The notion that gender is socially constructed and not the result of a natural order of things has altered how women and men are understood by society and science (Pereira, 2012). This perception contributed much to debates around the dichotomies of nature/culture and sex/gender. More than breaking essentialist binaries around the female nature, the concept of gender affirms its relevance for highlighting how this construction occurs within a structure of oppression and subordination that starts by the way women’s bodies themselves are conceived. Driven by Beauvoir’s remarkable stance that “one is not born, but rather becomes a woman” in 1949, the notion that women are socialised to act and be in specific ways was at the centre of feminist claims, regardless of their liberal, Marxist/socialist or radical orientation. They appeal to the fact they were not born a weaker and second sex, but have been socialised accordingly instead. This notion was the starting point for questioning the established context of patriarchy and male dominance in social institutions and to rethink cultural notions of gender as not fixed to structural constraints but as relational. This theorisation that it is not a biological condition that constitutes women’s inequalities is significant to question the meanings assigned to the sexual body and to the apparent ambiguous picture of choice in the discourses of schoolsexeducation.
ABSTRACT: With this article we aim to: highlight the need to consider education plural, not unidimensionalizando and subordinating the students the Monolithic and iconoclastic schemes that generate the "praxeological education". On the contrary, we observe the indispensability of self-reflection of teachers and emergency work gender relations, diversity and sexuality within the school, with the school community, and highlight the link and commitment of education with sexeducation. For the research methodology was used as the philosophical hermeneutics of the School of Grenoble (imaginary anthropology, anthropology of educational organizations and everyday socioanthropology): readings and interpretive grid analysis of texts according to the hermeneutic techniques.
3) Though the participation of representatives of Students’ Associations in the quantitative study was very small, their participation was massive in the focus groups. Some explained that elections for the associations occur in October of each year and, therefore, between September and November (the period when the quantita- tive study occurred) it is quite difficult to have any response from Students’ Associations, and even if there is a response it is in general from newly—elected representatives and therefore it might not be the most accurate one. They argue that the board of the SOU has to take the lead continuously and act as a permanent structure while Students’ Associations are involved in the dynamics of sexual education on an annual basis. Representatives of Students’ Associations reported that sometimes sexual education classes are seen as leisure activities by pupils. They also mentioned that it often happens that boys and girls find difficult to understand and get interested in gender-specific topics (e.g. issues related to menstruation and fertile period) and it is necessary to address sexual education together, apart that both boys and girls admit profiting from knowing about all topics, no matter they are gender-related. They also referred that in some SOU, the environment is not sexual education friendly, which takes pupils who like to participate in sexual educations actions to feel inhibited, sometimes even mocked by colleagues. They identify thematic activities such as “The week of sport, food…” as the most easily remem- bered. Some of them expressed some disbelief by the fact that teachers of other subjects besides Natural Sci- ences or Biology could get involved in health/sexuality sessions, showing the misconception that these teachers though willing must not be effectively prepared. Thus, representatives of Students’ Associations were not aware of additional training that a teacher of any discipline may have, or the fact that health and sexuality are related to “all subjects”.
It is understood that the construction of sexuality overrides the biological sense and transcends to the cultural, implying the mobilization of knowledge, learning, skills and concrete social possibilities coming from the set of ideas, values, attitudes and social skills seized lifelong. In this sense the school, for being the main center for socio-cultural- pedagogical training, is configured in the ideal place for this debate, since that is where the teenager complements the values learned at home and their culture. 9
We need to accept the fact that we are living in a complex world leading complicated lives. Preventing access to pornographic movies or erratic contents on television shows is not prudent, but adding a single chapter to the school curriculum is relatively simple and practical . Mass media being highly influential has been part of both solution and of the problem in the area of sex and youth. It has been part of the solution because it has helped to bring sexual topics into discussions. Radio and television has been the medium in opening doors to the deliberations of several topics which were previously considered as taboo. A survey conducted in Mumbai found that 88 per cent of the boys and 58 per cent of the girls among college students had received no sexeducation from parents and their source of information were books, magazines, and youth counsellors . Internet is the greatest culprit which makes pornography easily accessible in recent times. Studies have shown that vast majority of parents do not accept the responsibility for providing sexeducation to their sons or daughters . However, another study states that 68 percent of the parents believe that they should be the primary sex educators of their children, followed by schools .The apparent stigma attached to any discussion on sex in India is due to the fact that people tend to view sexeducation in a narrow sense, that is, the mere explanation of anatomical and biological differences. Ideally home is the best place for sexeducation and the attitudes of parents are of vital importance. When a child feels the subject as forbidden,
lower in those states that emphasize abstinence more. Other factors may also influence teenage pregnancy and birth rates, including socio-economic status, education, cultural influences [10–12], and access to contraception through Medicaid waivers [13–15] and such effects must be parsed out statistically to examine the relationship between sexeducation and teen pregnancy and birth rates. It was the goal of this study to evaluate the current sex-education approach in the U.S., and to identify the most effective educational approach to reduce the high U.S. teen pregnancy rates. Based on a national analysis of all available state data, our results clearly show that abstinence-only education does not reduce and likely increases teen pregnancy rates. Compre- hensive sex and/or STD education that includes abstinence as a desired behavior was correlated with the lowest teen pregnancy rates across states. In alignment with the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health we suggest that comprehensive sex and HIV/STD education should be taught as part of the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes, along with a social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.
