different approaches have contributed to this debate and to increased openness to listen to children’s ideas about their experiences of the world, such contributions do not seem to be enough to guarantee that their voices and points of view have been effectively heard and considered (James, 2007). Moreover, the little empirical evidence on children’s ideas about participation, namely may be at least partially explained by the lack of sound measures. In order to develop a sound measure and contribute to the study of children’s participation right in ECEC we have developed and tested a structured interview protocol to assess children’s views, perceptions, and expectations about participation and the implementation of participation practices in ECEC classrooms. This study presents the “Choosing Classrooms: A Structured Interview on Children’s RighttoParticipate” protocol as well as the results of a pilot study in Portuguese ECEC settings.
Extant reviews have focused on specific methods to gather children’s voices, children’s participation in specific countries, children’s participation in health settings, or school-aged children’s participation. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no systematic review mapping international empirical research on young children’s righttoparticipate in ECE settings. We aim to address this gap, acknowledging the importance of the early years, often underestimated and overlooked. We acknowledge the initial assumptions most likely to influence our analyses and interpretation of findings: (1) the field needs a comprehensive evidence-base on participation-related ideas, practices, and outcomes, and their mutual associations and effects; (2) the field needs strong evidence building on quantitative and qualitative studies and transversal and longitudinal high-quality research designs; (3) the field needs to consider the perspectives, experiences, and outcomes of multiple agents, maintaining a strong focus on children.
Despite the existing evidence on teacher beliefs, research on the correlates of teachers’ ideas about children’s righttoparticipate in ECE is still scarce. Existing studies suggest teachers’ ideas about participation seem to be influenced by the local culture (e.g., local practices and role of teachers), reflecting different guidelines and educational approaches, and documenting disparities between countries. For instance, the teachers’ role in creating the best conditions for children’s independent choices was frequently rated as one of the most important meanings of participation in Denmark, Estonia, Australia, and Sweden, but not in Greece (Broström et al., 2015). Also, teachers’ perceptions of practices supporting children’s expression and participation in daily activities are higher in public settings, and positively associated with group size (Lopes, Correia, & Aguiar, 2016) (cf. Appendix). However, other studies document teachers’ perception of group size as an obstacle to the promotion of children’s participation (e.g., Venninen et al., 2014). In addition, ECE teachers’ perceptions about practices characterized by decision making by the adult are negatively associated with teachers’ education and classroom process (i.e., teacher-child interactions) quality (Lopes, Correia, and Aguiar, 2016). Another study reported small differences between ECE teachers’ and ECE student teacher’ ideas, with most experienced teachers perceiving participation as listening to others, feeling respect for them, and being part of the group to a greater extent than teachers with less experience, suggesting a group-oriented approach of more experienced teachers (Johansson & Sandberg, 2010).
É por intermédio do planejamento urbano que se consegue passar de um paradigma assente na decisão de pretensões individuais (continuidade e manutenção de interesses privados) para um modelo de conformação jurídico-pública das variadas pretensões existentes, tendo em consideração interesses públicos e privados (de interessados, por exemplo, no acesso à moradia e na regularização fundiária). Somente com processos participativos é possível conceber “[...] uma cidade constituída não apenas para maximizar a according to the hermeneutical method, through the survey and analysis of the legal rules applicable to urban planning and citizen participation. Data were collected through bibliographic materials, books and periodicals. We highlight some conditions that resulted in the current insertion of the population’s participation in Brazil urban planning process. Analyzing aspects of the urban law established in the 1988 Constitution, and covering City Statute tools such as the Master Plan, the authors discuss public participation in the democratic management of cities. The article finalizes with reflections on Brazilian urban policy, analyzing the importance of promoting Participatory Directors Plans, given the current context of scarce popular action in the drafting, implementation and monitoring of compliance of planning instruments.
disabilities have the righttoparticipate socially on an equal opportunity basis, and it is society’s role, in general, and companies’, in particular, to ensure products and services exist that guarantee that participation; the existence of products that respond to the basic survival and mobility needs will not by itself guarantee the conditions required for effective participation in social life; products developed for elderly and people with disabilities must take into account the integration expectations of the people that use them; the stigma that is associated to disability cannot be solved by hiding it; hiding is based on the preconceived idea that a stigmatized person cannot be integrated in any way, thereby forever prolonging the stigma; the current ageing demographics in all societies across the globe calls for greater participation of the elderly and disabled people, not only as a basic citizenship right, but also as an economic and social sustainability need.
