This 3D model of the SemicircularCanals (SSCC) is intended for use as a didactic tool and a quick referen- ce guide when dealing with various pathologies of the labyrinth. It is especially effective in the diagnosis and possible treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) 8,9,10,11 , as well as the interpretation of the causes
Bilateral loss of vestibular function is often diagnosed by the absence of responses with ice-cold caloric stimulations, 2 but rotational stimulation has been suggested as an added support for this diagnosis. 3 The head impulse test was described by Halmagyi and Curthoys in 1988. 4 They stated that quick head movements induce saccadic eye movements and demonstrated that these saccades resulted from the stimulation of phasic receptor cells in the crista of one of the lateral semicircularcanals, the contralateral one being inhibited by the quick move- ment, of the order of 200 degrees per second. These physiologic principles have been conﬁrmed by other investigators. 5
In past years, the application of specific reposition- ing maneuvers for statoconia for management of BPPV has given rise to special interest owing to its easy applicability and good results. Such maneuvers aim at removing the debris from statoconia, placed in the ducts of cupula of the semicircularcanals towards the vestibule, following the ampuliphugal movement. Given that floating debris in the endolymph have higher density than circulating endolymph, they may be removed by a non-invasive way using a sequence of head movements towards gravity 6 .
Tyrannosaurus rex (American Museum of Natural History, Fossil Fishes Amphibians, Reptiles and Birds 5117 ). A prominent floccular lobe (cerebellar auricle) extends caudolaterally from the cerebellar region of the hindbrain to lie between the semicircularcanals of the inner ear. This tabular-shaped cavity is relatively large compared to the same structure in Tyrannosaurus, Gorgosaurus, and ‘Nanotyrannus’ and more closely resembles the floccular cavity of Tarbosaurus [21,26,27]. The path of the rostral middle cere- bral vein is somewhat unclear, but it did not penetrate the Figure 1. The braincase of Alioramus altai (IGM 100/1844) (modified from fig. 2 of ). Dorsal (A), left lateral (B), ventral (C), and occipital (D) views. bo, basioccipital; bs, basisphenoid; ls, latero- sphenoid; os, orbitosphenoid; ot, otoccipital; pa, parietal; pf, prefrontal; pr, prootic; so, supraoccipital.
Purpose: To characterize caloric test results in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients, according to the damaged semicircular canal. Methods: The data of 1033 patients submitted to Dix-Hallpike testing, positional nystagmus and electronystagmography were analyzed. Caloric test results were compared to the damaged semicircularcanals and were submitted to statistical analysis. Results: In cases with posterior canal damage, there was prevalence of normal responses compared to abnormal results (p<0.0001); hypo activity was more prevalent than hyperactivity (p<0.0001) and directional preponderance (p<0.0001), and hyperactivity more prevalent than directional preponderance (p<0.0001). In cases with lateral canal damage, normal responses were more prevalent than hypo activity (p<0.0001) and hyperactivity (p<0.0001); there was a tendency of prevalence of hypo activity over hyperactivity (p=0.0771), and directional preponderance was not observed. In cases with anterior canal damage, normal responses were more prevalent than hypo activity (p<0.0001); hyperactivity and directional preponderance were not observed. Conclusion: In the caloric test of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo patients, normal responses, hypo activity, hyperactivity or directional preponderance of post-caloric nystagmus occur in decreasing order of prevalence when the posterior canal is damaged; normal responses are more prevalent than hypoactive or hyperactive caloric responses, and there is a tendency of prevalence of hypoactive over hyperactive caloric responses when the lateral canal is damaged; normal responses are more prevalent than hypoactive caloric responses when the anterior canal is damaged.