Objective: to translate ATSES, to culturally adapt it to Portuguese adolescents and to assess psychometric properties. Method: Methodological study of translation/back-trans- lation, validation and psychometric analysis. It was observed the validity of the content, construct, concurrent, internal consistency, temporal stability and sensitivity among po- pulations. Firstly, 186 subjects between 12-18 years participated. At the retest, 60 of the initial subjects participated. Results: Factor analysis with two factors, as opposed to the three original ones. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett’s sphericity demonstrate ade- quacy of the sample. The structure of the components explained 44.09% of the variance; Cronbach α between .929 and .665. Convergent validity was between .581 and .455 and, in the test-retest, .624 and .580. Conclusions: It is revealed an instrument of 27 items, con- sisting of a Global Attitude Scale, with the dimensions of Confident and Available. It is concluded that it is an appropriate measure to evaluate Portuguese adolescents’ Attitudes regarding Sexual Education at School
The results of the current study suggest that those students who have greater intentions to continue their schooling tend to be more engaged in school, regardless of sex. These indings are consistent with those reported in literature. Thus, a consistent body of research suggests that students’ educational aspirations inluence their school motivation, academic achievement, academic self-concept, perceived school ability and learning goal orientation (Creed, Tilbury, Buys, & Crawford, 2011; Gutman & Schoon, 2012; Rothon et al., 2011).
These features underlie the reasons why in large scale educational observatories such as the ROSE, the PISA and the TIMSS surveys, quantitative assessment is favoured. Among the various inquiry methods available, quantitative approaches such as questionnaire-based surveys allow a broad characterisation of the target population (Black, 1999; Oppenheim, 1992). However, these instruments hold limitations that are mainly related to biases introduced by the respondents’ subjective interpretations and the researcher’s expectations (Black, 1999). Hence, questionnaires must be designed and administered following adequate procedures to optimise the validity and reliability of the results they provide. Questionnaire validation, namely by adopting an integrated approach combining pilot study with psychometric analysis, allows improving the instrument’s design and to address ambiguities that can compromise the quality of the data gathered (Black, 1999; Fabrigar et al., 1999; Oppenheim, 1992). Still, there are many studies in which these procedures are insufficiently or inappropriately reported (Blalock et al., 2008). For instance, Blalock et al. (2008) analysed 150 peer-reviewed articles published between 1935 and 2005 focusing on the measurement of students’ attitudes towards science and verified that, from the 66 resulting instruments, 42% were missing evidence of their psychometric soundness. This may result from the seeming complexity of the available validation methods and from the erroneous perception that they are inefficient considering the extra time and effort demanded for their implementation (Dörnyei, 2002). However, if research designs overlook validation procedures, the resulting data will not allow for sound interpretation, reproducibility and comparison. Therefore, validation is a crucial topic in science education research.
A questionnaire was administered with several questions about the seismic phenomenon, the degree of seismic risk in the Lisbon area and also about what to do before, during and after an earthquake. The questionnaire was scored as a test and administered in three stages: first an intervention plan with a set of sessions extended during one month related to the seismic phenomenon and including what to do in event of earthquake at school or at home (pre-test); after these sessions, at two different times: a week after the last session (post-test1); three months after this second administration (post- test2) to check learning persistence. The tests results were compared using the Wilcoxon (Z) test, between pre-test and post-test1 and pre-test and post-test2.
