Self-efficacy at work

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Aging at work: the interplay of resources and self regulation strategies across the work lifespan

Aging at work: the interplay of resources and self regulation strategies across the work lifespan

challenging tasks impact positively on the well-being since these demands (i.e., intense routine and challenging tasks) enhance the sense of competence (through developing). However, in a later stage, an intense workload would help to reinforce the decline in physical strength, causing a negative impact on the need to feel useful. Midlife workers are extrinsically oriented, and focus on what the job has to offer them in reward. It seems that the effort to obtain self-efficacy from the previous life stage is now expected to be compensated through recognition, a sense of return on investment (Kahn, 1990). Older workers need to compensate for age-related losses making use of their experience so they can fulfill their intrinsic need to feel self-worth (through crafting). In line with Demerouti et al. (2001), our study has shown that organizational resources can be classified in accordance to its purpose: those that fulfill needs (in our study intrinsic and extrinsic needs), and those that are instrumental to achieve work goals or buffer the impact of demands on well-being. An intense routine, challenging tasks, rewards, and making use of experience are critical because they fulfill needs. Role models, social support, feedback, positive work conditions, and planning for retirement emerge as buffers of stress in the relationship between demands-abilities and well-being. Our study contributes to the job demands-resource (JD-R) model (Demerouti et al., 2001) by showing that organizational resources will be valued differently in each life stage, since they will respond to specific goals that lead to the process of adjustment.
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Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.30 número11

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.30 número11

Although the sample used here represents almost the entire population of the academies studied (cadets from academies for military po- lice and military firefighters), one should be cau- tious in generalizing the results to other training academies, because the school/work environ- ment is variable, given that these military corps are not standardized at the national level. Future studies may take into account samples from oth- er military academies (aeronautics, firemen, ar- my, navy and police) in other states. Other stud- ies might assess more accurately the influence of length of service in the corps on general health and whether the mediating role of perceived self- efficacy varies with service time, as it is expected that the longer the individual is exposed to nega- tive situations, the lower his/her resulting overall health. Other studies can also focus on individual differences. Although, in the present study, it may not have been observed that the cadet’s gender significantly predicts overall health, when taken together with the subject well-being variables, other studies suggest that women are more likely to have problems related to psychological well- being, especially if they are lesser in number 51 , as
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Mediating role of self-regulatory efficacy on the relationship between punishment certainty, punishment severity and organizational deviance

Mediating role of self-regulatory efficacy on the relationship between punishment certainty, punishment severity and organizational deviance

Second, the workplace deviance was assessed using self-report measures. According to Bennett and Robinson (2000) self-report measures are valid in assessing deviant behaviour at work, particularly when anonymity was assured during the data collection. Nevertheless, the use of self-reports is associated with common method variance (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003) and social desirability bias (Dodaj, 2012; Podsakoff & Organ, 1986; Randall & Fernandes, 1991). Although this study attempts to reduce these problems by ensuring anonymity and improving scale items (Podsakoff et al., 2003; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, & Podsakoff, 2012), however, it is possible that the participants in this study might have under-reported their deviance on survey questionnaires. Therefore, in the future, researchers may wish to employ other strategies to assess workplace deviance. More specifically, supervisor ratings of workplace deviance and peers reporting of workplace deviance should be used to control for the common method variance and social desirability bias.
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Family Resources and Flourishing at Work: The Role of Core Self-Evaluations

Family Resources and Flourishing at Work: The Role of Core Self-Evaluations

According to the Work-Home Resources Model (ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012), both contextual family resources and personal resources can lead to positive work outcomes. In the present study, the personal resource used was the core self-evaluations, which is a broad and integrative trait associated with the individuals’ evaluation of themselves and how they function in the environment in which they live (Judge & Hurst, 2007). This construct, according to these authors, is composed of four core traits: self-esteem (degree to which an individual likes himself or herself); generalized self-efficacy (belief in the ability to use cognitive resources and adopt strategies to control life events); emotional stability (level of adjustment to difficult and stressful situations); and locus of control (belief in the ability to control life situations).
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How does creativity at work influence employee's positive affect at work?

How does creativity at work influence employee's positive affect at work?

considered, evaluated and, more importantly, implemented – the way others react to them may be a relevant factor in predicting individuals’ MW and affective states. In the same vein, following Wrzesniewski and colleagues (2003), the cues employees receive from others in the course of their behaviours at work (e.g., co-workers and supervisors feedback on employees’ creativity) are crucial inputs for the process through which work becomes more, or less, meaningful to them. Therefore, the real or perceived consequences of creativity at work, namely its successful implementation guaranteeing innovation, can set the boundaries for the effect of creative behaviour on self-efficacy and self-esteem and, consequently, on MW. However, Pratt and Ashforth (2003) argued that “meaningfulness is not necessarily dependent on the goals actually being realized: the pursuit of valued goals (…) may by itself foster a sense of purpose” (p. 311). Thus, we could say that, in some way, there might be a direct impact of creative behaviours on MW, regardless of the implementation of the ideas generated or, in others words,
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Avaliação da autoeficácia materna em amamentar no puerpério imediato

Avaliação da autoeficácia materna em amamentar no puerpério imediato

Data collection occurred between May and June 2015. The puerperal women were approached in the rooming-in wards where they were hospitalized and the objectives and benefits of the research were explained. Then, the researchers collected the data through a self-filled form addressing characteristics of sociodemographic (age, race, schooling, marital sta- tus, number of residents at home, use of tobacco and alcohol), economic (family income and paid work ac- tivity) and obstetric nature (gestational age, prenatal care, including number of consultations, pregnancy complications, type of delivery, previous children, prior breastfeeding practice, and whether the baby had been breastfed immediately after delivery).
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Repositório Institucional UFC: Adaptação transcultural e validação da CONDOM SELF-EFFICACY SCALE : aplicação em adolescentes e adultos jovens brasileiros

Repositório Institucional UFC: Adaptação transcultural e validação da CONDOM SELF-EFFICACY SCALE : aplicação em adolescentes e adultos jovens brasileiros

Em 1999, enfermeira norte-americana da Universidade de Indiana, nos Estados Unidos, desenvolveu a Condom Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE), com o objetivo de avaliar a percepção de autoeficácia do uso do preservativo entre adolescentes e adultos jovens. A CSE é instrumento multifatorial, composto por 14 itens que mensura um conjunto de habilidades cognitivas, motivacionais, além de variáveis sociais e comportamentais que revelam a autoeficácia na utilização do preservativo. Os fatores analisados dividem-se nos seguintes domínios: (1) habilidades de comunicação relacionadas ao uso do preservativo, com cinco itens (2) habilidades no uso consistente do preservativo, com três itens e (3) habilidades do uso correto do preservativo composto por seis itens; e são mensurados em escala tipo Likert, que varia de 1 a 5, na qual 1 representa muito inseguro, 2 inseguro, 3 pouco seguro, 4 seguro e 5 muito seguro (4) .
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ASSESSMENT OF ACADEMIC SELF-EFFICACY IN STUDENTS YOUTH AND ADULTS

ASSESSMENT OF ACADEMIC SELF-EFFICACY IN STUDENTS YOUTH AND ADULTS

The objective of this study was to verify the self-efficacy of 50 students of both sexes and of two different education levels who participated in an Educational program for Young and Adults in a city of Sao Paulo State. A scale constructed specifically for this purpose was the instrument used for data collection. It was aimed at evaluating the students' self-perception of their academic performance and how capable they feel to perform school tasks. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed no significant differences in students of both levels of education declared self-efficacy for studying, for school performance and in general self-efficacy. With regard to sex, regardless of level of education of the students, the test showed that differences were not significant for any of the measures of self-efficacy, as well.
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Agency theory and social interactions at work

