Response to water

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GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY OF PEANUT LINES IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS, BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL DESCRIPTORS

GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY OF PEANUT LINES IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS, BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL DESCRIPTORS

Based on averages of each trait, we estimated the genetic variability, taking into account the two water treatments. S2g, similar to genetic variance, although estimated as fixed model, showed reasonable variation to each trait, indicating that they could be used to select promissing lines, especially if taken together or by choosing a representative for each biochemical class (Table 4). In this case, PRO and CAT would be the most suitable traits to represent the organic solutes and antioxidative enzymes, respectively, since both are known to accumulate in plant tissues in response to water stress, involving a protection mechanism against oxidative stress (MOLINARI et al., 2007; KARUPPANAPANDIAN et al., 2009).
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Changes in essential oil content of different organs of dill genotypes in response to water deficit

Changes in essential oil content of different organs of dill genotypes in response to water deficit

edicinal and aromatic plants are very importance because of the increasing demand for their products. Anethum graveolens L. known as Dill, is an annual aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbilliferae) family. Constituents of dill include essential oils, fatty oil, proteins, carbohydrates, fibre, ash and mineral elements such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, vitamin A and niacin (Kaur and Arora 2010). Dill is native to Mediterranean countries and south- eastern Europe, used primarily as a condiment. Dill seed and leaves are used as flavouring in sauces, vinegars, pastries, and soups. Dill has medicinal value as a diuretic, stimulant, and a carminative. The dill seeds have essential oil as an active substance, while carvone and limonene are the main constituents of essential oil (Bailer et al.
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THE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF SELECTED GENES IN DIFFERENT BEAN SPECIES (PHASEOLUS SPP.) AS RESPONSE TO WATER DEFICIT

THE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF SELECTED GENES IN DIFFERENT BEAN SPECIES (PHASEOLUS SPP.) AS RESPONSE TO WATER DEFICIT

Two sets of P. coccineus and P. lunatus plants were grown, one in the growth chamber under the conditions described in Kavar et al. [11], and the other in the greenhouse as described in Hieng et al. [9]. Each set consisted of one control (well- watered) plant and three plants under different levels of dehydration: from D1 (irst stage of water deprivation) to D3 (severe water deicit) (Table 1). For the analysis of P. acutifolius (var. latifolius Freeman; PHAS 8442/00 IPK Gatersleben), one control (well-watered) plant and two drought-stressed plants (D1 and D2), were grown under controlled conditions in the growth chamber. Control plants were watered daily, while watering of drought-stressed plants was stopped when plants were 16, 18 and 21 Table 1. Leaf water content (WC), plant age at sample collection and duration of water deprivation for drought-stressed plants (D1, D2 and D3).
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RESPONSE TO WATER DEFICIT OF Ipomoea cairica (L.) SWEET

RESPONSE TO WATER DEFICIT OF Ipomoea cairica (L.) SWEET

Green spaces require frequent watering, increasing the pressure on water resources. The use of native plants in landscaping reduces the risks of biological contamination, contributing to preservation of Brazilian biodiversity and provides the value of sustainability in urban green areas. Of these native plants, a restricted number are native lianas which are adapted to Brazilian climate and available on the market. In this regard, the selection and recommending of native plants which are efficient in use of water for planting in urban areas constitute an effective strategy for conservation of water resources. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth and development of I. cairica plants submitted to water deficit. For a period of 100 days after transplanting, plants of this species were grown with watered at pot capacity except for 30 days (from the 30 th to the 60 th day) when four water
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OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AND SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER APPLICATION

OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AND SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER APPLICATION