New modes of regulation of public affairs in «territorial» bases have be one of the responses to the problem. Decentralising education has been a trend. Namely after de 1990s, the tendency to change educational policies gave way to new modes of regulating public action in education. This became visible in different transnational, national, local, multi and meta regulation (Barroso, 2004). The educational field has been object of both theoretical and legal debates. The latter aiming to regulate by law the transference of powers between central and local government (e.g. Law No. 159/1999; Decree-law No. 144/2008). Much more than before, education is the responsibility of different stakeholders. Governance, in addition to governing, became apparent in new ways of regulating public affairs, increasingly dependent on the complex relationships among different public and private entities (Lima, 2007), which have the assignment to improve public administration, promoting school success as well.
Abstract: The article highlights the relationship between dispositions to schooleducation and self- concept. What is meant by the expression dispositions of schooleducation are phenomena like attitudes to school, achievement motivation, believes about personal control over learning, external constrains to learning etc. The definition of self-concept and its brief contemporary understanding is mentioned. The aim of the study is to find out the expression of certain areas of self-concept and dispositions to schooleducation. A group of Slovenian and a group of British high school students participated in the study. The results of ANOVA and discriminant analysis showed significant differ- ences as related to nationality. For example, British participants exceeded Slovenians in many areas of self-concept. They also expressed some significant differences in their dispositions to school. The
Tinto (1993) points out that non-traditional students quite often have other obligations outside school (e.g., family and often employment) which prevents them from having time to attend classes or formal institutional services outside ‘regular’ hours. Among non-traditional students such as student parents, perceived satisfaction with the school role has been linked with academic success (Zajacova, Lynch, & Espenshade, 2005), with intrinsic motivation to learn (Carney-Crompton & Tan, 2002), and with reports of feeling happy and stimulated by school (van Rhijn, 2014). Thus, being satisfied with the school role can be important for non- traditional students in adjusting to their school and family roles by bringing positive affect towards the student experience which, in turn, can enrich their family life. Accordingly, we hypothesize that:
The pacifist thought was expressed initially through the press, giving voice to feminist and republican movements. This first impulse finishes just as if swallowed in the maelstrom of World War I, since most of them end up accepting war as an inevitability. Subsequently they appeared more strongly in progressive pedagogical press, such as the Journal of Social Edu- cation, which we will not cover here, seeking to reach a larger number of teachers. It is this thought and belonging to the Association of Teachers of Portugal, connected to the Interna- tional League of Education Workers, in Belgium, that will be used to decapitate the associative movement of teachers, of pedagogical renewal and peace, from 1927. It is symptomatic that it only has entered the Library of Normal School of Porto, in the 1930s, the book of Ferrière, in its Brazilian edition. The regime adopted an active neutrality face to the 2nd World War, but that didn’t imply an adherence to pacifism, because internally it was based on the repression of the every organization and citizen, that opposed them, and ideological it was based in the nationalism and in the imperialism.
According to the Brazilian scholar D’Ambrosio (1985), ethno relates to ethnic, national, racial, religious, or professional groups. It can be a group with a similar philosophical or ideological basis, a sociocultural group and a group of people based on gender or sexual identity. Mathema means explaining, understanding, learning, and dealing with reality; and tics is a modified form for techno, which stands for techniques to solve problems. Thus, ethnomathematics relates to distinct modes of explaining and coping with reality in different cultural and environmental contexts. Hence, D’Ambrosio established ethnomathematics in the 1970s, which became a worldwide program (Rosa & Orey, 2013). These working definitions have helped readers to ask better questions in regards to why we are so excited to use this perspective in teaching, learning and research in mathematics education.
