River basins

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Water Accounting Plus (WA+) – a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

Water Accounting Plus (WA+) – a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

This paper introduces a simple, understandable and stan- dardised way of describing the overall land and water man- agement situation in complex river basins. Ideally, complex conditions should be summarised on a few pages with ta- bles and graphs. It is a challenge to present integrated water resources management issues in both a simplistic and suffi- ciently comprehensive way. For some it will always be over- simplified, while other water professionals prefer a simplified version. The benefit of having a standard analytical frame- work and associated terminology has been demonstrated by FAO in the field of evapotranspiration. The FAO standardisa- tion of reference evapotranspiration ET (Allen et al., 1998) has for instance been widely adopted by the international community of agricultural and irrigation engineers to de- scribe ET processes and get global uniformity in crop and irrigation water requirement computations. Similarly, a stan- dard water accounting procedure could facilitate the descrip- tion of the state conditions of river basins and the opportuni- ties to exploit manageable water flows more effectively, effi- ciently, productively and sustainably.
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Comparison of the abiotic preferences of macroinvertebrates in tropical river basins.

Comparison of the abiotic preferences of macroinvertebrates in tropical river basins.

Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled, identified and quantified according to the method described in Gabriels et al. [6] which is an internationally accepted kick-sampling procedure for macroinvertebrate sampling. A conical net with a size of 20630 cm and a mesh size of 300–500 m m, attached to a stick, was used. With the hand net, all accessible aquatic habitats within a stretch of 10–20 m were sampled using the kick sampling method. The sampling effort was equally divided over the different habitats per sampling site. The organisms were identified to family level and this resulted in binary presence-absence data. Subse- quently, five macroinvertebrate families, present in the three river basins and ranging from a pollution tolerant family towards a pollution sensitive family based on the BMWP tolerance list, were selected. The five target macroinvertebrate families that were selected were Chironomidae (tolerance class 2 (TS2)), Baetidae (TS4), Hydroptilidae (TS6), Libellulidae (TS8) and Leptophlebii- dae (TS10). For a complete overview of the taxa encountered in each river basin we refer to the related publications [17,18,20]. No
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Relating seasonal dynamics of enhanced vegetation index to the recycling of water in two endorheic river basins in north-west China

Relating seasonal dynamics of enhanced vegetation index to the recycling of water in two endorheic river basins in north-west China

The objective of this paper is to investigate the relative in- fluence of oasis vegetation on water recycling and the genera- tion of in-mountain precipitation in two large endorheic river basins in north-west China over a 10-year period (i.e. 2000– 2009), based partially on a correlational and cause-and-effect examination (by way of convergent cross-mapping; Sugi- hara et al., 2012) of relevant hydrological variables. Spatio- temporal variation in oasis-vegetation coverage and phenol- ogy is characterised by a chronological series of monthly Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)- based images of enhanced vegetation index (Huete et al., 2002) and land cover-specific thresholds. Hydrological com- ponents essential to the study involve existing, independently developed monthly surfaces of (i) evaporation and precip- itation, prepared from remote sensing data (Table 2), and (ii) snowmelt and mountain return flow, generated from dis- tributed hydrological modelling (see Matin and Bourque, 2013a, b, 2015). All surfaces were later validated against field data collected at a limited number of climate and hy- drometric stations in the Hexi Corridor.
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Multi-model climate impact assessment and intercomparison  for three large-scale river basins on three continents

Multi-model climate impact assessment and intercomparison for three large-scale river basins on three continents

Our study is intended as a contribution to the intercomparison of climate change im- pacts for the water sector at the regional scale. It was done for three large-scale river basins on three continents: the Rhine in Europe, the Upper Niger in Africa and the Up- per Yellow River in Asia by applying three hydrological models: SWIM (Krysanova et al., 1998), HBV (Bergström et al., 1995) and VIC (Liang et al., 1994) after their calibration

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MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEVEN MESO-SCALE RIVER BASINS IN STATE OF SÃO PAULO (SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL)

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEVEN MESO-SCALE RIVER BASINS IN STATE OF SÃO PAULO (SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL)

Fig. 2 (morphometric), Fig. 3 (hydrological), and Fig. 4 (morphometric + hydrological) show the clustering of the river basins according to similarity. In all figures a division in two main clusters can be verified. This is closely associated with the geological basement of the studied regions, verified through the geological data (Table 2) and visualized through the geological map (São Paulo, 1981). In Fig. 2 the first main cluster (indicated in the figure as 1st cluster) shows a high similarity between the river basins PEI and TUR, followed by AGUA. SJD river basin showed minor similarity to the other river basins expressed by higher linkage distance values. In the second main cluster, MOG and ALPA river basins are more similar, followed by the PIRA river basin.
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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLANNING IN RIVER BASINS: THE CASE OF PIG FARMING IN RIVER PIRANGA BASIN