Water stress significantly limits plant growth and crop yield. Hence, the efficient management of soil moisture and the study of metabolic changes which occur in response to drought stress are important for agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of six oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes (Rgs003, Sarigol, Option500, Hyola401, Hyola330, and Hyola420), with and without drought stress, and with and without the use of super absorbent polymer, on oil quality and content. A complete randomized blocks design, with a split-plot arrangement, in a 2x2x6 factorial scheme (drought stress x polymer x genotypes), with three replications, was used. The research was carried out in a farm owned by the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, in Karaj, Iran. Results showed a significant difference for drought stress levels, presence of super absorbent and genotypes on oil content and composition, as well as on glucosinolate content in the oil. Drought stress conditions decreased the oil and linoleic acid contents, but increased the glucosinolate and stearic acid contents. The use of super absorbent polymer increased the linoleic acid content, but decreased other components. It was possible to conclude that, under drought stress conditions, the super absorbent polymer application, for reserving higher amounts of water in itself, increased the soil ability to store water, what increased the plant vegetative period and consequently the oil quality by decreasing saturate fatty acids and increasing unsaturated fatty acids.
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COTTON RESPONSE TO WATER DEFICITS AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

COTTON RESPONSE TO WATER DEFICITS AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

performed measurements in the two central rows. The total irrigation water depth for each treatment is presented in Table 2. We used crop evapotranspiration (ETc), obtained according to the FAO-56 methodology (ALLEN et al., 1998), to determine irrigation depth. For treatments with drought, the period applied consisted of 15 days withholding irrigation in the predetermined phase, according to Table 2. After this period, the plants were irrigated normally, depending on crop evapotranspiration. After the period of water deficit, the first irrigation was carried out based on the water content in the soil in order to increase soil field capacity. Subsequently, irrigation management followed the ETc methodology.
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AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF SUGARCANE FAMILIES IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS (

AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF SUGARCANE FAMILIES IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS (

A field experiment was conducted from April 2002 to April 2004 at the Jalles Machado Sugar Mill S/A, near Goianésia, Goiás State, Brazil (15° 10’ S, 49° 15’ W and 668 m altitude), where the annual average rainfall is about 1540 mm, and the weather is classified according Köppen Climate Classification (2006) as savanna tropical with a dry winter and rainy summer (Aw), with a well defined water stress season between May and October. The soil has been classified as a red-yellow latosoil, dystrophic, deep and flat with a well-drained topography (P RADO , 2003).

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Transpiration and leaf growth of potato clones in response to soil water defi cit

Transpiration and leaf growth of potato clones in response to soil water defi cit

The fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) ap- proach has been widely used for the evaluation of plant response to water defi cit (Bindi et al., 2005; Davatgar et al., 2009; Muchow and Sinclair, 1991; Ray and Sin- clair, 1997). The FTSW threshold indicates the timing of stomatal clossure in response to soil water defi cit (Ray and Sinclair, 1997; Sinclair and Ludlow, 1986) and the degree of tolerance to water defi cit. Genotypes with delayed wilting during a soil drying cycle have a high FTSW threshold (Devi et al., 2009). The FTSW thresh- old has been determined for many annual agricultural crops (Amir and Sinclair, 1991; Davatgar et al., 2009; Devi et al., 2009; Gholipoor et al., 2012; Lecoeur and Sinclair, 1996; Muchow and Sinclair, 1991; Ray and Sin- clair, 1997; Sinclair and Ludlow, 1986), some perennial fruit crops, grapevine (Vitis vinifera) (Bindi et al., 2005), and some forest crops, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna (Martins et al., 2008). Recently, researchers have shown genetic variations in FTSW threshold among cul- tivars of the same crop, such as soybean (Glycine max) (Hufstetler et al., 2007), peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (Devi et al., 2009), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Kholova et al., 2010) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Gholipoor et al., 2012).
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Response mechanisms of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars to water deficit stress

Response mechanisms of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars to water deficit stress

ABSTRACT - Two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf. (Syn. Urochloa) were evaluated for their adaptation to water deficit and the stress response mechanisms in a greenhouse experiment. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with a 2 × 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars were evaluated under two water availability conditions, with or without water restriction. The harvests were carried out 0, 7, 14 and 28 days after the start of water restriction. For both cultivars, the water deficit stress caused a reduction in shoot biomass and leaf area and an increase in the percentage of roots in the deeper soil layers. The B. brizantha cv. Marandu reached critical levels of leaf water potential in a shorter period of water restriction than did the B. brizantha cv. BRS Piatã. The osmoregulation and deepening of the root system are mechanisms of adaptation to water stress observed in both Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars. Besides that, the Marandu cultivar also increases its leaf senescence and, consequentially, decreases its leaf area, as a response to water deficit.
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Author's Response to Dr. Leo.