These results are consonant with the findings in international literature. Johnson et al. (2017) concluded that the 8th grade students (oldest group) had the lowest perception of a mastery climate (it emphasizes cooperative learning and several group ability that allows positive peer relationships, enhancing peer acceptance, and promoting close friendship), but the second highest perception of a performance climate (it emphasizes high ability, competition, winning and positive social comparison). Weiss, Corbin, & Pangrazi, (2000) suggest that students in a performance climate have been associated with showing lack of enjoyment and high anxiety. On the other hand, perceiving a mastery climate has been associated with higher enjoyment, higher perceived competency, beliefs that effort leads to success (Ntoumanis & Biddle, 1999) and also with students’ intrinsic motivation in PE (Duda, 1996). Therefore, the studies of Johnson et al. (2017) indicate that it is in more advanced grades, where there are older students, that the perceptions of motivational environments most associated to lower enjoyment in PE classes are concentrated. In the same way, several studies have reported that there is an age-related decline in enjoyment of PE among students (Parish, & Treasure, 2003; Fairclough, & Stratton, 2005). Finally, Booth et al., (1997), Marsh, Papaioannou, Martin, & Theodorakis (2006), Barkoukis, Ntoumanis & Thøgersen-Ntoumani (2010) and Prochaska et al. (2003) reported that there was a decrease in enjoyment with PE with the increase of age and grades when using longitudinal methods, which allow to identify changes in perception of enjoyment with PE more stoutly along the time. In addition, the interactive hypothesis (sex vs grade), which predicted that the level of enjoyment in the school Physical Education would be higher among boys who attended the less advanced grades was also confirmed. In this study, boys in less advanced grades were those who reported higher levels of Activity-generated excitement and Self-referenced competency. This result confirms the findings of Parish and Treasure (2003),
performance and disrupt the educational experiences of their peers (Benson, 2006). Students with poor social and emotional skills are more at risk of experiencing learning difficulties and engaging in such behaviours as anti-social behaviour, substance abuse, violence and criminality, and to leave school without any certification or vocational skills, with consequently poor employability opportunities (Adi, Killoran, Janmohamed, & Stewart-Brown, 2007; Bradley, Doolitte, & Bartolotta, 2008; Colman, Murray, Abbott, Maughan, Kuh, Croudace, & Jones, 2009). Students do not know what to do when they get angry, enter the conflict situations or experiencing sadness. This leads to the emergence of addictions, decrease of learning ability, failure to establish a close relationship (Zins, Bloodworth, Weissberg, & Walberg, 2004).
How to deal with the problem of sleep deﬁcits in schools? As earlier bedtimes do not alleviate the circadian phase delay of sleep in adolescence, a delay in the start time of classes has been proposed as a potentially efﬁcacious way to improve education at a remarkably lost cost [55,91]. As straightforward as this seems, changes in school start times are not well received by parents who are constrained by workplace schedules. A more controversial option is the introduction of naps into the school schedule. Many forms of sleep-dependent learning, including that of simple facts, occur optimally within a few hours after initial memory acquisi- tion [11,22]. Such sleep can stabilize recently learned material, making it resistant to the normal loss that occurs over the day [16,17]. The standard lag of several hours between morning class- room learning and sleep onset in the evening likely causes class- room contents to suffer interference from afternoon waking activities. Rather than changing school schedules to allow more sleep at home, or preventing students from sleeping at school, sleep might be embraced as a pedagogical tool. Post-training naps have been shown to rescue perceptual fatigue , and to promote gains in procedural task performance [46,95] and hippocampal- dependent visuo-spatial learning [51,73] similar to gains observed following a full night of sleep. In children, sleep-dependent beneﬁts have been shown primarily for declarative memories [61,97]. This is providential for the goal of employing naps as a pro-mnemonic practice in the schools, as diurnal naps mainly involve NREM sleep , and most school content is comprised of declarative memories.
Lannin, Ellis e Elliot (2011) consider mathematical reasoning as an evolving process of conjecturing, generalizing, investigating why, justifying and refuting assertions. For these authors, generalizing is about identifying common elements or extending the reasoning beyond the range in which it originated. Investigating why involves investigating factors that may explain why a generalization is true or false. A valid justification constitutes a logical sequence of statements, each relying on established knowledge, in order to arrive at a conclusion; it must use general language demonstrating that it applies to more than one particular case, even if it is based on generic examples. In the context of teaching, a successful justification shows that a statement is true and explains why it is true. Considering this characterization, we find the concepts of justification and proof to be very close, which results from the several meanings attributed to proof, both in research in mathematics education (Stylianides et al., 2016) and in mathematics, where there are many conflicting opinions about the role of proof and what makes a proof acceptable (Hanna, 2000; Harel & Sowder, 2007). Stylianides (2007) presents a definition based on the literature on the philosophy of mathematics and mathematics education that addresses mathematics teaching from the first years of schooling: