In the first level one will retain the nature ofthe sort of knowledge constituted by social representations. As Denise Jodelet (2007) puts it, “a form of knowledge, socially developed and shared, with a practical dimension and which is used to build a reality which is common to a social group” (p. 53) and their importance in the dynamics of social relations and practices via the functions they perform: the functions of knowledge, identifying, orientation and justifying (Abric, 2008). In the second level, one will value the training context, in its pedagogical and organisational levels, as well as the students’ social and cultural context, associated with the role played by the teaching profession in the process of holding a position in society and the way identities are constructed within the groups in addition to the interference of such construction in the exercising ofthe teaching profession.
It is a love story between the nature-like soul of Gabriela and the prosperous businessman Nacib. The story begins when Filomena, Nacib’s cook, leaves his kitchen to live with her son. Nacib goes to the market where lots of migrants coming from the dried backlands can be hired to work in big cities like Ilhéus. Among the migrants is Gabriela, who comes all the way with the hope to work in the city. She is hired and ends up enchanting Nacib, who later decides to marry her and tries to change her nature. After Nacib witnesses a betrayal scene between Gabriela and Tonico, his best friend, he gets the annulment of his marriage. However, not feeling really happy without Gabriela’s presence, Nacib decides to keep their relationship as it all started, a love affair between a businessman and his cook. This all takes place in Ilhéus where progress, represented by the exporter Mundinho Falcão, struggles against conservative colonels and customs, represented by Colonel Ramiro Bastos. These are the two layers, one of a love story and the other of a social struggle, which are sewn together as the novel belongs to the transitional period in Amado’s work. However, as in the quote above (p. 49), the emphasis is given to his more poetic tone of GCC, a story of love and passion.
Taking as a basis pureness and primitivism stereotypes, any change in the indigenous life style is qualified as a cultural loss. A supposed indigenous pureness, linked to the condition of always being the same, makes one to think that all mobility would be equivalent, therefore, to the lack of authen- ticity. However, the indigenous cultures are in constant production and re- elaboration, even when established on solid bases of ancestry, and their dy- namism operates through distinct factors. Garcia Canclini (2008) considers thinking the changes in the indigenous cultures from three plans: the first one is related to external pressures that produce the gradual impoverish- ment, the loss of lands and resources for survival; the second refers to the changes that operate from within, expressed in microphysical transfor- mations in the daily practices, in the ways of organizing thework and in so- cial relations; and, finally, the third plan concerns to the policies of identity, that are expressed in the indigenous movements of fight for land, for the ethnical self-affirmation, for the right of political representation, for in- stance.
Hence, it is crucial to build a training model that can combine the systematic and simultaneous development of hard skills and soft skills in a business context. We intend to opt for a bottom-up approach that allows starting from the previous knowledge ofthe workers, acquired through non-formal and informal paths, enabling their active participation in a flexible and customized training process that values and brings out the skills already developed and facilitates the development of others (Duvekot, 2014a; Duvekot, 2014b; Duvekot, Halba et al., 2014; Enggaard & Aagaard, 2014; Kang, Duvekot & Murray, 2014; Olesen, 2014). For the construction of this training model we will rely on the VPL approach that reinforces the need for flexible, continuous and more adaptive learning if the citizen is to remain viable in the labour market. In fact, companies themselves should understand that investing in their employees amounts to investing in their own goals: “This awareness should culminate in setting specific targets for the investment in individuals and the support the organisations can give to this human resource development” (Duvekot, 2014a: 31).
The text deals with some terminological problems concerning the so-called founder’s model. Although it is commonly used to designate the depicted architecture in the hand ofthe church founder, the expression “founder’s (ktetor’s) model” is often confusing and misleading. The main question is whether the Byzantine architects used actual model/maquettes for constructing their churches and if so, could these mod- els/maquettes have been used for the architecture depicted in founders’ portraits? In other worlds is therepresentation in the donor’s hand the image of a built church or its maquette, produced as a project model? The different aspects ofthe problem we ana- lysed — the legal, technical and symbolic functions of these representations support our assumption that the architectural design model/maquette did not serve as a specimen for representations of architecture on founder’s portraits. This specific type of architec- ture depicted was created after the building itself was completed.
As a primary question, the study aimed to answer why hysterical realist novels fail to convince their readers of their truthfulness, regardless ofthe fact that their stories fulfilled the condition of verisimilitude. The first step was to identify the ways in which these novels achieve the effect of reality, by applying Darío Villanueva’s concept of intentional realism and its corresponding principles and hypothesis to the corpus of hysterical realist books. The textual analysis revealed the fact that these novels display a complicated web of events which comply with the condition of truthfulness on an individual level, as each of their composing episodes seem to be plausible while taken on its own. While considered as a whole, these stories compose into an incredible narrative, which invalidates the overall realistic effect ofthe novel. However, in terms of Villanueva’s dual aspect ofthe literary text, it is important to point out that the interruption ofthe text’s realistic fallout does not occur within the fictional world ofthe book, but at the level ofthe reader’s actualization ofthework, as he fails to transfer the fictional episodes within his own observed reality.
The Court has been providing guidance on how to interpret the concept of "directing activities" for a particular Member State. In Pammer v Alpenhof (Joined Cases C-585/08 and C-144/09) the Court had to decide whether access to a website was sufficient to consider whether a trader directed his activity to the Member State of domicile within the meaning of Article 15 (1) (c) ofthe Brussels I Regulation in the version applicable at the time. It has decided that mere accessibility to a website in a particular Member State is not sufficient to show that the trader has directed his activity to that Member State. On the contrary, in order to demonstrate this, it is necessary to establish whether, before the conclusion ofthe contract with the consumer, it is apparent from those websites and from the overall activity ofthe trader that he intended to establish business relations with consumers domiciled in one or more Member States, consumer's domicile. In Mühlleitner (C-190/11), the Court held that it is not necessary for the contract to be concluded from a distance, but that this element can be taken into account when analyzing all relevant factors necessary to determine whether the professional directs activities for a particular Member State. In Emrek (C-218/12), the Court held that Article 15 (1) (c) ofthe Brussels I Regulation, Article 17 (1) (c) , version at the time, does not require a causal link between a website and the conclusion ofthe contract. However, that causal link is an indication ofthe connection ofthe contract to a commercial or professional activity directed at the Member State ofthe consumer's domicile. In short, in view of all the Court's guidelines, a list of criteria has been drawn up by the Court itself: "the international nature ofthe activity, the mention of routes from other Member States to the place where the use of a language or currency other than those
In turn, the eu has been repeatedly blamed for increasing voting abstention, notably at the European Parliamentary elections, due to an increase ofthe “power distance” already felt in each country. A survey specifically conducted on citizenship in 2004 did indeed confirm that different social classes, such as the elites and the working class, accounting together for more than half ofthe population of each country, evaluate their national political systems quite differently: the elites are more satisfied with democracy in every country and evaluate the performance of their parties and politicians more positively than the working class; elite members also have a greater interest and understanding of politics than manual workers, as well as possessing higher indicators ofthe exercise of citizenship, including association membership and self- mobilization. It is as if national elites have co-opted their political systems, hence the eu. The same study also shows that Portugal has lower indicators when compared with the European average. Besides the class effect, there is also a societal effect in operation affecting political attitudes and behaviour, which can be measured by the fact that the Portuguese elites possess a lower “social capital” than, for example, the Swedish working class. Such combination
Atkinson and Kühne also proposed in ,  the notion of deep instantiation as a means to provide multiple levels of classification whereby an element at some level can describe features of elements at each level beneath that level. They introduce the notion of potency that is assigned to every model element at every model level. Potency defines the length ofthe instantiation chain that is allowed below the element, in such way that an element of potency 0 corresponds to a concrete individual and cannot be instantiated (i.e., an element of potency 0 is not a clabject). When a clabject instantiates another clabject, the potency ofthe clabject being instantiated is given by the potency ofthe clabject being instantiated minus one. For example, considering the cited example of mobile phone model, Mobile Phone Model, iPhone 5 and myiPhone5 have potencies 2, 1 and 0, respectively. Finally, in contrast with the powertype pattern, deep instantiation does not obligate the modeler to represent the base type. This design decision has the general purpose of reducing the number of modeled concepts. Even when the base type is represented, the approach does not support therepresentationofthe relation between the base type and the higher-order type. In the aforementioned example, we would be unable to express that each instance of Mobile Phone must also be an instance of exactly one instance of
DTP is organized in four different teams (see Appendix II for DTP organogram): 1) The Projects Team, which members have multidisciplinary backgrounds and implement (1) compliance, efficiency or revenue-oriented projects and (2) incremental improvements initiatives (IIIs) in all departments ofthe Bank. Compliance-oriented projects result of compliance requirements, such as those from FATCA 10 . Efficiency- oriented projects pursue cost reductions such as making available a digital bank account statement on Banif@ast 11 to the Bank clients (an eco-friendly project which saves expenses with postal services) whereas revenue-oriented projects aim at increasing Bank revenues. An example ofthe latter is enlarging the products portfolio for trading through Banif Trader 12 which enables the Bank to charge more fees to its clients (see appendix V for further examples of projects). IIIs are implemented to simplify day-to- day operations ofthe bank branches and boost branch agents ’ level of satisfaction. Twelve collaborators of six commercial departments 13 in the Bank propose IIIs at a monthly meeting such as the dematerialization of documents when validating the opening of a new bank check account (see appendix VI for further IIIs). Apart from the implementation of projects and IIIs, the Projects Team also implements Internal Control Recommendations.
We tested this interaction using a mixed model (using the lmer function of R [Bates & Maechler, 2009; R De- velopment Core Team, 2008], as described by Baayen, Davidson, & Bates, 2008, and Bates, 2005). This func- tion is robust when designs are unbalanced, as is the case here as a result of omitted data. The dependent variable was a measure of judgment error: the absolute value ofthe difference between, on the one hand, the experienced probability ofthe common event, and, on the other, the normalized judged probability ofthe common event (i.e., the judged probability ofthe common event divided by the sum of that and the judged probability ofthe rare event — the two often did not add to 100). The main predictors were presentation mode, judgment probe type, and their interaction. Problem number (as a nominal vari- able or factor) was also included as a fixed effect; it ac- counted for significant variance, but judgment probe time (before vs. after choice) was excluded because it was never significant in any analysis. Participant identity was included as a random effect. The interaction was signif- icant at p = .0042 (as assessed by Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling). Thus, the magnitude ofthe difference between participants’ experienced probabilities and their judged probabilities varied depending on whether the in- formation was acquired by description or experience. Ex- amination ofthe fitted mean errors revealed that partici- pants in the Description conditions were relatively more accurate with the percentage probe than the grid probe (M = 0.98 vs. 6.64, respectively) compared to participants in the Experience conditions (M = 3.22 vs. 5.70, respec- tively). Further inspection ofthe two bottom panels of Figure 3 suggests that there is a difference in the slopes ofthe regression lines between the Description and Ex- perience conditions.
were less frequent than they are today. People changed underwear perhaps just once a week, and woollen blankets were washed very rarely, if ever (Nunes 1997: 89). Bathing was rare among the rural and urban poor, but in this respect beliefs about the detrimental consequences of contact ofthe human body with water played a role, alongside the fuss involved in the heating and carrying of a considerable volume of water in winter. It was often assumed that the washing ofthe clothes (in particular, underwear) would be sufficient as these were believed to absorb the dirt from the body (Nunes 1997: 86-88; Ashenburg 2007). Some women who were interviewed for this research in 2010 remembered the sheer toil and the time-consuming nature ofthe traditional laundering process, either from their own experience or from observation: "[the women] used to go to the stream or they washed in the washtub, and all that was a drama for the women, not for the men, but for the women" 12 . Laundering in the old-fashioned way required women
Let us return for a while to our example, in which we walk in the cave. Although, in general, our consciousness is directed towards the illuminated path, we can at any moment shift attention and explicitly focus on the hand that controls the flashlight. At that moment, the hand and its movements become a theme of which the mind engages. In this case, this would be equivalent to a move to use the flashlight to illuminate our own hand. But why would anyone do this reflexive movement? In many cases this movement just causes more problems than solutions. If I stop paying attention on the way to pay attention to the texture ofthe flashlight, its shape, etc., I run the risk of falling into some abyss. Circumstances call for my attention to be drawn to the immediate physical environment. My attention would only turn to my hand if it is not performing well, for example, if it is perspiring and the flashlight begins to slip between my fingers. It will drive my attention to the hand, for me to solve this problem, and wipe it. In other words, the reflexive attitude occurs only for vital reasons in rare moments.
The absence ofthe union emphasized the difficulties of organization and was reflected in the lack of wage increases. At that time the wage adjustments were awarded nationally. In 1953, the National Congress, by decision ofthe Senate, shelved the bill for the salary increase for journalists, which had already been approved by the House of Representatives after two years of discussion. That same year, the Fifth National Congress of Journalists, held in Curitiba, approved a resolution that said it was necessary to organize the category in states where there was no union. Journalists from Pernambuco, Luiz Veloso and Leocádio Mitchell, who attended the Congress, were chosen to join the union and the organizing committee was charged with reorganizing the Union of Pernambuco.
The article as have objective show teoric’s refences about the territory concept, pointing to the current power of conception’s is incorporated in the production of space. We present reflections about representation and territory relations. Understand that a representation can be one territory builder’s, and for it built. The Territory is view as material and representational (simbolic) construction and yours composition reveals very near interest of relation that if develop through shock and assimilation between representations diffe- rent. We will present how empiric exemple the ambivalence about the territorial composition of Baixada Fluminense, where the number of municipalities that are of your composition changes in accordance with the representations and legitimacies of disputes between actores, subjects and political agents this space about, bilding a territory that manifests itself on inclusion and exclusion of municipalities certain.
Por otro lado, la mayoría de la población mundial sigue siendo optimista res- pecto al futuro de la humanidad, y hace hincapié en los denominadores comunes de las naciones que pueden mejorar el entendimiento y la confianza mutuos. La tesis del “diálogo entre civilizaciones”, como paradigma alternativo, ha sido propuesta por un gran número de intelectuales en el mundo. Este último paradigma afirma que la pluralidad y la diversidad de las culturas y religiones del mundo son algo natural e inherente, además de elementos de la riqueza de nuestro planeta. Aparte del “diálogo entre civilizaciones”, la llamada a una “alianza de civilizaciones” ha centrado la aten- ción de muchos académicos de todo el mundo como una contra-alternativa al choque de civilizaciones. Por ejemplo, en 2005 se fundó una asociación internacional llamada precisamente “The Alliance of Civilizations” (AoC) en respuesta a una iniciativa de los gobiernos español y turco, y bajo los auspicios de Naciones Unidas. Esta Alianza de Civilizaciones (http://www.unaoc.org/) tiene como objetivo “mejorar el entendimiento y las relaciones de cooperación entre las naciones y los pueblos de todas las culturas y religiones, así como contribuir de este modo a contrarrestar a las fuerzas que alimentan la polarización y el extremismo”.
N = 0 ; 6 2 : (15) The here noted restriction 6 2 (more exactly = = p 3 — see below in (19)) is due to the natural fact that the definition range for is the interval [0; 2). Through the results (15) one finds a true falsity ofthe presumed re- lation (11). Then the harmonization of N- pair with the CIUR doctrine reaches to a deadlock. For avoiding the men- tioned deadlock in many publications were promoted var- ious adjustements regarding the pair N- (see [35, 37–43] and references therein). But it is easy to observe that all the alluded adjustements are subsequent (and dependent) in respect with the RSUR (2) in the following sense. The re- spective adjustements consider the alluded RSUR as an ab- solutely valid formula and try to adjust accordingly the de- scription ofthe pair N- for QO. So the operators ^ N and ^, defined in (9) were replaced by some substitute (sbs) op- erators ^ N sbs = f ( ^ N) and ^ sbs = g (^), where the func- tions f and g are introduced through various ad hoc proce- dures. The so introduced substitute operators ^ N sbs and ^ sbs pursue to be associated with corresponding standard devia- tions N sbs and sbs able to satisfy relations resem- bling more or less with RSUR (2) or with (11). But we ap- preciate as very doubtful the fact that the afferent “substitute observables” N sbs and sbs can have natural (or even useful) physical significances. Probably that this fact as well as the ad hoc character ofthe functions f and g constitute the reasons for which until now, in scientific publications, it does not exist a unanimous agreement able to guarantee a genuine elucida- tion of true status ofthe N- pair comparatively with CIUR concepts.
The appreciation by Susan Sontag (1977, 2005: 1) on photography reveals the transcendence of her authority to us ‘In teaching us a new visual code, photographs alter and enlarge our notions of what is worth looking at and what we have a right to observe. They are a grammar and, even more importantly, an ethics of seeing’. In this aspect, with the photographical travels, Konstantinidis visualizes his architectonical thoughts of universal values, even if of specific application because he attends to the characteristics ofthe place. Thanks to the potency ofthe architectΣs look and through his camera, he discovers dimensions of reality that would, otherwise, remain hidden, and, in definitive, he achieves to construct the ‘conceptual imageΣ ofthe true architecture he intends to transmit.