Data suggest heterogeneity of the area re- sponsible for the management of health sector policy in the country, not focusing on the coordi- nation office accountable for the implementation of health policies for adolescents and young peo- ple. Such situation may hamper the visibility of this population in the political agenda and gov- ernance of the PNAISARI, since it contends with agendas of greater acceptance and social commo- tion, such as child healthcare. In Brazil, although a past moment has promoted the construction of health policies for several population segments, there is still no national health policy for adoles- cents and young people to this day, which fur- ther weakens contention in the political agenda and corroborates the deterioration of the general health situation of this population 27 .
Generally, individuals show different determinants towards behavioral intentions depending on their respective cultur- al heritage (Kirkman et al. 2006). Our results indicate that in some contexts this may not be the case. For this study, we selected respondents in the same field of study and age group, thus capturing the cognitive determination of a set of digital natives. Although we did extensive tests over multiple control variables, the sample of 476 participants from more than five different nationalities and an unknown number of individual cultural heritages, the response set did not reveal heterogeneous clusters. Therefore, we can conclude that the determinants of behavioral intention to- wards corporate BYOD programs are shared by digital na- tives regardless of their nationalities and cultural back- grounds. This largely contradicts previous research which is generally guided by the assumption that culture plays an important role in decision-making in general. Most prom- inently the work of Hofstede (2003) forms the basis for the assessment of the impact of culture on decision making (Kirkman et al. 2006). Here we see that digital natives share a common set of values which is valid spanning cultural dif- ferences. As such one could argue that being a Bdigital native^ is a cultural value in its own respect. Although we need to acknowledge that more research needs to be done on this issue, it is a valuable theoretical insight with implications spe- cifically for cross-cultural research.
Abstract—Using rightto left languages (RLL) in software programming requires switching the direction of many components in the interface. Preserving the original interface layout and only changing the language may result in different semantics or interpretations of the content. However, this aspect is often dismissing in the field. This research, therefore, proposes a Bilingual Model (BL) to check and correct the directions in social media applications. Moreover, test-driven development (TDD) For RLL, such as Arabic, is considered in the testing methodologies. Similarly, the bilingual analysis has to follow both the TDD and BL models.
An apparent belief lives in common sense – a perspective that is many times transferred to the affirmation of political memory – that recovering the past and giving meaning to facts from the past fatally culminate in a new time, stripped from the barbarism which once defined it. The role of a redeemer is given to memory upon being discussed again and introduced in political debates, as if it could, on its own, implicate a new social, political and legal dynamics. The redemption of memory would be inevitable; thus, recovering the past is an unpostponable measure. There is a sort of myth of truth and faith in memory. Only through (re)designed truth and memory, would the present have a real meaning and some hope would be given to the future. Regarding this aspect, it is enough to remember the slogan repeated by the Brazilian State itself, and used by The Civil House of the President of Brazil in the project called Memories Revealed, coordinated by the Brazilian National Archives: “So we shall not forget. So it shall never happen again” (MEMÓRIAS REVELADAS, 2017).
Besides the highlighted models which constitute barriers to access and permanence in higher education, there are historical socio- cultural constructions which constitute limitations for access and per- manence in the school system. As Dubet (2003) stresses well, the first production factor of inequalities, which can be considered as a condition of access, is given at birth, in regard to: gender, race and socioeconomic condition. The quoted author warns that there is a difference between the pure real equality in living conditions and the principle of equality of the individuals. “Put it in another way, the modern individuals are considered as increasingly more equal and their ‘empirical’ inequalities can neither be based on birth, not on race, nor on tradition” (DUBET, 2003, p. 24), being that the individuals may be considered fundamentally equal and in conditions of legitimately claiming equal opportunities and rights. This means that modern societies are egalitarian as they extend the rightto equality in normative, legal and political terms. But, in real life, inequality is presented or constructed in individuality or in communities. At birth, inequality and equality are presented to the individual as an accomplished fact through mechanisms of belongings, such as social class, gender and ethnicity. Overcoming this precept consisted of an Enlightenment prem- ise for modernity, but, on the contrary, in capitalism, equality and in- equality continue being defined at the individual’s birth, even if these are not being institutionally legitimized, as is still done in estamental societ- ies, in which the defining mechanisms of social condition are in charge of establishing the limits of equality with social inequality.
