O wing to the significant nutritional, medicinal and commercial value of A lgerian Mentha species, the present work aims to develop a simple, rapid and effective quantitative method for the determination of their rosmarinicacid content. M oreover, in view of the potential use of mints as a source of natural antioxidants and as possible functional food to prevent the consequences of oxidative stress, the antioxidant capacity of mint extracts was evaluated by an in vitro method based on the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. T o the best of our knowledge, this activity was determined for the first time on M. rotundifolia extract and the three species together. A correlation between the antioxidant activity and rosmarinicacid content was assessed.
In recent research, it has been found that there is a relation between increasing levels of total ceramide in cancerous and malignant tumor tissue (M.Levy., 2010). Accordingly, this study is aimed to study whether rosmarinicacid and carnosic acid have an effect on Hep- G2 cell viability and if they are effective, dose the change in the metabolism of ceramides by these two substances explain effect of these substances on metabolism of these cells.
coworkers studied a methanolic extract of Cordia verbenacea and demonstrated that this extract was able to neutralize paw oedema induced by B. jararacussu snake venom and by its main basic Lys49- PLA 2 s (Ticli et al., 2005). After the isolation of rosmarinicacid (RA)
In this study, rats fed a normal diet for 7 days (NFD), were fed a low carbohydrate diet (LCH) for another 7 days in order to decrease enterocyte levels of sucrose-isomaltase (SI), sodium dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. After this, the animals were divided in groups and the diets changed to high glucose (HGD) or high amylopectin (HAD) with or without rosmarinicacid in the drinking water. Small intestinal mucosal samples were taken at 4 and 14 days.
Rosmarinicacid is a polyphenolic compound found in various plants of the Boraginaceae and Laminaceae families . Several biological properties have been described for this compound including its ability to neutralize inflammatory, myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of both crude snake venoms and their isolated toxins [40,87]. In addition, it has been shown that RA inhibits some enzymes including acetylcholinesterase [88,89]. However, this anticholinesterase activity occurs within a concen- tration range that is one to two orders of magnitude higher than that used in our experiments [88,89] and probably does not explain the ability of RA to neutralize PrTX-I-induced neuro- muscular blockade. Additionally, the observation that RA alone does not significantly affect the indirectly evoked contractions supports this idea. Electrophoresis and circular dichroism studies exclude the proteolytic degradation of the toxin as a potential mechanism involved in the inhibition of myotoxic and inflamma- tory activities of Lys49-PLA 2 s from Bothrops jararacussu venom by
that levels of C-reactive protein and proinﬂammatory cytokines are elevated and associated with high cardio- vascular mortality in ESRD patients (9). Inﬂammation in dialysis patients is plausibly attributed to insufﬁcient cyto- kine clearance, accumulated reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage due to renal failure (10). In addition, bio- incompatibility of the dialysis system has been reported to promote chronic inﬂammation in patients on dialysis. Although the mechanism underlying inﬂammation in CKD remains unclear, modulation of pro-inﬂammation represents a promising strategy to manage the poor outcome of CKD. Rosmarinicacid (a-o-caffeoyl-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl lac- tic acid; RA) is a phenolic compound commonly found in Labiatae herbs such as rosemary, lemon balm, mint, perilla and sweet basil. Several studies have reported that RA possesses anti-inﬂammatory properties such as reducing
Polyphenols have neuroprotective effects after brain ischemia. It has been demonstrated that rosmarinicacid (RA), a natural phenolic compound, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To evaluate the effectiveness of RA against memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) mice were treated with RA (0.1, 1, and 20 mg/kg/day, i.p. before ischemia and during 5 days). Animals were evaluated for locomotor activity and working memory 72 h after pMCAO, and spatial and recognition memories 96 h after pMCAO. In addition, in another set of experiments brain infarction, neurological deficit score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluates 24 h after the pMCAO. Finally, immunohistochemistry, and western blot, and ELISA assay were used to analyze glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and synaptophysin (SYP) expression, and BDNF level, respectively. The working, spatial, and recognition memory deficits were significantly improved with RA treatment (20 mg/kg). RA reduced infarct size and neurological deficits caused by acute ischemia. The mechanism for RA neuro- protection involved, neuronal loss suppression, and increase of synaptophysin expression, and increase of BDNF. Furthermore, the increase of MPO activity and GFAP immunireactivity were prevented in MCAO group treated with RA. These results suggest that RA exerts memory protective effects probably due to synaptogenic activity and anti-inflammatory action.