A.3- Surgical Unilateral Labyrinthectomy: For all labyrin- thectomies (experimental groups 1 and 2) a second surgery was also performed under isoﬂurane anesthesia. Using a diamond burr, the bulla and the vestibule were exposed and all the pigmented neuroepithelium cells (semicircularcanals and the otolith) were removed by ﬁne forceps and otologic hooks. For animals in experimental group 1, the neuroepithelia was pre- served at the time of labyrinthectomy for histological analysis, which showed destroyed hair cells. The bulla and the vestibule were then packed with oﬂoxacin (0.3% Floxin otic, Daiichi Pharmaceuticals, Montvale, NJ, U.S.A.) soaked gelfoam and the soft tissues were closed. All UL animals demonstrated a slight head tilt and spontaneous nystagmus in the ﬁrst 24 hours.
high-resolution temporal bone CT scan clearly showed a right pneumolabyrinth within the vestibule and the semicircularcanals, sparing the cochlea, associated with the ventilation tube penetrating the vestibule through the oval window (►Figs. 3 and 4). She was diagnosed with right iatrogenic stapes trauma with perilymph ﬁstula and urgently taken to the operating room. The long process of the incus as well as the stapes posterior crura and the posterior and inferior part
After instrumentation, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 9 specimens each: Non-disrupted (ND) group - the root canals were filled according to the lateral compaction technique and the apical constriction was not disrupted; Disrupted-reinstrumented-filled (DRF) group - the apical constriction was disrupted by advancing a #40 K-file 1 mm beyond the original WL. A new root canal instrumentation was performed to create a new ledge at 1 mm short of the apex (original WL), starting with a file that fit the new diameter up to a file three sizes greater. Canals were irrigated with sodium hypochlorite at each change of instrument and EDTA was applied for 5 min as a chelating agent at the end of instrumentation. Root canal filling was performed using the lateral condensation technique with a master gutta-percha cone of the same diameter of the last K-file used for instrumentation, accessory gutta-percha points and Sealapex (Sybron Endo, USA). Filling was considered satisfactory when no accessory gutta-percha point could advance more than 1 mm into the canal; Disrupted-filled (DF) group – The apical constriction was disrupted in the same way as described for the DRF group. However, the canals were not reinstrumented, but only filled with a master gutta-percha cone that fit into the original WL (1 mm short of the apex), accessory gutta-percha points and Sealapex. Filling was considered satisfactory when no accessory gutta-percha point could advance more than 1 mm into the canal.
compared different solutions used for irrigation regarding their influence on root canal system filling. They concluded that root canal ramification fillings could be obtained without using EDTA. There were no statistically significant differences regarding number, length and diameter of filled ramifications. The smear layer did not prevent the sealing of lateral canals.
Background: Mastopexy with breast implant surgery is a challenging and highly complex surgical procedure. In Brazil, there is growing interest in larger breast volumes, although in certain cases, the sole addition of silicone implants is not suficient for constructing a conical breast with a full upper pole. To obtain this result, it is necessary to correct sagging breasts by removing excess skin. Methods: The initial approach was made with an inferior semicircular periareolar incision, which provided subfascial access to the breast pocket for inclusion of the implant. After implant placement, the excess skin was marked using
B enign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, especially in the elderly and presents as the predominant etiology in this population of the degeneration of the utricular macula. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of the approaches after Epley maneuver. Study Design: longitudinal cohort. Materials and Methods: The study included 53 volunteers with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal, divided into Group 1, who underwent Epley maneuver associated with the use of neck collar and post-maneuver instructions, Group 2 underwent the Epley maneuver without the use cervical collar and/or post-maneuver restrictions, and Group 3 underwent the Epley maneuver associated with the use of a mini vibrator, without the use of neck collar and/or post-maneuver restrictions. Results: In the three groups, the number of Epley maneuvers ranged from one to three. We employed the Brazilian Dizziness Handicap Inventory - pre-and post-treatment and observed a statistically significant difference on most scores pre-and post-treatment for both groups. Conclusion: Regardless of the post Epley maneuver treatment selected for the treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, it was effective when comparing the Brazilian Dizziness Handicap Inventory pre-and post-treatment.