Agency theory and social interactions at work

The behavioral agency models take stock of these perverse effects but stick to designing more appropriate incentive structures rather than devising adequate organizational solutions. For Rebitzer and Taylor (2011), it is pay structures that have to perform the multiple duties of motivating workers, signaling the principal’s trustworthiness, making workers identify with the organization and taking account of agents’ intrinsic motivations and social preferences. Rob and Zemsky (2002), who assume that cooperating increases the workers’ utility, recommend that pecuniary incentives be set so as not to crowd out the workers’ cooperative dispositions; but they say nothing about how these may be fostered though they recognize that cooperative dispositions are endogenous to the work context. Similarly, since it is now acknowledged that monetary incentives crowd out intrinsic motivations, high-powered incentives are considered “inefficient”. Holmstrom (1999: 89) states that firms must often suppress “excessively strong incentives on individually measured performance for the benefit of enhancing the effectiveness of more delicate and subtle instruments aimed at encouraging cooperation”. But nothing is said about what the content of these “subtle instruments”. Besides, low-powered incentives are now assumed to potentially attract workers with high intrinsic motives, which may subsequently promote high effort work norms (Sliwka 2007). Notwithstanding, according to agency theory, this kind of incentive structure always entails a second-best situation.
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Effect of Organized and Self-Managed Breaks on Performance, Physiological, and Subjective Measures in Data Entry, Vigilance, and Cognitive Tasks

Effect of Organized and Self-Managed Breaks on Performance, Physiological, and Subjective Measures in Data Entry, Vigilance, and Cognitive Tasks

In terms of the number of keystrokes per minute, the participants significantly faster reacted at the 15/2.5 work/rest schedule within three different tasks when compared to the other work/rest schedules. Also, the participants' accuracies were depending on the job types. For example, at entry data and cognitive tasks, participants significantly worked with high efficiencies concerning the percentage of correct responses when compared with other work/rest schedules. However, at vigilance task, participants significantly collaborated with less accuracy regarding the percentage of correct responses when compared with other work/rest schedules. Concerning cardiac effort, the participants significantly had less cardiac stress at the 15/2.5 work/rest schedule when compared to the other plans for entry and cognitive tasks. Finally, regarding discomfort scale, the participants significantly felt more comfort at the 15/2.5 work/rest schedule when compared to other work/rest schedules. Results from previous studies proved that valuable research predecessor events could be changed depending on the task types. However, results of this study demonstrate the agreement among different work types.
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Suffering and precariousness at work in nursing

Suffering and precariousness at work in nursing

Objective: This present theoretical essay aims at analyzing the work of nursing in a double-sided way: that which produces pleasure because it allows creating and transforming reality, and that which produces suffering in capitalist societies because it limits the human possibilities of choice, creation, and enjoyment. Method: This study uses a reflexive and theoretical critical perspective about what is specific in the work of caring in nursing. Results: Generally, workers have their possibilities constrained by the capitalist mode of production, especially those in the private sector; however, the work in nursing has its specificities. The act of caring is inseparable from its consumption by users of health services. Conclusion: The contradictions and difficulties that permeate the process of nursing work in contemporary times are understood as part of a larger context in the world of work today. To understand the precariousness at work in nursing. Descriptors: Nursing, Occupational health, Attention to health.
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Continuing professional development of a Mathematics teacher

Continuing professional development of a Mathematics teacher

For me, the process of elaborating the narratives throughout the development of the project was especially important because it made me reflect on what we were doing at school. The first narrative made me realize that we were not doing interdisciplinary work, and I did not know how to lead students into becoming protagonists of the process. Coincidentally, right after writing the first narrative, I participated in the second edition of ICOCIME (International Conference on Creative Insubordination in Mathematics Education). The lectures, work discussed, and the short course I taught helped me analyze my practice further, and I realized that I needed to go back to reading Paulo Freire. It was then that I read “Pedagogy of Autonomy” again with fresh eyes. I felt like I had never touched the pages of that book, but I clearly remembered reading it when I did my master's degree 13 years before. The new reading consolidated my ideas of how we should work with students at school, what we needed to offer them to analyze the world they live in, and act critically and consciously. The field study carried out during the project was consistent with the text and, I could visualize what Paulo Freire said within my practice through the students' narratives. In addition to that book, I read other texts about the seasons, types of graphs, among others. Some worth mentioning are the following:
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Motivation at work of Brazilian executives