Author's Response to Dr. Leo.

2. Contrarily to M. Falagas, I do not see any good reason why a UAIN system could not be retroactive. It is clearly in every scientist’s interest to facilitate the job of other people who want to look up their work. I therefore believe that authors could be asked to register for a UAIN, and to validate their list of publications themselves, retroactively. Even for the most productive scientists, this would take only a few minutes, and the fact that they had registered for a UAIN allowing users to trace their whole list of publications could then be indicated in the display of search results from the various bibliographic databases. I also do not see any reason for “hiding” this UAIN. I suggest that it could be designed to be quite simple to remember and to communicate to others, for example: the fi rst four or fi ve letters of the last name followed by the initial of the fi rst name followed by the year of fi rst scientifi c publication followed by an incremental number depending on order of registration (my UAIN would be JOLY-E-89-01). It would therefore be something quite comparable in length and spirit to a car’s licence plate and, like UK licence plates, it would provide an interesting clue regarding the seniority of its bearer.
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Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

memory [57]. Most of all cold stress had to affect unpredictable task switching of executive function because this task requires maintenance and additional processing (i.e., active manipulation of information) of the stored material by executive functions and more challenging cognitive tasks require more cognitive resources, which is more prone to be affected by stress [54]. Moreover, there is evidence of a dose–response relationship between decreased cognitive performance and core body temperature [46], suggesting greater deterioration of cognitive function with more marked core cooling. We failed, however, to find any other study showing the effect of cooling of different duration and different level of core body cooling on changes in the release of blood stress markers and cognitive functioning. In this study of the cognitive performance tests, cooling significantly affected only choice reaction time, however, contrary to our expectations, there was no difference between groups. Similar activation of autonomic sympathetic system and activation of HPA-axis might be expected here in both FC and SC groups because of similar release of stress markers in the blood found after the cooling and it might in part explain why there was no difference in cognition between groups. Specifically, the forward digit-span task and the forced-choice recognition memory test mainly involve the passive maintenance of informa- tion and require less cognitive resources [20,21,45], therefore, results of these tests did not change significantly in both groups during cold stress.
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Portal hypertensive response to kinin

Portal hypertensive response to kinin

The liver has a very sophisticated vascular system that plays an active role in the maintenance of hepatic func- tion. As a key organ in the control of the internal milieu, the liver relies on appropriate tissue perfusion to control the composition of the blood that drains into the sys- temic circulation. Excluding the hepatic artery and its branches, which are responsible for only 20% to 40% of the blood entering the liver, the intra-hepatic circulation is maintained at very low pressure in physiological condi- tions. The vascular tone in portal venules, sinusoids, and hepatic venules is actively controlled by several relaxing and contracting substances, including BK (Borges et al. 1976, Loureiro-Silva et al. 1999, 2001, Gioli-Pereira et al. 2005, Nagaoka et al. 2006).
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Ambient Seismic Noise: A Continuous Source for the Dynamic Monitoring of Landslides

Ambient Seismic Noise: A Continuous Source for the Dynamic Monitoring of Landslides

The present study is a preliminary step that will lead to a comprehensive application of geophysical techniques for hazard assessment. Further studies will allow to better understand implications of rain- fall events on the seismic response at Sobradinho landlside site due to changes in soil properties. The here obtained results output that the peak of HVSR curve is sensitive to the seasonal variations in lands- lide mass. Future analyses will focus on highlighting noise properties changes to be related to the variation of physical properties in the landslide mass (i.e. due to soil saturation after rainfalls). The here experien- ced methodology can be applied to monitoring dams and other soil-made infrastructures by monitoring changes in natural resonance periods that could occur over time as an effect of the damaging induced by disturbing factors. The changes in natural period could be also modeled by numerical codes.
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Corporate social responsibility and environmental sustainability: classification of the initiatives of the FMCG companies operating in Brazil

