation brines. Olives were fermented in two different salt combinations: Brine A, containing 8% NaCl and, Brine B, a reduced-sodium brine, containing 4% NaCl + 4% KCl. After the fermentation the olives were immersed in seasoning brines with NaCl (2%) and the aromatic herbs (thyme, oregano and calamintha), garlic and lemon. At the end of the fermentation and two weeks after seasoning, the physicochemical, nutritional, organoleptic, and microbiological parameters, were determined. The olives fermented in the reduced-sodium brines had half the sodium concentration, higher potassium and calcium content, a lower caloric level, but were considered, by a sensorial panel, more bitter than olives fermented in NaCl brine. Seasoned table olives, previously fermented in Brine A and Brine B, had no significant differences in the amounts of protein (1.23% or 1.11%), carbohydrates (1.0% or 0.66%), fat (20.0% or 20.5%) and dietary fiber (3.4% or 3.6%). Regarding mineral contents, the sodium-reduced fermented olives, presented one third of sodium, seven times more potassium and three times more calcium than the traditional olives fermented in 8% NaCl. Additionally, according to the panelists’ evaluation, seasoning the olives fermented in 4% NaCl + 4% KCl, resulted in a decrease in bitterness and an improvement in the overall evaluation and flavor. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were not found in the olives produced.
Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reducedsodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reducedsodium intake.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of chicken nuggets reformulated through the concurrent substitution of chicken skin with chia flour and NaCl per CaCl2. Four treatments of chicken nuggets were processed: 1) Control – 1.5 g/100 g NaCl and without addition of the chia flour, 2) CaCl 2 – 75% substitution of NaCl by CaCl2 , without addition of the chia flour, 3) Chia – 50% replacement of chicken skin by chia flour, 1.5 g/100 g NaCl and 4) Chia+CaCl 2 – 75% replacement of NaCl by CaCl 2 and 50% substitution of chicken skin by chia flour. The different treatments presented variations in the proximate composition, objective colour, cooking yield and texture profile. The protein content increased with the incorporation of chia flour (17.21 to 18.61 g/100 g). The CaCl 2 and Chia+CaCl 2 treatments presented 40 and 43% sodium content reduction, respectively. The chicken nuggets containing chia flour showed an increase of α-linolenic fatty acid (omega-3) (1.21 to 9.83 g/100 g; P < 0.05) and can be labeled as ―high omega-3 content‖. The sodium reduction and addition of chia flour did not affect the microbial growth. The Chia and Chia+CaCl2 formulations presented lower sensory acceptance, while the Control and CaCl 2 treatments had higher scores on all attributes evaluated. However, around 50% of consumers considered the treatments containing chia flour acceptable. In view of the results obtained, the Chia+CaCl2 formulation can be recommended to consumers seeking for a healthier meat product, due to its high omega-3 and reducedsodium contents.
In many industrialized countries, including Brazil, sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations. Excessive consumption is associated with hypertension and premature death by cardiovascular diseases. The industry’s challenge is to produce products with reducedsodium that are similar to regular products in texture and flavor and consistent with consumers’ dietary habits. The present study aimed at substituting 25 and 50% NaCl for KCl in marinated beef and chicken meat with the addition of aromatic herbs and spices. The following microbiological analyses were carried out: macronutrient, chemical composition, and sensorial analysis. The meats showed a reduction in NaCl contents without any changes in their physical and chemical characteristics, and the products´ quality and microbiological safety were maintained. Beef and chicken tenderness was maintained for both treatments. Furthermore, the use of 50% KCl did not cause any changes in the products’ sensory quality, and the overall acceptance of both types of meat was maintained. Results showed that a reduction by 50% in the NaCl contents of marinated meat products with a combination of herbs and spices is possible. Future applications in other meat products and sausages are highly promising.
content in industrial formulations. Smaller sodium chloride particles can promote a higher perceived degree of saltiness because they dissolve more rapidly in the mouth. Kilcast & Angus (2007) evaluated the effects of different sizes and varieties of sodium crystals in potato chips on trained panelists’ perception using time-intensity methodology and observed that smaller crystals led to a faster, but less intense, perception of saltiness in comparison to that of larger crystals. However, no similar studies have been reported evaluating the substitution of sodium chloride for micronized salts.
The economic and social development of the country, along with the increasing urban context of Maputo, are driving the changes in dietary patterns. To prevent the expected growth of NCDS due to a more industrialized food pattern, close monitoring should be considered in order to anticipate the negative effects of globalization. Preventive strategies must include consumer education in order to prevent the added salt during food preparation. A partnership between the government, retailers and manufacturers could also be a positive step towards the reformulation of processed foods so sodium content could be decreased. To assure acceptability of the reducedsodium content in processed foods, technical strategies need to be studied. Public campaigns are also needed to get population awareness about healthy eating.