Motivation at work of Brazilian executives

The world is increasingly dynamic. All this dynamism has reversal effects in the intensive conditions at work, stressful traffic, boss demands, little time for personal life, among other many stress factors in everyday’s professionals life. The professionals are getting discouraged with their job’s life. Particularly in the logistics industry which requires much control and rigorous deadlines, as very few other economy’ segments have. This generates a huge concern for businesses, particularly for people management departments. Thus the big question for companies is how to better understand the motivation at work?
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"Care at work": a fisioterapia em meio laboral

"Care at work": a fisioterapia em meio laboral

O conceito de negócio da Care at Work assenta totalmente na prestação de serviços no Cliente logo, a estrutura em rede surge como a forma mais ajustada para a realidade de atuação. Assim, conseguir-se-á organizar os colaboradores por equipa consoante as especificidades de atuação necessárias no Cliente. Estas equipas poderão ter colaboradores em modo “partilha”, sendo que em todas existirá um responsável de equipa que terá de reportar ao gestor de projetos. Deste modo surge uma linha de comando que abrange diferentes projetos e que será o elo de ligação com os responsáveis de equipa. Pretende-se uma cultura orientada para os resultados, composta por pessoas com forte sentido de empreendedorismo sustentado na formação, empenho, responsabilidade e sentido de missão, com foco na mais valia de proporcionar a todos os Clientes as especialidades necessárias.
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Alimentação e o trabalho : Monografia : Food at work

Alimentação e o trabalho : Monografia : Food at work

31. Katz DL, O'Connell M, Yeh MC, Nawaz H, Njike V, Anderson LM, et al. Public health strategies for preventing and controlling overweight and obesity in school and worksite settings: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2005; 54(RR-10):1-12. 32. Williams AE, Vogt TM, Stevens VJ, Albright CA, Nigg CR, Meenan RT, et al. Work, Weight, and Wellness: the 3W Program: a worksite obesity prevention and intervention trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007; 15 Suppl 1:16S-26S.

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Clinics  vol.61 número6

Clinics vol.61 número6

Other factors to be noted are the length of time in the profession and the nature of work. Initially, it was thought that older truck drivers and self-employed truck drivers would show a higher occurrence of low back pain due to occupational stress over the years; self-employed workers do not receive benefits that are common for employees, such as days off, more definite work shifts, and medical assistance. However, the results did not confirm this hy- pothesis. The length of time in the profession was not cor- related with the occurrence of low back pain, and the dis- tribution of low back pain was similar among self-employed and employee truck drivers. These results could be due to have several possible factors. For example, older truck driv- ers who developed low back pain may have changed pro- fessions due to the pain, and those who remained in the Table 2 - Mean value, median value, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values observed and sample size of the following quantitative variables: age, height, BMI value, length of time in the profession, work hours, and sleep hours, according to the Yes and No categories of low back pain
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Validation and reliability of the scale Self-effi cacy and their child’s level of asthma control Validación y confi abilidad de la Self-effi cacy and their child’s level of asthma control

Validation and reliability of the scale Self-effi cacy and their child’s level of asthma control Validación y confi abilidad de la Self-effi cacy and their child’s level of asthma control

escala Self-efficacy and their child’s level of asthma control- versão brasileira; e de um instrumento construído e validado pelas autoras do presente estudo, com o intuito de avaliar o perfil sociodemográfico da família e os parâmetros de con- trole da asma infantil. Ressalta-se que quanto maior a pon- tuação obtida na escala, maiores os níveis de confiança dos pais e cuidadores no controle da asma das crianças. A segun- da etapa, podendo ser considerada como um estudo piloto constituiu-se na aplicação da escala com 30 pais/cuidadores, um mês após a primeira, por meio de contatos telefônicos, como forma de avaliar a validade preditiva e a confiabilidade da escala por meio do teste-reteste.
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The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Marital Satisfaction among Married Students

