Place can be generally defined as a location that has been assigned meaning through human experience, and as such it is of multidisciplinary scientific interest. Up to this point place has been studied primarily within the context of social sciences as a theoretical con- struct. The availability of large amounts of user-generated content, e.g. in the form of social media feeds or Wikipedia contributions, allows us for the first time to computationally ana- lyze and quantify the shared meaning ofplace. By aggregating references to human activi- ties within urban spaces we can observe the emergence of unique themes that characterize different locations, thus identifying places through their discernible sociocultural signatures. In this paper we present results from a novel quantitative approach to derive such sociocul- tural signatures from Twitter contributions and also from corresponding Wikipedia entries. By contrasting the two we show how particular thematic characteristics of places (referred to herein as platial themes) are emerging from such crowd-contributed content, allowing us to observe the meaning that the general public, either individually or collectively, is assign- ing to specific locations. Our approach leverages probabilistic topic modelling, semantic association, and spatial clustering to find locations are conveying a collective senseofplace. Deriving and quantifying such meaning allows us to observe how people transform a location to a place and shape its characteristics.
boundaries. Along the same line, Foster and Hipp (2011) argue that administrative boundaries cannot be valid aggregate measures of neigh- borhoods. Our innovative method to achieve a truly citizen-based social view on a city is focused on how citizens per- ceive their spatial surroundings, with respect to: (1) the relationship that an individual has toward a certain geographical area (i.e. SOP) (Jorgensen & Stedman, 2001); and (2) the “social relations between individuals and about what happens within these linkages” (Rutten, Westlund, & Boekema, 2010, p. 3), for instance, trust, reciprocity, and cooperation (i.e., SC). Both concepts (SOP and SC) play an important role in citizen participation (CP) and civic engagement (Jorgensen, 2010; Mihaylov & Perkins, 2013). SOP and SC concepts and their dimensions are highly related, although little atten- tion has been paid to their spatial aspect. Moreover, most researchers dealing with the spatialization of social concepts through GISc tools are taking the administrative boundaries of physical space as reference (Coulton, Korbin, Chan, & Su, 2001; Foster et al., 2015), losing variability on measurement (Jorgensen, 2010). Hence, we question whether admin- istrative boundaries are an adequate tool for covering SOP and local SC of citizens in a particular area.
photographing, the photos part of the city council system of repre- sentation require particular attention concerning its system of production since they were made by professional photographers, and the latter exert more control over the photographic subjects (Emmison and Smith 2000:41). Within this particular set of photographs, more than to insert them in descriptive categories of production (artistic, documental, etc), it is important not to lose sight of the specific power institutions posses in order to define and organise the rhetoric of photography, i. e, its production and the control of its uses, exhibition reproduction and evaluation (Watney:1986), thus establishing a Foucauldian ‘regime of truth’. Within this context it is worth noting the presence of the category People in the local inhabitants’ photographs as relevant elements, part of old Porto. The city council’s depiction ofplace devoid of people is an important element in this heritage/tourism-based system of representation having been referred to by Dann (1996) in his study of British public targeted summer holiday brochures. The invisibility, and therefore non- existence of people within the city council’s system of representation of old Porto is seen here related to not only a ‘empty place’ ready to be appropriated by its visitor, but as a ‘regime of truth’ where the historic is turned into heritage, thus becoming a body without time (timeless), though never ahistoric. This striping of time out of the heritage body also produces the naturalization of this system of representation, because nature as primordial essence is also without time. 30
Although residents of Faro Beach have witnessed coastal hazards, most of them were not personally impacted by those hazards. The consequences of these events at Faro Beach have only been the destruction of houses (Figure 3) and roads that are usually rebuilt afterwards (Costas et al., 2015). The absence of serious consequences, like fatalities, may have contributed to an optimistic bias, making residents believe that they are personally less likely to experience negative outcomes than other people (Breakwell, 2014). The availability heuristics (a simple information-processing rule that relies on immediate examples that individuals easily remember: Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) may have also contributed to an underestimation of more frequent, less serious events (such as storms and erosion at Faro Beach) in relation to rare and catastrophic events (such as earthquakes and tsunamis) that are more easily remembered and overestimated. Therefore, past experience with hazards at Faro Beach in combination with cognitive biases may have played a significant role in decreasing risk perceptions of Faro Beach residents, explaining why they still feel safe living there.