Corporate social responsibility and environmental sustainability: classification of the initiatives of the FMCG companies operating in Brazil

The goal of the exploratory research, more than getting to final answers, is to gain insights about a topic and create hypotheses that can be further studied and verified, mainly by understanding how the companies are similar and what the general trends in the determined market are. This type of research brings a general understanding of the topic in question, providing a big picture of what specific topics should be further analyzed. Due to its more generically approach to a theme and a smaller scale, its results should not be generalized without more detailed researches with a better statistical significance (Churchill Jr, Brown, & Suter, 2010). Also this type of research methodology is highly flexible and more unstructured, enabling the use of various types of data, collected using various different methods (Aaker, Kumar, & Day, 1997).
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Water-balance response of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) tadpoles to graduated increase in environmental osmolarity

Water-balance response of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) tadpoles to graduated increase in environmental osmolarity

the external medium and the capacity of amphibians to overcome water stress secondary to dehydrating condi- tions, become critical factors of natural selection, espe- cially during the early larval stages in which the physi- ological mechanisms are not fully developed and may affect their fitness in terms of survival, development and growth rate (Burggren, 2005). In tadpoles, tolerance to extreme osmolarity conditions is asymmetrical; they can survive in diluted media or even in distilled water for long periods of time (Salibián, 1977; Zamorano and Salibián, 1994), whereas their tolerance to concentrated electrolyte solutions is near the osmotic pressure limit of the extracellular medium (Schrock and Hanke, 1979) by means of adaptive adjustment mechanisms (Balinsky, 1981; Gasser and Miller, 1986; Padhye and Ghate, 1992; Warburg and Rosenberg, 1990).
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Response to seasonal drought in three cultivars of Ceratonia siliqua: leaf growth and water relations

Response to seasonal drought in three cultivars of Ceratonia siliqua: leaf growth and water relations

The responses of leaf growth and leaf water relations to seasonal drought were monitored, during two successive years, in three cultivars of Ceratonia siliqua L. growing in the field, in the South of Portugal. In leaves from the current year growth bulk leaf water relations parameters were characterised using pressure-volume analysis, and morphometric measurements of xylem in petioles were undertaken. The three cultivars under study (Galhosa, Espargal and Mulata) differed as to the seasonal pattern of leaf initiation: in Galhosa a sharp peak of leaf initiation occurred in June, soon before the period in which the highest leaf expansion rates were determined; on the other two cultivars (Espargal and Mulata), not only the onset of leaf growth occurred earlier, but they continued producing new leaves throughout the summer period. The diurnal pattern of water relations determined in recently-expanded leaves indicated that Galhosa was the only cultivar in which, during midsummer, leaf water potential was not decreased below the turgor loss point and leaf relative water content remained above 90%. Although no conclusive evidence was found for the occurrence of osmotic adjustment in recently-expanded leaves, during the dry season following leaf formation a seasonal decrease in osmotic potential sufficient to maintain turgor was detected in the leaves of Galhosa but not for the other cultivars. As to the anatomy of the xylem at the petioles, the widest xylem conduits were recorded in Galhosa. This might contribute to explain why in this cultivar midday leaf water potential never decreased below –2.0 MPa even at the end of summer drought season.
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NUTRIENT SUPPLY BY MASS FLOW AND DIFFUSION TO MAIZE PLANTS IN RESPONSE TO SOIL AGGREGATE SIZE AND WATER POTENTIAL

