Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the sexual behavior of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and the relationship between sexual behavior and the clinical parameters related to this syndrome (obesity, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 48 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The evaluation was based on the complaints reported by the women with particular emphasis on sexual satisfaction, the presence of a sexual partner, phases of the sexual response cycle (desire, arousal, orgasm and resolution phases), sexual frequency, practice of masturbation, evaluation of less usual sexual habits, degree of intimacy and the quality of communication in the women’s involvement with their sexual partner. The variables of sexual behavior (sexual satisfaction, masturbation, sexual fantasies, frequency of desire, arousal and orgasm) were compared with three clinical parameters: menstrual cycle, hirsutism and body mass index (BMI). Results: The sexualinitiation, ways of expressing sexuality, communication and intimacy with partner and sexual satisfaction were not influenced by the clinical aspects of the syndrome. With respect to association of polycystic ovary syndrome clinical parameters with sexual behavior, a statistically significant correlation was found with the menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The absence of menstruation affected sexual interest in activities not involving the partner, thus increasing the frequency of masturbation.
In Cape Verde, as in various other countries of the world, sexualinitiation has occurred at in- creasingly younger ages 4,12 . The sexualinitiation of male adolescents still occurs earlier than that of females, corresponding to the logic of gender relations 13 . Discussion on differences in sexualinitiation between males and females are based on differences in family and social attitudes and expectations in relation to female and male con- duct towards sexuality, i.e., boys appear to feel more stimulated to begin their sex life indepen- dently of marriage, while girls feel that it clashes with social expectations 14 .
METHODS: Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297) were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexualinitiation (≤13 years of age) was the outcome. Descriptive and stratiﬁ ed analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult’s level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5). Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of early sexualinitiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexualinitiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to inﬂ uence early sexualinitiation among men and women with lower level of education and income.
Pentecostal denominations in Brazil are recognized for their promotion of conservative norms and punitive sanctions related to the sexual behavior of their young members. Moreover, they have created unique space for their followers to actively participate in a religious environment. Using data from the PNDS-2006 (National Survey on the Demography and Health of Children and Women, Pesquisa Nacional de Demograia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher de 2006), we examine the associations, in Brazil between religion, as measured by religious ailiation and attendance at religious services, and premarital adolescent sexualinitiation. Our main results conirm a strong association between delay in sexualinitiation and Pentecostalism in Brazil and suggest that this association be related to frequent attendance at religious services. These indings are intriguing, especially because Pentecostalism has emerged and concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, including the least-educated women, with lower income, and residents of urban areas. We conclude by suggesting that religion may be taking the place of family and school in communication on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil. This hypothesis should be carefully investigated, since the religious teachings may sometimes be in favor of what families and the state see as beneicial for adolescents and youth in general, but sometimes in disaccord.
me. He told me he would hit me if I screamed or told anyone”. Likewise, to the left of the chart, clusters show proximity between the variables earlier sexualinitiation (less than one year after menarche or before menarche), shorter relationship duration, lack of commitment to partner, partner age >18 years, intrafamily violence, and black ethnicity. This group included one respondent that ran away and started living on the streets after constant, longstanding physical abuse at home. While homeless, she was raped by two men at the age of 11 and once again at 13. At the time of the interview, the respondent had had 11 partners, was infected with HIV, and lived at a shelter with her son.
As revealed in other studies (Aquino et al., 2003; East et al., 2006; Imamura et al., 2007; Ministério da Saúde, 2006), the young age of sexualinitiation appeared as a variable that is strongly associated with adolescent pregnancy. The varia- ble by itself would not explain the appearance of adolescent pregnancy though (Dias & Aquino, 2006; Scaramella et al., 1998). Pregnancy is supposedly caused by its combination with other factors, namely: school failure (Moore & Brooks- -Gunn, 2002), bad quality of family relations (Benson, 2004; Meade et al., 2008) and substance consumption (Boyce et al., 2008). Although the group with pregnancy experiences reveals higher levels of school failure (i.e. more repetitions of school year and expulsions from school, this variable was not maintained in the ﬁ nal model, going against the results of other studies (Meade et al., 2008; Moore & Brooks-Gunn, 2002; Scaramella et al., 1998). This difference in results can be associated with the sample characteristics, as the adoles- cents were mostly low income and, therefore, more suscep- tible to school development constraints. Nevertheless, the group with pregnancy experiences revealed more behaviors of risk exposure, like the consumption of alcoholic beverages and a less positive perception of their family, as discussed in other studies (Chalem et al., 2007; Dias & Aquino, 2006; Meade et al., 2008). According to Boyce et al. (2008), the use of alcohol and drugs is strongly associated with young age of sexualinitiation. The ﬁ ndings by Belsky et al. (1991) reveal that adolescents who consider themselves dissatisﬁ ed with their family relations tend to present higher levels of substance consumption and a younger sexualinitiation age.
he results reveal singularities in the sexual behavior and contraceptive use of Brazilian adolescent students. he Northern region, e.g., had the higher prevalence of sexualinitiation, while the prevalence of contraceptive use, in particular, the oral pill, is one of the lowest among the macro-regions. he analyses by capital also show this disquieting contradiction: Northern capitals are among those whose adolescents most often reported having initiated the sexual life, although reports of contraceptive use, especially oral pill, do not follow the same trend. he sexual and reproductive health policies must consider such diferences and regional speciicities in the adolescent health care. National programs such as the Health at School (PSE), which requires the integration of schools and primary health services, need to be fully established to contemplate all the students and also their health needs, as the school environment can be a place of relevant changes in the life and health of adolescents. Ultimately, this could help to ensure that the irst sexual experiences of young people are healthy, i.e., desired, protected, and enjoyable.
This study aimed to test how knowledge on emergency contraception (ac- cording to age at sexualinitiation, type of school, and knowing someone that has already used emergency contraception) influences the method’s use. This was a cross-sectional study in a probabilistic sample of students 15-19 years of age enrolled in public and private middle schools in a me- dium-sized city in Southeast Brazil (n = 307). Data were collected in 2011 using a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equations model was used for the data analysis. Considering age at sexualinitiation and type of school, knowledge of emergency contraception was not associated with its use, but knowing someone that had used the method showed a significant mean effect on use of emergency contraception. Peer group conversations on emergency contraception appear to have greater influence on use of the method than knowledge itself, economic status, or sexual experience.
Introduction: he aim of this work was to survey HPV information from a random population of young women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: his cross-sectional study included cervical samples from 241 female students. To determine human papillomavirus status, polymerase chain reaction ampliication was performed. HPV typing was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Demographic data, life style, sexual and gynecological history were obtained through use of a structured questionnaire. Results: he average age of the women was 19.6 years-old (SD=3.4 years). HPV prevalence was 27.4%. Nineteen diferent HPV genotypes were detected, including 13 high risk types. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (6.2%), followed by 31 (4.1 %) and 66 (3.7%). Most of the oncogenic types belonged to the A9 species (28/48). he frequency of women infected by at least one oncogenic type was signiicantly higher than those only infected by low risk types (18.7% versus 7.5%). Cervical changes were detected in 12.5% of the sample and were signiicantly linked to infection with HPV types of the A9 species. Demographic variables, sexualinitiation, or number of sexual partners were not associated with HPV prevalence, variety of HPV genotypes or oncogenic types. Conclusions: he relative frequency of HPV genotypes other than vaccine types in young females should be taken into account when evaluating vaccination strategies. Due to the high prevalence of HPV infection among the population studied, implementation of sex education in schools, promotion of condom use and an organized screening program to prevent cervical cancer must be encouraged for this age group.
of condom in sexualinitiation, number of part- ners during life, number of partners in the past 12 months, number of marriages, time since last sexual intercourse, use of contraception and condom in last intercourse, and number of chil- dren), specific information about the context of the pregnancy that resulted in abortion (number of children at the time of pregnancy, age at the time of pregnancy, history of abortions prior to that pregnancy, if the woman was using a con- traceptive method when she got pregnant, if she lived with her partner at that time, if her partner was living with HIV and if the partner was the same as in the previous pregnancy), information to qualify abortion itself (gestational age at the time of abortion, where abortion was performed, if the woman needed post-abortion medical as- sistance, where she sought medical assistance, how this medical assistance was, whose initiative was it to abort and what the main reason to abort was), information on contexts that may expose the woman to greater social vulnerability (psy- chological, physical and sexual violence, drug use and paid sex), age when the woman found out to be HIV positive, why she took the test, and if she desired to have children in the future. Chart 1 shows a summary of the data as well as some variables about the WLHA who had a post-di- agnosis abortion and the pregnancies that were voluntarily terminated.
The signiﬁ cant increase in condom use at ﬁ rst sexual intercourse among young people aged 16 to 19 is an important sign of progress for programs dedicated to the controlling of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil, since their central focus has been on promoting condom use. The Brazilian AIDS program, currently one of the largest programs responsible for sexual education initiatives amongst young people in Brazil, has not considered delaying initiation of one’s sexual life as relevant to its policies, although it is a practice that is more common among those groups of the Brazilian population with more years of schooling, which includes a proportio- nately higher number of condom users at ﬁ rst sexualinitiation and during the individual’s lifetime. 4,15,17,18
The distribution of reported bladder symp- toms are shown in Figure-2. Frequent urination, urge incontinence, small volume leaks, and stress incon- tinence were all reported by ≥ 60% of the sample. Difficulty voiding and pain in the lower abdominal/ genital area were reported by less than 40% of the sample. Across all symptoms, 99-100% of the women reporting a symptom indicated that the symp- tom was bothersome. Responses to the sexual func- tion questionnaire items are shown in Figure-3. In- abilities to become sexually aroused, experience orgasm, and enjoy sex were reported by 24%, 27%, and 27% of the women, respectively. Twenty-five percent of the women were dissatisfied with their partner as a lover. Thirty-six percent of respondents had a partner who experienced difficulty in sexual performance.
Radar and satellite data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission–Large-Scale Biosphere– Atmosphere (TRMM–LBA) project have been examined to determine causes for convective storm initia- tion in the southwest Amazon region. The locations and times of storm initiation were based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar (S-Pol). Both the radar and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) visible data were used to identify cold pools produced by convective precipitation. These data along with high-resolution topographic data were used to determine possible convective storm triggering mechanisms. The terrain elevation varied from 100 to 600 m. Tropical forests cover the area with numerous clear-cut areas used for cattle grazing and farming. This paper presents the results from 5 February 1999. A total of 315 storms were initiated within 130 km of the S-Pol radar. This day was classified as a weak monsoon regime where convection developed in response to the diurnal cycle of solar heating. Scattered shallow cumulus during the morning developed into deep convection by early afternoon. Storm initiation began about 1100 LST and peaked around 1500–1600 LST. The causes of storm initiation were classified into four categories. The most common initiation mechanism was caused by forced lifting by a gust front (GF; 36%). Forcing by terrain (⬎300 m) without any other triggering mechanism accounted for 21% of the initiations and colliding GFs accounted for 16%. For the remaining 27% a triggering mechanism was not identified. Examination of all days during TRMM–LBA showed that this one detailed study day was representative of many days. A conceptual model of storm initiation and evolution is presented. The results of this study should have implications for other locations when synoptic-scale forcing mechanisms are at a minimum. These results should also have im- plications for very short-period forecasting techniques in any location where terrain, GFs, and colliding boundaries influence storm evolution.
Analysis of the MGLPs produced by different culture batches of the wild-type and mutant strains metabolically labeled with [ 14 C- methyl]-L-methionine  revealed a virtual elimination of the de novo production of these molecules in the mutant (Fig. 3). MGLP production was restored in the mutant complemented with wild- type copies of either Rv1208 or MSMEG_5084 indicating that the two genes are functional orthologs (Fig. 3). The total amount of radioactivity incorporated into the MGLPs of the mutant was only about 20% of that for the wild-type parent. MMP synthesis, in contrast, appeared relatively unaffected in mc 2 DMSMEG_5084 indicating that a deficiency in MGLP production does not affect other PMPS (Fig. 3). These results clearly confirm the primary role of Rv1208 in the initiation of MGLP synthesis, however, since residual amounts of MGLPs were still produced in the mutant, we conclude that another enzyme displaying glucosyl-3-phosphoglyc- erate synthase or glucosylglycerate synthase activity contributed to the pool.
he EC Code of Practice further deines sexual harassment as unwanted conduct of a sexual nature or other conduct based on sex afecting the dignity of women and men at work. his can include unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct. he EAT endorsed this deinition in Wadman vs Carpenter Farrer Partnership (1993, IRLR 374) and British Telecommunications plc vs Williams (1997 IRLR, 668). he UK courts have accepted that sexual harassment can amount to unlawful direct sex discrimination if the harasser treats a woman less favorably than he would have treated a man and does so on grounds of her sex (Porcelli vs Strathclyde Regional Council, 1986, ICR 564) hey have accepted that a single act, if suiciently serious, may amount to sexual harassment (Bracebridge Engineering Ltd vs Darby, 1990) and the coarse remarks of a sexual nature may amount to sexual harassment (Chief Constable of the Lincolnshire Police v Stubbs, 1999, IRLR 81; Reed and Bull Information Systems Ltd v Stedman, 1999, IRLR 299). In MacDonald vs Min of Defence (2003) the House of Lords ruled that employers may be liable for acts of harassment committed by an employee on a colleague, but will not ordinarily be liable to acts of harassment committed against their 3 rd parties (Department
Efficient proteasomal degradation in vitro and in vivo (yeast) requires the presence of a disor- dered sequence (or initiation region) in the substrate protein to allow the proteasome to engage the substrate [2, 43, 48]. The presence of disordered regions correlates with shorter half-lives of natural proteins [48, 49]. Thus including an effective proteasome initiation region in the target construct should make the inducible degradation system more effective. Hence, we explicitly included a proteasome initiation region in the target construct by including a disordered sequence (tail) at its C terminus. Removing the tail prevented degradation of the target protein even in the presence of rapalog (Fig 3C). The initiation region by itself did not lead to degradation (Fig 3B); the target protein is only degraded in the presence of proteasome adaptor, initiation region and rapalog (Fig 3B–3D). Thus providing the two necessary components of a degron, the proteasome-binding tag on the adaptor and the initiation region on the target results in rapid degradation of the substrate in the presence of the CID. The fact that the inducible degradation system described here is able to deplete GFP, which is notoriously hard to unfold and degrade [10, 38, 39], suggests that it should be effective for a wide range of target proteins.
Introdução: A Sexualidade impacta de forma importante sobre avaliação e conduta na qualidade de vida. É um fator cada vez mais explorado por ferramentas de avaliação. Para que o fisioterapeuta possa realizar uma boa anamnese sobre este tema é imprescindível que ele tenha uma adequada formação acadêmica e profissional. Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento, conforto e atitude dos acadêmicos do Curso de Fisioterapia em abordar questões de sexualidade de seus pacientes. Métodos: Estudo observacional, tipo corte transversal, que foi realizado em uma Universidade privada de São Paulo. Amostra do estudo composta por 510 estudantes do Curso de Fisioterapia. Foi aplicada uma escala de conhecimento, conforto e atitudes de acadêmicos de fisioterapia frente à sexualidade humana (ECCAFS) Os dados foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. Resultados: A etapa de formação universitária aumenta o conhecimento sobre o assunto. A análise sócia demográfica e experiências de vida, pode ser relevante em relação ao conhecimento, conforte e atitude na abordagem da função sexual do paciente. Conclusão: O conhecimento, conforto e atitude do estudante de fisioterapia podem variar em relação à etapa de sua formação, gênero, classe social e idade, deste modo durante a formação do aluno, os cursos de fisioterapia devem abordar esta temática de modo transversal para que o aluno obtenha conhecimento, competência e resolubilidade para lidar com a demanda do paciente diante do assunto.
Although the SINESP and IPEA reports represent important strides in research on rape in Brazil, both documents have some limitations. They are unable to identify the “obscure figures” of rape and other forms of nonconsensual sexual activi- ties. In order to obtain more realistic incidence rates for sexual aggression, researchers often use self-report methods and focus on a broad spec- trum of coercive sexual acts rather than rape on- ly. The current study thus aims to investigate the frequency of sexual aggression in Brazil through self-report by victims and perpetrators. A litera- ture review was conducted on studies that iden- tified the prevalence or incidence of self-report- ed sexual aggression and victimization among women and men over age 14 (the age of consent in Brazil).
RESUMO. O fura-barreira Hylocryptus rectirostris é uma ave endêmica das matas ciliares da região do Cerrado, considerada rara a incomum e prioritária para pesquisa. A ausência de dimorfismo sexual aparente é o padrão disseminado entre os Furnariidae, no entanto, para algumas espécies da família foram encontradas diferenças morfométricas entre os sexos, sugerindo pressões evolutivas e exigências ecológicas distintas entre machos e fêmeas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de dimorfismo sexual de tamanho de uma população de H. rectirostris do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, sugerindo uma hipótese capaz de explicar a diferença observada entre os sexos. Para tanto foram tomadas sete medidas corporais de 21 indivíduos (13 machos e oito fêmeas) capturados entre abril de 2004 a novembro de 2005 e sexados por meio de técnicas moleculares. Os machos apresentaram asa e cauda significativamente maiores do que as fêmeas (asa: U = 5,5, p = 0,0008; cauda: U = 8,0, p = 0,0014). Acredita-se que as diferenças estejam relacionadas à defesa territorial, tarefa executada quase que exclusivamente por machos, que mantêm territórios estabelecidos ao longo de todo ano mesmo na ausência de fêmeas. Rêmiges e retrizes mais longas incrementam a capacidade de vôo e devem favorecer os indivíduos com asas e caudas maiores durante a aquisição e defesa de territórios, processos essen- ciais à conquista de fêmeas e conseqüente sucesso reprodutivo.