Ocimum is one of the most important genera of the Lamiaceae family. Several studies about basil and its popular use reveal many characteristics of the herb, including its use as antioxidant, anti-aging, anti- inlammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and cardiovascular agents, among others. In this paper, we evaluated genotoxic, oxidative, and anti-inlammatory parameters from the extract of Ocimum basilicum in diferent concentrations, using human leukocytes cultures exposed to challenging agents. Our results conirm that the O. basilicum extract acts as an antioxidant and efectively reverts or subjugates the efects of high oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide. These actions are attributed to its composition, which is rich in polyphenols and lavonoids as well as compounds such as rosmarinicacid, all of which have well-known antioxidant activity. We also show that our basil extract presents anti-inlammatory properties, the mechanism of which is a composed interaction between the inhibition of pro-inlammatory mediator and the stimulation of anti-inlammatory cytokines. Although pharmacodynamics studies are necessary to evaluate the activities in vivo, our results demonstrated that basil could act as an antioxidant and anti-inlammatory and a possible alternative for medicinal treatment.
and anti-carcinogenic (Chao and Lin, 2011). Salicylic acid was here identified for the first time in Plantago species. This phenolic was first isolated from willow bark (Salix spp.) in pursuit of the active ingredient responsible for the tree’s medicinal properties and soon after acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) was synthesized (Raskin, 1992). Salicylic acid has been implicated in the improvement of stress tolerance in plants, like acclimation to saline stress (Singh and Gautam, 2013), and has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antiseptic, antifungal and keratolytic properties (Khadem and Marles, 2010). Rosmarinicacid (RA), although already isolated in P. lagopus (Fiz et al., 2000), is here firstly quantified in the genus. The RA content was within the range of that determined for Rosmarinus officinalis, a traditional folk remedy from which the compound was firstly isolated (Moreno et al., 2006; Petersen and Simmonds, 2003). This phenolic has been reported as a phago-deterrent used by plants as a defence against pathogens and herbivores (Petersen and Simmonds, 2003), and has antioxidant, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities (Moreno et al., 2006; Petersen and Simmonds, 2003). These major phenolic compounds identified in P. coronopus extracts (verbascoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ferulic, salicylic and RA) can support the main traditional medicinal uses given to this halophyte given their reported bioactivities.
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of starch/glycerol/Melissa oficinalis, a topical drug delivery system for labial herpes treatment. Four ilms were prepared with different concentrations of starch, glycerol, and Melissa oficinalis extract. The results revealed that increasing the glycerol concentration in the ilm reduced elasticity modulus and tensile strength, exhibiting a plasticizing effect. The increase in free volume resulted in increased release of hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinicacid.
Herbs provided us with some of the very important life saving drugs used in the armamentarium of modern medicine (Goyal et al., 2007). Some world’s population depends on traditional medicine because of scarcity, high cost of orthodox medicine and unpleas- ant side effects (Agrawal et al., 2011). Among the plants known for their medicinal value are the plants of genus Ocimum, family Lami- aceae, which are rich in phenolic constituents and are very useful for their therapeutic potentials (Nahak et al., 2011). Several studies have shown various activities of Ocimum species including bac- tericidal, antiulcer, antidiarrheal, antiinflammatory, antioxidative, anticancer, for cough and kidney malfunction, hypoglycemic, ner- vous system stimulation and protection from radiation (Elansary and Mahmoud, 2015; Kadan et al., 2016). The pharmaceutical potentiality of Ocimum species may be attributed to their pro- found biological effects due to the presence of active polyphenols, as hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid and rosmarinicacid) and flavonoids, mainly in the form of derivatives such as esters and gly- cosides (Wang et al., 2004). An interesting plant which belongs to
The effect of OS-M on hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) inactivation was higher than for WEOS; the IC50 values of OS-M and AEOS were 13.36 and 185.73 μg/ mL, respectively. However, rosmarinicacid provoked more effective inactivation of H 2 O 2 molecules (3.52 μg/mL). The reduced activity of AEOS was probably caused by the presence of other accompanying components of the O. stamineus extracts. Analogous parameters determined previously for synthetic melanoidin and melanoidin from Aspergillus nidulans were significantly lower - 57.91 and 186.17 μg/mL, respectively (Goncalves & Pombeiro-Sponchiado, 2005). OS-M can therefore be considered a good H 2 O 2 inactivator.
Several groups of indigenous people use specific plant extracts against snakebites, and the iden- tification of their active compounds is an active field of study. Recently, some studies showed that several constituents of these plant extracts containanti-snake venom properties [19,21– 23]. Recently, structural and functional studies demonstrated that rosmarinicacid (RA) was able to inhibit the invitro paralyzing activity caused by PrTX-I in mice neuromuscular prepara- tionsby 80% . In addition, light and electron micrographs of mouse diaphragm muscle also demonstrated that PrTX-I may severely damage muscle fibers [47,49]. On the other hand, preparations exposed to PrTX-I that were pre-incubated with RA presented fibers with normal aspects .
In the presence of growth regulators, samples exclusively cultured with NAA (conditions A1, A2 and A3) showed higher antioxidant activity in comparison with the matrix or control. Among the samples grown with BAP, the B2 condition showed higher antioxidant activity. Though the extracts of cultivation conditions B2 and B3 had lower antioxidant activities than those of NAA conditions, they exhibited higher AA than those of matrix and control (condition 0). The results are in accordance with the concentrations of rosmarinic and caffeic acid in these extracts (Table 5). The concentration of rosmarinicacid in the matrix plant extract was lower than caffeic acid, but higher in all in vitro cultivations.
Abstract: Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia ofi cinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinicacid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinicacid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purii ed rosmarinicacid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to signii cantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinicacid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinicacid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the i rst time that a dual action of rosmarinicacid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.