NUTRIENT SUPPLY BY MASS FLOW AND DIFFUSION TO MAIZE PLANTS IN RESPONSE TO SOIL AGGREGATE SIZE AND WATER POTENTIAL

Nutrients are basically transported to the roots by mass flow and diffusion. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of these two mechanisms to the acquisition of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) and cationic micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) by maize plants as well as xylem exudate volume and composition in response to soil aggregate size and water availability. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with samples of an Oxisol, from under two management systems: a region of natural savanna-like vegetation (Cerradão, CER) and continuous maize under conventional management for over 30 years (CCM). The treatments were arranged in a factorial [2 x (1 + 2) x 2] design, with two management systems (CER and CCM), (1 + 2) soil sifted through a 4 mm sieve and two aggregate classes (< 0.5 mm and 0.5 - 4.0 mm) and two soil matric potentials (-40 and -10 kPa). These were evaluated in a randomized block design with four replications. The experiment was conducted for 70 days after sowing. The influence of soil aggregate size and water potential on the nutrient transport mechanisms was highest in soil samples with higher nutrient concentrations in solution, in the CER system; diffusion became more relevant when water availability was higher and in aggregates < 0.5 mm. The volume of xylem exudate collected from maize plants increased with the decrease in aggregate size and the increased availability of soil water in the CER system. The highest Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem exudate of plants grown on samples from the CER system were related to the high concentrations of these nutrients in the soil solution of this management system.
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A method to determine plant water source using transpired water

A method to determine plant water source using transpired water

preclude further evaporation and allow the progressive mixing of evaporated transpired water and un-evaporated xylem water. The method was applied on trees and shrubs coexisting in a non-irrigated area where stable isotope ratios of local environmental wa- ters are well characterized. The results show Eucalyptus globulus (tree) and Genista monspessulana (shrub) using water sources of different isotopic ratios congruent with

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Seasonal phytoplankton response to increased temperature and phosphorus inputs in a freshwater coastal lagoon, Southern Brazil: a microcosm bioassay

Seasonal phytoplankton response to increased temperature and phosphorus inputs in a freshwater coastal lagoon, Southern Brazil: a microcosm bioassay

The results obtained in the present study indicate that global changes are very likely to interfere in the phytoplankton community of Peri lagoon. Temperature rises can lead to increased chl-a concentrations in autumn and winter months, but a negative effect on summer phytoplankton community is expected from the results obtained in the microcosms. Small P inputs to the lagoon without other environmental changes will probably have no profound effects on primary producers. On the other hand, the combined effect of global temperature rises and increased P inputs can significantly augment phytoplankton biomass in Peri coastal lagoon in both cold and warm months. These are concerning results since several bloom forming species of Cyanobacteria are present in the lagoon and environmental alterations can lead to toxin production with dramatic consequences to other living organisms within the lagoon and to people that depend on the lagoon as a water supplier.
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USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

paper highlights the use of butter milk and poultry-transforming wastes for B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant production in submerged culture. It demonstrated also the effectiveness and feasibility of the use of statistical models to optimize culture medium components and conditions for enhanced biosurfactant production as it was previously confirmed by Sen and Swaminathan (1997); Kiran et al. (2010); Ghribi et al. (2012a) and Mnif et al. (2013b). Therefore, a high degree of similarity was observed between the predicted and experimental values that reflected the accuracy and applicability of response surface methodology to optimize the process for enhanced SPB1 biosurfactant production. Here, it permitted to define optimum conditions supporting high biosurfactant production defined as inoculum size (0.12), liquid substrates ratio (milk butter/distilled water) (1.5) and poultry-transforming wastes flour level (23g/L). Also, response methodology allows an analysis of the individual, cumulative and interactive effects of these three parameters on biosurfactant production (Mnif et al., 2013b). According to Table 4, all the factors affect significantly the response; also, the interactions between the different factors are significant. Figure 1 shows that an increase in the liquid substrates’ ratio enhances the biosurfactant production yield. A maximum biosurfactant production of 12.61 g/L was achieved. Validation experiments were also carried out to verify the adequacy and the accuracy of the model and results showed that the predicted value (12,4g/L ± 0.7) agreed with the experimental value (12,61g/L) well and more than six fold increase compared to the original medium was obtained (Ghribi and Ellouze-Chaabouni, 2011c). Interestingly, the production yield obtained in this study is three fold
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