Sodium chloride is traditionally used as a food additive in food processing. However, because of its high sodium content, NaCl has been associated with chronic diseases. Margarine is a popular product that is used in several preparations, but it includes high sodium content; therefore, it is among the products whose sodium content should be reduced. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce margarines with reducedsodium content prepared using a salt mixture. The following 4 margarine formulations were prepared: Formulation A (control - 0% sodium reduction), Formulation B (20.8% less sodium), Formulation C (33.0% less sodium) and Formulation D (47.4% less sodium). The low sodium formulations were produced using a salt mixture consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The margarines were evaluated using an acceptance test and descriptive tests: time- intensity and temporal dominance of sensations. The mixture used is a good alternative for preparing low sodium margarine because the low sodium formulations feature equal salinity and do not produce a strange or bad taste. Furthermore, it may be possible to prepare margarines with up to 47.4% less sodium and that are acceptable to consumers.
To summarize, we did a comprehensive statistical analysis of SSL events using nearly three years of sodium density ob- servations by the USTC lidar. The results are in agreement with those reported by previous studies at mid-latitude. With the help of ionosonde data, a considerable correlation with Pearson correlation coefficient 0.66 between seasonal varia- tions of occurrence of SSL and those of Es during nighttime can be obtained, which was in line with the research made by Nagasawa and Abo (1995). From a comparison between the observations of the USTC lidar and the WIPM lidar, the least horizontal range for some events was estimated to be over 500 km. We consider that more co-observations will greatly help us understand the horizontal ranges of SSL, and more comprehensive results can be obtained with the support of China Median Project (a national scientific project funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. It is a comprehensive ground-based system to monitor space en- vironment variations occurring in the middle-to-upper atmo- sphere, the ionosphere, etc., based on many instruments and a network of facilities, along a 120 ◦ E meridian chain, from Mohe, the northernmost station in China, and extending to the China Zhongshan station in the Antarctic; and a 30 ◦ N latitudinal chain, from the easternmost point at Shanghai to the western Lhasa station) which is under construction. Acknowledgements. We thank the Yamagawa Observatory for their f 0 E s data, and the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathemat- ics (CAS) for their sodium layer observation data used in this paper. We also wish to thank referees for suggesting a num- ber of substantial improvements in the manuscript. This work is supported by the grant of the Creative Program (kzcx2-yw-123) and the grant of the President Scholarship of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40804035, 40674087,40890165), Program for New Century Ex- cellent Talents in University (NCET-08-0523), the China Meteoro- logical Administration Grant (GYHY200706013), and the Innova- tion Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP07307).
It may be observed in Figure 7 that the extension of cementum and the root structure were more compromised in group III, which indicates that the surface treatment performed in this group did not result in greater resistance to root resorption, compared to the treatments performed in the other groups. These results seem to suggest that the use of fluoride to increase root resistance to resorption might not have been effective. On the other hand, it may be speculated that root surface condition after scrubbing with sodium hypochlorite might not have been appropriate for fluoride incorporation. According to Cruz and Rölla 7 (1992),
Tannin Extraction from the bark of Pinus oocarpa var. oocarpa with sodium carbonate and sodium bisulfite. The objective of this study was to evaluate the tannin extraction potential taken from the bark of Pinus oocarpa var. oocarpa. Nine treatments were performed; the bark was submitted to extraction using water and water containing different concentrations of sodium carbonate and sodium bisulfite. The mixture was kept under reflux for two hours. The extracted contents, the polyphenol found in the extracts (Stiasny number), the tannin yield, the non-tannin yield and the tannin reactivity through UV method were all determined. The results have revealed that it is possible to obtain high tannin content (approximately 39%) from the bark of Pinus oocarpa var. oocarpa by using water extraction when coupled with the addition of salt. The treatment having (8%) of sodium carbonate provided a greater yield of condensed tannins, underlining the importance of utilizing this salt with this concentration during the extraction process. However, the extracts must be evaluated according to other important wood-gluing properties, such as viscosity and gel time.
Diabetes is a frequent underlying medical condition among individuals with Staphylococcus aureus infections, and diabetic patients often suffer from chronic inflammation and prolonged infections. Neutrophils are the most abundant inflammatory cells during the early stages of bacterial diseases, and previous studies have reported deficiencies in neutrophil function in diabetic hosts. We challenged age-matched hyperglycemic and normoglycemic NOD mice intraperitoneally with S. aureus and evaluated the fate of neutrophils recruited to the peritoneal cavity. Neutrophils were more abundant in the peritoneal fluids of infected diabetic mice by 48 h after bacterial inoculation, and they showed prolonged viability ex vivo compared to neutrophils from infected nondiabetic mice. These differences correlated with reduced apoptosis of neutrophils from diabetic mice and were dependent upon the presence of S. aureus and a functional neutrophil respiratory burst. Decreased apoptosis correlated with impaired clearance of neutrophils by macrophages both in vitro and in vivo and prolonged production of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha by neutrophils from diabetic mice. Our results suggest that defects in neutrophil apoptosis may contribute to the chronic inflammation and the inability to clear staphylococcal infections observed in diabetic patients.