Senseofplace is multi dimensional concepts and it’s roots come from personal and interpersonal experiences, direct or indirect interaction with the place. It is aggregated by cultural values and shared experience. These complex backgrounds cause senseofplace to be the decisive factor in the various fields. Thoughtful consideration ofsenseofplace provides land managers with in-depth information, which gives courage to managers to address a broad range ofplace based-meanings. Lin (2012) believes that new approach does not imply ignoring traditional natural science data, however held to embrace a new form of management, which will integrate social and ecological data in response to particular circumstances. On the other hand Farnum et al. (2004) argue that diversity and multiply interpretations associated with senseofplace questioned its pragmatic value, throught the suggestions that are made about incorporating senseofplace into management are broad, vague and has lack of meaningful guidance from which to develop proceses or decisions. In the end of discussion authors leave question: “how important is senseofplace for management to consider?” (Farnum, et al., 2004, p. 33)
The spatialization of social concepts in to the city context is becoming a need. However, currently, there are few tools to directly spatialize environmental psychology concepts, such as senseofplace, or social and participatory concepts, such as social capital and civic engagement. Furthermore, most existing tools are not taking full advantage of Geographical Information Science (GISc) capabilities mixed with online possibilities. This article presents a tool - an internet map-based application with an intuitive user interface - to deal with the pervasive lack of spatializing subjective citizens’ feeling, perceptions and experiences. Our approach successfully merges GISc framework and tools with questions and indicators from literature in social concepts. As such, the tool allows to identify and spatialize senseofplace, social capital (discerning between bonding and bridging) and civic engagement of citizens, and attach meaningful information to them. It is a first step towards understanding and studying the social-spatial layer which undeniably ties a city and its citizens together.
The relation of commitment to the other professional means that what I do or think makes a difference not only to “me”. A world under the auspices of the market and of insecurity at work, and marked by a strong risk relation between power and knowledge subsumed to the same market interests, provides a fertile soil for the configuration of an increasing inter-peer resentment. The ethics of “must be” loses space to relationships that are hardly filled by fraternal and collective bonds, and becomes an easy prey to hedonism. However, contradictorily, there is the construction of alternative knowledge/action spaces and the search for new public spaces and new collective identities. New relational and interdisciplinary spaces, as well as spaces of self-production at work, maintain ethics as the utopia of a new subject: a subject who reflects on himself and on his relationship with the other, and changes positively the course of the history of health work.
were lower than those found by Mariano et al. (2015), due to the smaller capacity of the load cells used by the authors. The linear regression coefficient (b) varied fro m - 66.5319 mm to -67.8924 mm, that is, a difference of 1.3605 mm, wh ich can be attributed to the differences in dead weights of each lysimeter. The mean absolute error varied fro m 0.0272 mm to 0.0382 mm, lo wer than those found by Mariano et al. (2015), Nascimento et al. (2011), Howell et al. (1995), Allen & Fischer (1991) and Faria et al. (2006) and similar to Campeche (2002). The mean square error varied fro m 0.0011 mm² to 0.0024 mm², it can be concluded that lysimeters are high ly accurate. In addition, to the accuracy of the equivalent mass measurement in mm was also demonstrated by Willmott’s index of agreement (d) (Willmott et al., 1985) which presented values of 1.0000 for the three lysimeters (Tab le 1), a result similar to observed by Mariano et al. (2015). The maximu m hysteresis value of 0.1951 mm and hysteresis at the full scale of 0.4492% observed in Lysimeter 3 d id not compro mise the equivalent mass ratings in mm in the three lysimeters of the study. Therefore, the equipments are suitable for ETc of PSP evaluations with precision and accuracy around 0.1 mm, which is suitable for applications in protected cultivation.
The polymorphism underlined by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008) does not vary in time and space only. It also changes according to the perspective and analysis adopted. This point is particularly important, as it implies accepting that there is no such thing as a “correct polymorphism” for Portugal, or any other country or area in the world, associated to each historical and geographical context, able to be identified and deciphered with precision and objectivity. On the contrary, there are several combinations of the elements of reference referred to earlier, and these combinations inevitably mirror distinct, even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and choices, both from an analytical and a strategic stance, which means they are subject to controversy and opposition.