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLANNING IN RIVER BASINS: THE CASE OF PIG FARMING IN RIVER PIRANGA BASIN

The integrated vision of the territory and understanding of how the anthropic activities influence the available natural resources is the key point for guiding the execution of inspection and environmental control actions which, when applied to river basins, directly influence the quality and/or quantity of water, thus affecting water availability. In 2013 an environmental inspection project was elaborated for pig farming activity in River Piranga's Planning and Management of Water Resources Unit (Unidade de Planejamento e Gestão de Recursos Hídricos - UPGRH), in which it encompassed the following phases: orientation, field of activity and monitoring of post-fiscal actions. The main objective of this article is to demonstrate the efficacy of the technical planning in river basins for the execution of environmental inspection. This is achieved by evaluating the water quality performance indicators before and after inspection activities, with the application of statistical tests. The continuous inspection reached its objective, which was to increase the environmental regularization in the basin, since 94.11% of the fined enterprises, that is, 16 out of 17, were regularized. The implementation of a directed monitoring network of water quality enabled, on the part of the entrepreneur, the acknowledgment that pig farming contributes to the increase of the thermotolerant coliforms parameter and not only the gap in sewage treatment in the region.
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DYNAMIC SYSTEMS APPROACH TO ASSESS AND MANAGE WATER RESOURCES IN RIVER BASINS

DYNAMIC SYSTEMS APPROACH TO ASSESS AND MANAGE WATER RESOURCES IN RIVER BASINS

ABSTRACT: The Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí River Basins (RB-PCJ) are located in the States of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, Brazil. By 2005, 5.8% of Brazil’s General National Product-GNP was produced there. Such economic development has created a huge demand for water resources. The availability of water resources was assessed by running a dynamic systems simulation model to manage these resources in the RB-PCJ (WRM-PCJ), considering five 50-year simulations. WRM-PCJ was developed as a tool to aid the RB-PCJ Watershed Committee. The model computes water supply, demands, and contamination load from several consumers. When considering a Business-as-Usual scenario, by 2054, water demands will have increased up to 76%, 39% of the available water will come from wastewater reuse, and the contamination load will have increased by 91%. The Falkenmark Index started at 1403 m 3 person –1 year –1 in 2004, ending at 734 m 3 P –1 yr –1 in 2054; the Xu Sustainability Index
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Biogeography of Amazonian fishes: deconstructing river basins as biogeographic units

Biogeography of Amazonian fishes: deconstructing river basins as biogeographic units

At first glance, river basins and their fish faunas are attractive models for the recognition of historical patterns. They are well-defined isolated water courses separated by clear-cut barriers (land or oceans) mostly impassable by strictly freshwater fishes (Myers, 1947; Eadie et al., 1986; Berra, 2001; de Pinna, 2006; Olden et al., 2010). Such a scenario implies that extinction and speciation events are basin-specific, in turn making drainages cohesive biogeographic units. In fact, studies on neotropical fish biogeography have invariably utilized large hydrographic basins as fundamental geographical units (cf. Hubert, Renno, 2006; Ingenito, Buckup, 2007; Albert, Carvalho, 2011; Buckup, 2011; Schaefer, 2011; Winemiller, Willis, 2011; Lima, Ribeiro, 2011; Mariguela et al., 2013; Camelier, Zanata, 2014). Of course, discrepant evidence has been known for some time, such as the existence of taxa in the same basin each associated with divergent area relationships (cf. Vari, 1988) and the large number of sympatric congeners, especially in the Western Amazonian lowlands. As stated by Platnick, Nelson (1978) “it is not necessary or even expected that we find that the biota of one area belongs to only a single general pattern, or that if we find more than one, that only one pattern contributes information about the history of the areas involved”. Despite such insights, those Amazonian cases have been considered as minority exceptions which do not change the general model.
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Analysis of the diffusion of scientific research on river basins (watersheds) in Brazil

Analysis of the diffusion of scientific research on river basins (watersheds) in Brazil

River basins or watershed areas have suffered great impact due to deforestation and pollution, which in turn also comprises decrease in the volume of water in rivers involved. Current research overviews scientific literature related to the theme "Watershed", published between 2002 and 2012, and assess the scientific contribution. The research method consists of an exploratory bibliographical survey of Brazilian research on the above-mentioned subject retrieved from the database Web of Science (WoS). Data treatment was conducted through a bibliometric analysis to identify institutions with greater representation in publications and citations by region. The bibliometric analysis was performed with software developed in Delphi language and types of Microsoft Excel ® software, Ucinet ® , NetDraw ® and ArcGIS ® that enabled the development of graphical representations related to publications and citations by regions. When the analysis of bibliometric indicators was analyzed, the most productive institutions were mapped and the impact and visibility of their publications and relationships that occurred in collaboration between researchers from major institutions were evaluated. Research related to the theme "Watershed" has its largest production between physically close institutions. This fact shows the need for government action, through investments, for the integration of researchers from different regions to construct a national coverage for these networks. Finally, the Southeast Region of Brazil should be underscored due to its production of more than 50% of publications and citations out of the national total.
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Regional climate projections in two alpine river basins: Upper Danube and Upper Brahmaputra