According to Gewirth, human rights ”are…moral rights which all persons equally have simply because they are human” (Gewirth, 1982, at p.1). Such rights are not normally absolute, however (ibid, at p.57). Therefore, they must give way to other fundamental rights and to various specified interests, in certain circumstances, all of which (in states parties to the ECHR) are of course open to scrutiny by the European Court of Human Rights (for some specific illustrations see, e.g. Harris, O’Boyle and Warbrick, 1995, at pp. 296-7). When the provision of the rightto vote is critically scrutinised, it is not immediately clear that this particular right, although enshrined in Article 3, Protocol No. 1 to the ECHR, is actually quite as ”fundamental”, in practical terms, to human beings as their rights to privacy and to freedom of expression. Some empirical observations can be used to support this idea. First, the traditional approach of European courts, when faced with cases involving human rights issues, is of course to examine with care the particular circumstances of the individual(s) claiming the right(s) in question. The rightto vote, however, is in practice denied to a large number of individuals on the basis of a broad assumption to the effect that all persons under 18 years of age are emotionally and intellectually incapable of voting. No careful scrutiny of the particular circumstances of any individual 16- or 17-year-olds ever takes place, although 16- and 17-year-olds are apparently
The purpose of this paper is to present the current legal framework related to the superficies right in the form of the rightto superpose, and especially to draw the attention and put certain question marks regarding the actuality or even the urgency of the need for regulation regarding the rightto superpose. First, as a preliminary aspect, in order to emphasize the historical evolution of the superficies right, we will briefly present the development of this concept starting from the Roman law up to the present date. Second, by analysing the relevant legislation, the doctrine and the jurisprudence, the authors set themselves to present the main methods for constituting the superficies right. Third, the characteristics related to the rightto superpose will be correlatively laid out. Fourth, the possibility to obtain a building permit on the basis of the rightto superpose will also be analysed. Fifth, the recently entered-into-force legislative framework regarding the registration of the rightto superpose and of the building thus erected is presented. Last but not least, the conclusions of this paper are presented, highlighting the necessity for more clearly defined rules regulating the legal status of the rightto superpose, in order to avoid any confusions and inconsistencies in practice.
Politicians, in cahoots with unscrupulous entrepreneurs, also made the situation worse by selling the land to them. Ru experienced the agriculture decline of his country and tried to approach several relevant government sectors, hoping they could amend the economic policies in order to offer more support to local farmers. But all efforts were vain. He then decided to speak out on behalf of farmers. He packed 17 harmless self- made “rice” bomb, not only to remind the government and society of the agricultural issues but also to force them to take these problems seriously. Attached to the devices (November 2003/November 2004) were notes that stated “Against rice importing. The government should look after its people”. Among onlookers, Ru waiving in the breeze, reminisced about the beautiful rice fields from his childhood. Even though only two of the bombs caused damages, Ru was sentenced to 7 years in prison, for having compromised public security. His protest urged the government to face up to the difficulties continuing to affect farmers in Taiwan (THE RICE BOMBER, 2014).
Is it morally incumbent on you to accede to this situation? No doubt it would be very nice of you if you did, a great kindness. But do you have to accede to it? What if it were not nine months, but nine years? Or longer still? What if the director of the hospital says, “Tough luck, I agree, but you’ve now got to stay in bed, with the violinist plugged into you, for the rest of your life. Because remember this. All persons have a rightto life, and violinists are persons. Granted you have a rightto decide what happens in and to your body, but a person’s rightto life outweighs your rightto decide what happens in and to your body. So you cannot ever be unplugged from him”. I imagine you would regard this as outrageous, which suggests that something really is wrong with that plausible-sounding argument I mentioned a moment ago 18 .
We need to “suffer fools kindly,” be compassionate to them as fools. By “fools” I mean pests, not dumb people. Intelligence doesn’t have much to do with it. It is easy to become impatient and angry with a fool who wastes my time and energy; it is easy to think I am doing a fool a favor by giving him a verbal lashing, which may set him straight. In truth, though, the lashing will likely have little effect. I would not be the first to lash this fool, nor would I be the last. He is a fool, after all. I will help myself and the fool most with kindness. I need to listen to him without letting him think he has me fooled, showing him patience and kindness nonetheless. This will be something new for the fool. He will look at me with admiration — I am not cruel and dismissive; I am someone to emulate. There is no guarantee of this reaction, of course, but more importantly perhaps, I will feel good. There will be no echo or hangover of bad speech or behavior. The fool is like a child, and there is no lasting sense of satisfaction in lashing out at a child or a fool. There is, though, a sense of satisfaction in exercising restraint and kindness and perhaps even having a good influence as a result.
ingly larger numbers of evangelical Christian representatives. If pro-choice advocates were never successful in passing legislation, they nonetheless were able to block further restric- tions to abortion rights, and used their proposals as a way to help set the terms for the abortion debate. The current legislature leaves very little room for that. Any path that requires changing the legislation will first require considerable mo- bilization to elect more progressive politicians to the House of Representatives and the Senate.
"The scene took place during the assessment of practices of Adult Health in the 3rd year of nursing studies in a Federal public university where the 3rd year curriculum had been recently redesigned to bring professional practice closer to the student, in line with the DCN. Students have a first contact with a patient admitted to hospital before taking any class of anamnesis and physical examination. It was around Easter and the teacher had asked students to prepare for an oral examination on Monday, after the holiday. The student said: "I swallowed the whole book, I mean, I memorized it entirely When the time came, they were all around the patient, and the poor guy, not understanding a word of our talking, just kept staring at us. The teacher asked: what are you hearing? I was so nervous that I could not answer. I had forgotten everything! A colleague answered instead of me: "bowel sounds". The teacher had the biggest tantrum and said if she wanted to call my colleague, she would have done so. . The teacher challenged us all in front of the patient and made me an even more difficult question that was not in the book. At the end, she said the group was very bad and noboby was passing."
[...] on the one hand, workers belonging to the nucleus that works with more advanced machinery equipped with greater technology are increasingly exposed to the flexibility and intensification of their activities, expressed not only by the cadence imposed by the robotization of the production process, but also, above all, by the institution of practices guided by multifunctionality, polyvalence, interdependent work teams and submission to a series of management mechanisms based on psychological pressure aimed at increasing productivity. On the other hand, another portion of the working class, numerically superior, begins to experience more and more different types of ties and working conditions that are feasible from work environments that articulate less technological development to more extensive journeys, greater insecurity and vulnerability.
Analyzing Lefebvre’s works, Ukrainian urban space researcher Ihor Tyshchenko (2015) concludes that the concept rightto the city is associated with city revolutions and active opposition of citizens and local authority, as desperate citizens often have to fight their city back. The rightto the city is claimed when citizens are denied the rightto freely use public space for collective achievement of life goals (appropriation) and the rightto participation in city development. In other words, when something is physically changed (rebuilt, built up, ruined, relocated, expropriated) without the citizens’ involvement (Tyshchenko, 2015). This way, Henri Lefebvre has started scientific enquiries into the phenomenon of city belonging. Researchers operating this concept have further expanded it with their interpretations or narrowed their focus singling out its separate aspects and dimensions (Harvey, 2008; Mitchell, 2003). For example, David Harvey (2008) perceived rightto the city as the rightto affordable housing and the rightto engagement in the process of building up of a city. Harvey (2008) claims that citizens are to a certain extent deprived of the ability to enjoy their rightto the city, as currently it rather belongs to the authority- or business-related minority. The researcher believes that the question about what city people want to have is inseparable from questions about citizens’ social ties, their ties with the nature, lifestyles, technology, as well as aesthetic values these people cherish (Harvey, 2008). Rightto the city is something superior to individual rightto benefit from city resources - this is the rightto change oneself changing the city. What is more, this right is collective rather than individual, as these transformations are sure to depend on execution of collective rightto affect processes of urbanization (Harvey, 2008). Harvey (2008) also emphasizes that a rightto the city is not abstract, but rooted in daily activities, whether people realize its existence or no.
Como sugestão de melhoria da PNAISARI, recomenda-se o fortalecimento das instâncias de participação intersetorial como o GTI, a institu- cionalização do Colegiado Gestor do SINASE, o reconhecimento das corresponsabilidades dos entes federados para seu devido cofinanciamen- to, além da compreensão da lógica de organiza- ção entre os setores envolvidos para a efetivação da incompletude institucional e da garantia de direitos de adolescentes e jovens no Brasil. Fi- nalmente, recomenda-se ainda a importância do aprofundamento de análises e estudos na área, considerando na avaliação não apenas a percep- ção dos gestores estaduais e municipais de saúde, mas de todos os envolvidos, com destaque para a população assistida: o adolescente.