The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Marital Satisfaction among Married Students

The results of this study showed that there is a significant correlation between marital satisfaction scores and self-efficacy among men and women students. These results are consistent with finding of Najafi Zadeh et al. (21). There was a significant correlation between self-efficacy and marital satisfaction in married male students. These findings can be interpreted that, make individual feels more responsibility in his individual and family life (21). According to the taboos on Iran’s society, men have more selection right in the stage of marriage compared to the women. This is the reason which causes the men to feel that life events are under
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Entrepreneurial self-efficacy in Italy: an empirical study from a gender perspective

Entrepreneurial self-efficacy in Italy: an empirical study from a gender perspective

(Muffatto, Giacon, & Saeed, 2012), which indicates that men feel more self-confident and more skilled to start a new venture than women do. Moreover, this result is in line with the previous study conducted by Wilson et al. (2007) and in contrast to the results of Mueller and Dato-on (2008) substantiating the assumption that, in a typical masculine culture, female entrepreneurship is not encouraged (Kobeissi, 2010). However, the specific comparison of the means conducted on the entrepreneur and non-entrepreneur groups point out the prominent gender differences only in the non-entrepreneur group. Thus, it can be argued that female entrepreneurship in Italy still appears as a typical masculine activity. In particular, in the non-entrepreneur group a statis- tically significant gender difference exists in all five ESE dimensions except for the dimension marshalling. Thus, Hypothesis 1 was partially supported. The marshalling phase of venture crea- tion involves a typical entrepreneurial activity aimed at assembling resources to bring the ven- ture into existence (McGee et al., 2009). This specific result is very interesting and should be explored in greater depth in further research. A qualitative data-collecting method should be ap- plied in future studies to obtain useful clues to explain this result. On the other hand, the results show that there is only a gender difference in the entrepreneur group for the dimension imple- menting financial resources. No gender differences exist in the other ESE dimensions. This cor- roborates the general assumption concerning the venture-creation process that there is no differ- ence between the perceived self-confidence of women or men on the verge of making an entre- preneurial career choice and once it is taken and concretized (Mueller, 2004). However, an in- teresting gender difference still remains in the entrepreneur group: the implementing phase of the venture creation, which concerns the responsibility for growing the business and sustaining it past its infancy (McGee et al., 2009). Specifically, the women’s perception of self-efficacy in these tasks is lower than that of the men, which would indicate that the last phase of the venture- creation process could be an obstacle for the women group of entrepreneurs. This result is ex- tremely interesting, since the implementing phase of the venture-creation process concerns pri- marily a management task. Thus, in other words, ESE perception of women and men entrepre- neurs is different for the tasks that are included in both entrepreneurial and managerial careers, whereas it is equal for the tasks related to a specific entrepreneurial job. As a conclusion, Hy- pothesis 2 was partially supported too.
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Development of oral expression self-efficacy belief scale for pre-service teachers

Development of oral expression self-efficacy belief scale for pre-service teachers

In addition, the items in the fourth factor such as I can express my words by following a specific order. and I can comply with a plan I designed earlier. have put emphasis on that the oral expression should be practiced in an organized and planned way. ”esides, individual’s being prepared is one of the most important determinants which can have a great influence on speaking (Tosun & Aydin, 2013). Moreover, in order for an individual to pay attention to conditions such as beginning to speak after considering and determining what he is going to express (Ari, 2006); using the materials in the appropriate place and time if needed during speaking and using his speaking time effectively etc., he is required to organize his speech according to the audience and environment. Hence, the last factor was named after Expression Order . It can be asserted that the four factored structure of the scale promotes the theoretical structure regarding the self-efficacy beliefs. Findings Related to Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)
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