Regional climate projections in two alpine river basins: Upper Danube and Upper Brahmaputra

Lang, S., K¨a¨ab, A., Pechst¨adt, J., Fl¨ugel, W.-A., Zeil, P., Lanz, E., Kahuda, D., Frauenfelder, R., Casey, K., F¨ureder, P., Sossna, I., Wager, I., Janauer, G., Exler, N., Boukalova, Z., Tapa, R., Lui, J., and Sharma, N.: Assessing components of the natural environ- ment of the Upper Danube and Upper Brahmaputra river basins, Adv. Sci. Res., this special volume, 2011.

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Quantifying uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in sub-catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins, China

Quantifying uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in sub-catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins, China

Abstract. Quantitative evaluations of the impacts of climate change on water resources are primarily constrained by un- certainty in climate projections from GCMs. In this study we assess uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in two catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins that feature contrasting climate regimes (humid and semi-arid). Specifically we quantify uncertainty associated with GCM structure from a subset of CMIP3 AR4 GCMs (HadCM3, HadGEM1, CCSM3.0, IPSL, ECHAM5, CSIRO, CGCM3.1), SRES emissions scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, B2) and prescribed increases in global mean air temperature (1 ◦ C to 6 ◦ C). Climate projections, applied to semi-distributed hy- drological models (SWAT 2005) in both catchments, indi- cate trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. For pre- scribed warming scenarios of 1 ◦ C to 6 ◦ C, linear increases
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Genetic diversity and structure of Astrocaryum jauari (Mart.) palm in two Amazon river basins

Genetic diversity and structure of Astrocaryum jauari (Mart.) palm in two Amazon river basins

In an attempt to verify the existence of a genetic structure or differentiation between the sampled populations, two matrices were calculated using pairwise fixation index (F ST ) values between the populations and between the geographical basins to which they belong. These analyses were obtained by a significance test with 99,999 permutations and adjust- ing the level of significance with Bonferroni correction (Rice 1989). Wright (1951)’s F statistics were calculated by Weir and Cockerham (1984) algorithms, evaluating the statistical significance based on 20,000 bootstrap replicates. The Mantel test (Smouse et al. 1986) was performed to analyze the correlation between the geographic distances between populations and the linearized genetic distances (F ST ) (Slatkin 1995), and Nei’s genetic distances (Nei et al. 1978) among populations. The tests of significance were performed using 100,000 permutations. Pairwise calcula- tions of F ST , the linearized F ST matrix and the Mantel test were carried out with Arlequin v.3.5.1.2 software (Excoffier and Lischer 2010). Nei’s genetic distances were calculated using GDA software (Lewis and Zaykin 2000) and the geographic distance matrix using the earth.dist function of the Fossil 0.3.7 package from the R project (Vavrek 2011).
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HYDROSSEDIMENTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION OF RURAL ROADS IN RIVER BASINS WITH SMALL AND MEDIUM PROPERTIES

HYDROSSEDIMENTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION OF RURAL ROADS IN RIVER BASINS WITH SMALL AND MEDIUM PROPERTIES

Hydrosedimentological studies address the contributions of agriculture, urban environment, and other land occupations. However, rural roads within the watersheds are hardly seen as a specific or potential contribution. Thus, the aim of this study is to simulate different scenarios and characteristics for rural roads and assess its the flow of water and sediments in family farming basins located in the southern brazil. For this, the soil and water assessment tools (swat) hydrological simulation model was applied. In the flow calibration stage for the Concórdia stream basin, a nash‑sutcliffe coefficient (COE) of 0.76 was obtained, and for validation, a coefficient of 0.78. While in the Camboriú river basin, the COE reached 0.67. For sedimentological calibration and validation, the Concórdia creek basin obtained an COE of 0.82 and 0.68, respectively. While in the Camboriú river basin, sedimentological calibration reached a coefficient of 0.59. When compared to the scenario without the roads, the insertion of rural roads as specific land use resulted in a 6.3% increase in flow rate and 8.8% in sediments transported in the Concórdia creek basin. For the Camboriú river basin, the differences were below 0.4%. Therefore, even with a small area within the basin, rural roads may interfere with the flow and volume of transported sediment.
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The condition factor of fishes from two river basins in São Paulo state, Southeast of Brazil