The main emphasis was the power consumption, which is assumed to be a function of input signals wordlengths and the energy per logical circuit. The discussed reduction tech- niques decrease the number of logical circuits, while increas- ing the wordlength for some forms as transposed direct and parallel form. Analyzing power consumption of the reduced filter second order section appeared as the best structure for reduced filters. This structure demands finite wordlength for coefficients presentation and does not lead to numerical prob- lems. Realization of the reduced IIR filters, as SOS needs less number of bits per quantized coefficient than realization of FIR filters. However, SOS of reduced IIR filter requires more multipliers. The number of multipliers in SOS is corre- lated with the degree of reduction. We showed that for filters, where the filter order can be reduced more than 80% fewer multipliers per section are necessary for SOS.
all categories of passengers (both people with or without reduced mobility), as well as a faster flow of passengers on platforms. In the economic sense, gradual investments into new and existing infrastructure should increase the number of passengers who can use the railway services, and it should also lower the expenses for damages paid to injured passengers or to the families of the railway casualties. The increase in comfort and safety for all categories of passengers should also increase the competitiveness of the railway in comparison with other means of transportation. For the effective and practical implementation of TSI PRM regulations in planning, design and construction of railway infrastructure in the Republic of Serbia, it is necessary to draw up a suitable set of regulations.
of studies on the effect of mineral fertilizers and water availability on the density of densified materials such as briquettes and pellets are non-existent, restricting discussion of the data found in this study. However, the differences in the behavior of bulk density between wood and briquettes depending on the applied treatments is related to the briquetting conditions (pressure and temperature), which tend to have a more significant influence on the physical properties of densified materials (Carone et al., 2011), thus making the mean values more homogeneous, regardless the applied fertilization and the reduced rainfall levels.
e os heterozigotos sobrevivem à dose normal de campo, facilitando a rápida disseminação dos alelos de resistência (Yu & Powles, 2014). Quando herdada por genes nucleares, a resistência evolui rapidamente, e o processo é acelerado quando o alelo de resistência possui característica dominante (Mithila & Godar, 2013). Com o aumento dos casos de azevém resistente aos inibidores da enzima ALS, a caracterização da resistência, quanto ao número de genes e tipo de herança, é fundamental para que técnicas de manejo sejam recomendadas e utilizadas no sentido de evitar e/ou retardar o aparecimento e a multiplicação das plantas resistentes (Vargas et al., 2001). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar o tipo de herança, o número de genes envolvidos e o grau de resistência dos biótipos de azevém, homozigotos e hetero- zigotos, resistentes ao herbicida iodosulfuron- methyl sodium.
THE SODIUM COULOMETER – AN INTERESTING ELECTROCHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT. The diffusion of sodium through glass, the basis of a sodium coulometer, was revised and modified for the application to present-day light bulbs. Low pressure inert gas-filled incandescent lamps are useless to attain satisfactory results. The inclusion of a 450 V power supply in series with the electrolysis cell provided sufficient potential to overcome the effect of the inert gas molecules inside the bulb.
A semeadura das espécies vegetais foi feita no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium. Após a emergência das plantas foi realizado desbaste, deixando quatro vezes a densidade recomendada de cada espécie, com base no uso das espécies na adubação verde. Os vasos foram mantidos sob irrigação, a fim de se conservar a umidade do solo em torno de 80% da capacidade de campo. Transcorridos 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto e a parte aérea destas descartada. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do feijão
Veri fica -se, em médi a, que o índi ce de his tere se par a trifl oxy sul fur on- sod ium foi superior ao observado para ametryn, indicando que, uma vez adsorvi do, o trifloxysulfuron- sodium dificilmente retorna à solução do solo. Já para ametryn, sua dessorção ocorre mais facilmente, representando maior risco no seu processo de lixiviação. Conforme Southwick et al. (1993), elev ados índi ces de histe rese ind ica m mai or dif icu lda de de o her bic ida adsorvido retornar à solução do solo, possibi- litando sua maior permanência no ambiente. Em acordo com os dados obtidos para ametryn, Chefetz et al. (2004) também verificaram menor histerese para esse compost o em relação à atrazine, potencializando a sua capacidade de lixiviação, mesmo após a sua adsorção no solo. Para os elevados índices H de histerese observados em trifloxysulfuron-sodium, duas hipóteses podem ser descritas: os prováveis mecanismos de adsorção entre o herbicida e