The result of these problems is an uncontrolled and chaotic set of tagging terms that do not support searching as effectively as more controlled vocabularies (Guy & Tonkin, 2006). Despite this fact, (Merholz, 2004b) argues that these problems should be addressed, as there are encouraging potential benefits. He compares folksonomy to foot-worn paths or “desire lines” that appear in a landscape over time, these are trails that demonstrate how a landscape’s users choose to move, which is often not on the paved paths. A smart landscape designer will let wanderers create paths through use, and then pave the emerging walkways, ensuring optimal utility. In the context of folksonomy, this indicates that for optimal systems, rules shouldn’t be imposed on users. Else users should be free to add any tag to index resources, then these tags have to be formalized in a semantic structure as ontology, and fed back to the system to enhance its performance. This point of view is also supported by the observation from (Cattuto et al., 2007) discussed in section 3.3.2
Multiple theoretical approaches like perceptual control theory , theory of event coding , and the free energy principle  have emphasized and discussed the role of control in explaining perception, cognition, and action. Perceptual control theory argues that the notion of control is central in explaining how we interact with our environment [15,17]. They suggest that the aspect of an action controlled by the agent is its perceived outcome rather than the action itself. This control is achieved by matching the actual perceptual outcome with the expected perceptual consequence, which can be evaluated at different levels. The theory of event coding  argues that control is achieved in two stages; firstly, at the action selection stage and secondly, when the action outcome is evaluated. Both the theory of event coding and perceptual control theory suggest that exhibited control influences the nature of perceptual input and action planning for any particular event and the interplay between perceptual events and action events is mediated by the exhibited control. The match between the sensory prediction and the actual outcome also forms the basis of a family of models explaining the mechanism behind senseof agency . Such comparator models differ in terms of the type of comparisons made (e.g. the two step comparator model ), or in terms of the nature of control mechanism (feed-back, e.g., , versus feed-forward, e.g., ). Several studies have indicated that the manipulation of control influences participant’s subjective experience and executive processes [15,24–26]. Moore et al  manipulated the statistical contingency between a key press and occurrence of a subsequent tone and found a subjective expansion in perceived elapsed time between the key press and the tone with increase in control (higher contingency). Studies on the perception of time between an action and its consequent effect indicate a close link between the experienced control and the SoA . Disrupting the activity in pre-motor cortex using TMS decreased the experience of control and resulted in depletion of SoA . Desantis et al.  have
The chosen territory, the Braço de Prata area (in Marvila), is highly degraded nowadays and has a population of older workers with a low education level, and a large percentage of the elderly. These two factors constituted the ideal pretext for a large-scale intervention, solving issues related to the very configuration of the land and applying the concepts studied in a multifunctional project containing housing, equipment, stores and co-work spaces. This proposal seeks to revitalize an area of the city, preventing a process of gentrification and social segregation.
One hundred and sixty-eight neurologists sent 540 forms on 511 patients (duplicate forms were eliminated). Of those, 443 meeting the criteria of “probable” or “definite” ALS were analysed. Two hundred and fifty nine patients (58,5%) were male, yielding a male to female ratio of 1.4/1. One hundred and thirty (29,3%) were born in the state of São Paulo (SP) and 10.4% in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), the 2 most populous states (Fig 1). Twenty-one (4.7%) were born outside the country. It is worth noticing that 202 (45.6%) of the patients were followed in SP, and 60 (13,5%) in RJ, which may reflect the higher concentration of referral centers and physicians in these states.
conversation. Two of the three conversations were in Italian, the native language of the speakers and of the researcher, while the third was in English, which was the native language of none of the speakers. The latter fact led to some difficulties in the answers given: one question was misunderstood and motivations could not be expressed in depth. The corpus of questions that composed the interviews was similar for all of them, but, as the idea was to have an open conversation, I did not follow a precise order or adhere to a fixed content, so as to give the interviewee the chance to express him- or herself freely and enough time to remember interesting facts or reflect on the question. The content of the interviews can be divided in two main areas: some questions investigate the modality and frequency of use of the airport, while the others aim to discover and define the way the airport is experienced and what perceptions the interviewees have of it. The first category consists of questions were part of the questionnaire I produced in Santiago de Compostela, and they had the purpose of understanding the profile of individuals as users of the airport: what they do there; how often they travel by plane; the reasons and the characteristics of their displacements; the airlines chosen… The second group of questions focuses on perceptions of the airport: the sensations the place gives the interviewee, the nature and characteristics of the spatial practices
One important difference between Western culture at the beginning of the twentieth century and that which came to dominate after the war was the integration of the interests of the working class and of the workers at the center of political decision-making, through social coordination programs associated with party democracy, and the introduction of the universal vote, later also covering, in addition to workers, young people and women. The ideal of social integration, however, ran up against reality. The levels of economic inequality showed no signs of improvement (Piketty, 2013). Despite the best intentions, a social barrier between those at the top and those at the bottom persisted (Figure 1). Between the postwar and the present, the hobos and the dangerous classes, such as the workers, were gradually replaced, in the moralistic imagination, by the poor, drug addicts, immigrants and terrorists, all imagined to have reasons to commit crimes in order to accompany the economic success of the consumerist culture in the second half of the twentieth century (Merton, 1970).
Countries with a long wine tradition (France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, etc.), but also countries producing the so-called new world wines (USA, Australia, Chile, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa mainly) have invested and continue investing large amounts of money in the development of the production, domestic sales, exportation and also in the promotion and the defense of a culture of wine. These actions are often supported by governments, and covers areas as wide as technical or strategic research, and communication. No doubt that it contributes a lot to the increasing proportion of imported wines in Brazil for instance.