The root canals were prepared according to the crown- down technique, with ProTaper Universal files (Dentsply, Petrópolis, RJ, Brazil), from the SX instrument to the F2 (size 25, 0.08 taper). The same instrument was only used for 6 specimens, and then discarded. At each change of instruments, the root canal was copiously irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution (Biodinâmica Química e Farmacêutica Ltda, Ibiporã, PR, Brazil). After root canal instrumentation, a size 15 K-file was introduced in the apical foramen to eliminate dentin residues resulting from the biomechanical preparation.
Foi solicitada audiometria, que evi- denciou perda auditiva mista grave à esquer- da. Na tomografia (TC) do osso temporal esquerdo, observou-se um material com den- sidade de partes moles que ocupava a região epitimpânica e do antro mastoídeo, com preser- vação da cadeia ossicular e esporão de Chausse; porém, com erosão do canal semicircular lateral (Figura 1A).
Conversely, overlaring of root canals should be avoided, because it promotes weakening of dental structure and can result in perforations, mainly on the furcal regions of teeth with curved root canals. 12 The risk of perforation in areas with reduced dentin volume, considered danger zones, can be reduced by directed iling to areas of higher dentin volume, or safety zones, as recommended in the anticurvature iling. 3 This technique has been used since the 1980s,
apical dye penetration in the root canals obturated with Epiphany. The excellent sealing ability demonstrated by this root canal sealer in this study may also be attributed to the “monoblock” design that is created by the Resilon/Epiphany system, i.e., the Resilon points adhere to the Epiphany sealer, which, in turn, present adherence to the dentin walls 25 .
O presente projeto propõe a realização de ensaios de flexão semicircular (SCB, semi- circular bending) em corpos entalhados e pré-trincados, para a geração e análise de fraturas no modo I de carregamento (modo de abertura por tração), em materiais como uma cerâmica estrutural (titânia) e um polímero (resina fenólica), sempre sob regime linear-elástico. Ainda, para abordar o comportamento auto-afim dos materiais fraturados e criar referências ao processo de reconstrução tridimensional de superfícies, as topografias das fraturas serão investigadas por microscopia de força atômica, em modo de contato.
propõem a teoria da canalitíase, que compreende o aumen- to da densidade da endolinfa provocado pela presença de partículas livres em suspensão. A VPPB pode ser originária de qualquer canal semicircular, mas o canal posterior é o mais acometido na grande maioria dos casos. O curso clínico natural da VPPB é autolimitado e tem duração de semanas a meses, caracteristicamente não respondendo às medicações anti-vertiginosas 18-20 . Os tratamentos preconizados são inú-
0-0, p2-0-0; tarsus v1-0-1, p2-0-1, r0-2-0. Epigynal plate almost as long as wide, with large semicircular atrium divided by narrow septum; copulatory openings on posterior portion of epigynum, smaller then copulatory ducts in width; lateral epigynal processes large (Fig. 39), larger then copulatory duct width; internal genitalia with relative small, oval, elongated spermathecae, relatively short, curved copulatory ducts; posteriorly directed
The configuration of the proposed antenna is shown in Fig. 1. The semi circular microstrip patch of dimensions W × L printed on the grounded substrate, which has a uniform thickness of h and having a relative permittivity r and the dielectric material is assumed to be nonmagnetic with permeability µ0. The analysis of the half disk patch antenna is similar to that of circular disk patch, but the effective radius changes to 50% reduction in size . The L-shaped slot with dimension (Ls, Ws) is embedded in a semicircular patch (see Figure 2), the L-shaped patch semi- circular antenna features dual-band behavior.
Complete obturation of root canals is a step of funda- mental importance in endodontic therapy. Obturation is the final procedure, aiming to fill the space across its length, within appropriate limits using materials and techniques that support the process of apical and periapical repair (1). Studies show that failures in endodontic treatment result from inadequate filling of root canals (2,3). Various materials and techniques have been developed. The gutta- percha associated with an endodontic cement is commonly used in the root canal. Although well accepted, some researchers challenge the way it is used, suggesting variations in the root canal obturation techniques.