The condition factor of fishes from two river basins in São Paulo state, Southeast of Brazil

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), C.P.. *Autor para correspondência.[r]

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HYDROGEIOS: A semi-distributed GIS-based hydrological model for disturbed river basins

HYDROGEIOS: A semi-distributed GIS-based hydrological model for disturbed river basins

are automatically computed via the GIS module. These include cell areas, centroid co- ordinates, distances and common edge lengths between adjacent cells, plus all unions and intersections with the surface geographical layers. Note that some cells may lie out of the watershed bounds, to direct the groundwater sinks to the sea or neighbouring basins. Other components are springs, which represent point outflows that are trans-

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Population biology of Aegla platensis (Decapoda: Anomura: Aeglidae) in a tributary of the Uruguay River, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Population biology of Aegla platensis (Decapoda: Anomura: Aeglidae) in a tributary of the Uruguay River, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

In conclusion, A. platensis presented marked differences from one population to another. These differences can be at- tributed partially to the different sampling methods used by different authors. These differences, along with isolation be- tween the two river basins, suggest that molecular studies are needed to elucidate the taxonomic status of the populations of this species. The only similarities between the populations were common to many Aegla species, which highlights the need of a standardized technique to perform population studies in these anomurans, so that more reliable and less speculative comparisons can be made.
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Spider species composition in the tree-shrub strata of riparian forests and its microhabitats in southern Brazil

Spider species composition in the tree-shrub strata of riparian forests and its microhabitats in southern Brazil

The composition of spider species differed among river basins. A number of factors such as geographical distance be- tween basins, composition of the vegetation, climatic factors and biome may be plausible explanations for it. Piratini and Camaquã, which are very similar to each other, are within the Pampa biome. Given that the Maquiné River Basin is well within the Atlantic forest, it was expected that its fauna would differ from the other basins. The Atlantic forest is a peculiar biome, with high diversity levels and heterogeneous areas and habitats that reflect different physical environmental characteristics (C ONSERVATION I NTERNATIONAL et al. 2000, T ABARELLI et al. 2005).
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Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro

Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro

region, which shows a paucity of cytogenetic studies on fish species. Several important basins, restricted to the state range, are found in Bahia, such as Contas and Itapicuru River basins. Both drainages occur in the Caatinga (dry bushwood) biome and comprise several seasonal rivers. Little is known about the fish fauna of these regions (Rosa, 2004; Santos & Zanata, 2006) and the Brazilian Environment Ministry recently regarded these basins as major areas for conservation, classified as “sites lacking enough information” (MMA, 2006). These areas were selected because of their species richness, high endemism and the possible occurrence of threatened species (Silva, 2002). Furthermore, over the last decades, these basins, like many others in Brazil, have been constantly affected by human activities such as mineral exploitation, urban pollution, habitat modifications by water impoundment and introduction of exotic species, all considered major causes of extinction in native freshwater fish (Hilsdorf & Petrere, 2002; Santos & Zanata, 2006; Trindade & Jucá-Chagas, 2008).
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Instruments for an equitable management of shared waters

Instruments for an equitable management of shared waters

Conclusions. While, sustainable development is a widely shared value, actions to achieve it generate conflict because they involve property rights, job, taxation and land use, and because decisions are often made without understanding interactions between and among complex natural and social systems (Grigg 1996). In many cases, an impediment to achieve an equitable and sustainable management for shared waters, is not the lack of adequate legislation but the lack of the political will, resources and means to enforce the existing legislation. At the European Union level, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) states that a special attention needs the transboundary river basins in which some specific problems have to be overcome: legal and political discrepancies, communication problems, social, cultural, historical differences and economic issues (Mihăiescu & Mihăiescu 2009). Public participation is very important for the river basin management activities as the EC WFD stipulates. Despite all efforts to find the best ways of solving the issues relating to sustainable management of water resources, it still remains a stringent problem humanity is facing to. As J. Kennedy said: “Anyone who solves the problem of water deserves not one Nobel Prize but two – one for science and the other for peace”.
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Luis Felipe Soares Cherem

Luis Felipe Soares Cherem

Topographic relief in southeastern Brazil consists of a sequence of stepped surfaces that formed after the frag- mentation of Gondwana during the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic pulses. This region is drained by four major rivers within four major river basins, with interfluves that contain denudational escarpments, fault escarpments and mountain ranges. This study presents an analysis of the long-term evolution of two denudational escarpments, the Cristiano Otoni and the São Geraldo steps, which divide the river basins of the São Francisco, Doce and Paraíba do Sul rivers in southeastern Brazil. Denudation rates were obtained through the measurement of mean concentrations of in situ produced cosmogenic 10 Be in sand-sized fluvial quartz sed-
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