The concentration of two alkaloids (theobromine and 7-methylxanthine) and six phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin and epicatechin) in the stem tissue of inoculated plants from cv. Ubá was higher in comparison with inoculated plants from cv. Palmer. It has been proven that the concentration of secondary metabolites present in tissue infected by pathogens is cultivar-dependent (Hall et al. 2011; Nicholson and Hammerschmidt 1992; Petkovsek et al. 2009; Prusky and Keen 1993; Treutter 2005; Veberic et al. 2005; Williams et al. 2002). According to Petkovsek et al. (2009) and Veberic e t a l . ( 2 0 0 5 ) , t h e d i f fe re n c e b e t we e n re s i s t ant and susceptible apple cultivars to scab was due to higher concentrations of caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid in the resistant cultivar. High concentrations of methylxanthines (caffeine) and theobromine in the tissue of tobacco and cocoa plants were linked to the induction of plant defense mechanisms against infection by Moniliophthora perniciosa, Pseudomonas syringae and Tobacco mosaic virus (Aneja and Gianfagna 2001; Kim and Sano 2008; Scarpari et al. 2005). It is known that the fungitoxic effect of most plant secondary metabolites on fungal cells is attributed to their interaction with lipids or an increase in phospholipid concentration and therefore membrane permeability, leakage of cellular contents and cytoplasm aggregation (Weete 1980). Araujo et al. (2014a,b) observed an abundance of dead C. fimbriata hyphae surrounded by phenolic- like compounds in the cells of stem tissue of plants from cultivars resistant to mango wilt. These findings agree with the data from the present study, which indicated that the concentrations of secondary metabolites were higher in the stem tissue of plants from the resistant cv. Ubá, therefore contributing to a reduction in the symptoms caused by C. fimbriata infection. In contrast, in the stem tissue of plants from the susceptible cv. Palmer, the concentration was not sufficient to counteract fungal colonization.
The main free fatty acids in the seeds of Salvia were determined as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %), linolenic acid (18:3; 2.9 % to 47.7 %), oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 32.4 %), palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 %) and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 6.5 %) and, the main total acid composition of the reported species were determined as linoleic acid (18:2; 14.3 % to 52.2 %), linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 35.9 %), oleic acid (18:1; 13.7 % to 32.1 %), palmitic acid (16:0; 7.1 % to 14.5 %) and stearic acid (18:0; 2.5 % to 5.5 %) (Table.1)
The antioxidant activities and polyphenolic levels of “assa peixe,” “cambara,” and “morrão de candeia” Brazilian honeys were investigated. Phenolic extracts of 11 honeys were evaluated spectrophotometrically to determine their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities were measured using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was applied to determine the phenolic composition of the honey extracts. The presence of fourteen phenolic compounds was established (eleven phenolic acids and three flavonoids), as well as HMF and abscisic acid. Principal component analysis was applied to classify the honey samples according to their floral origins.
water; 17.9% as well as for the surfactant; 23.6% as a solid solution (MAS). The extremely limited solubilization of the surfactant into the aqueous solution of the acid and the same phenomenon for the acid into the liquid crystalline phase as well as into the surfactant gave rise to two-phase areas with some interesting features. At first, the two-phase area of the aque- ous solution and the lamellar liquid crystal (AS-LC) reveals a huge variation of acid content in the aqueous solution; 38.8% by weight, while the corresponding change in the liquid crystal is too small to be marked in the diagram. The second two-phase realm of interest is the one in which the aqueous acid solution is in equilibrium with the solid acid solution of surfactant and water (AS-MAS). For that part, one finds that a reduction of the surfactant content in the solid from 20.7% to zero causes the aqueous solution to accept more of the acid accompanied by an increase of the water content of the acid solid solution. The composition of the solid acid solution in equilibrium with the aqueous acid solution with 36.4% of the acid was also in equilibrium with the liquid crystalline phase forming a narrow two-phase area (MAS-LC). The same composition was also in equilibrium with the surfactant forming a second three-phase region (MAS-LC-S). The surfactant in turn was in equilibrium with the solid acid solution with diminishing amount of water (MAS-S).
In this study, we performed metabolic profiling of C. bassiana using a GC-MS-based non-targeted profiling approach. Alteration of several major metabolic pathways, including sugar metabolism, purine metabolisms, amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle, and lipid metabolism, were observed during fruiting body development. Especially, in the perithecium formation stage (stage 3), the relative levels of metabolites associated with ABC transporters, aminoacyl- tRNA biosynthesis, and purine metabolism were significantly increased, whereas levels of metabolites associated with lipid metabolism decreased in the ascospores released stage (stage 4).The free radical scavenging activity, which was significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, was positively correlated with purine derivatives such as adenosine, guanosine, inosine and uric acid. Thus, C. bassiana of stage 3 was suggested to be a better resource with higher level of free-radical scavenging activities compared to the other fruiting body samples of C. bassiana at other stages. We suggest that the metabolic profiles during fruiting body development determined in this study provide useful criteria for