The software development for mobile devices such as mobile phones, smartphones and tablets requires knowledge not only of processes but also related to software and hardware technology platforms of these devices. Continuous improvement in the performance of these platforms and the increasing demand for a variety of applications require a high competitiveness and, therefore, high levels of productivity and quality. In this scenario, agile methodologies are used and fit well to frequently changing requirements and to time to market. Among these methodologies, Scrum is one of the most accepted and used, contributing to the improvement of project management, team productivity, product quality and increasing the probability of project success. On the other hand, there is an increasing adoption of quality management methodologies such as Lean SixSigmain Information Technology and Communication (ICT) organizations due to their proven results in improving processes development and quality of services and products developed. Methodologies such as Scrum and Lean SixSigma have different goals, however, they can contribute together in the development of software for mobile devices. In literature, there are studies that propose the integration of agile methodologies and software quality, however, they have gaps regarding the possibility of systematic reuse of this integration, as well as in evaluating the use of these integrated methodologies. Thus, this paper proposes an evolution of an existing approach, called SLeSS, that integrates Scrum to Lean SixSigma and has been used in the software customization for mobile phones. The evolution of this approach is to add software development in addition to customization and improve integration mechanisms initially proposed with a focus on evaluation of the practices and principles of Scrum from the use of techniques of Lean SixSigma. This new version is applied in seven actual projects that are related to software development and customization for mobile devices and their results are also discussed in this dissertation.
It is notorious how often and fast most of companies, in the global environment, take decision on establishing goals to achieve near perfect quality for a product or service through the implementation of better process and new tools. SixSigma as example is one of the methodology in which the adherence has been massive and constant in the business world, however, few companies take advantage of this tool in their administrative processes, mainly speaking, in the product and services pricing process (FRANK, 2003). The heart of the matter is that many organizations use the disciplines of SixSigma to reduce their manufacturing costs, therefore, they also can use the same tool to increase their revenue in the way to reduce losses and minimize tension on management decision process, which means, apply SixSigma not only on manufacturing process but others (SODHI and SODHI, 2005). Facing this opportunity, hereby the main goal of this research, through the SixSigma methodology and its new approach SixSigma Pricing, is to perform a sales pricing process diagnosis and analysis in order to propose improvements to an automotive industry supplier. Due to some limitations to apply full DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control) steps, which is the SixSigma (Pricing) methodology ’s pillars, it were only applied in this research the first three phases so-called DMA (Define, Measure, Analyse) and in the Improve phase it were done the process improvements proposals. It was firmly believed that applying these first three phases in the company pricing process was very valuable to bring out the various "flaws"/problems and their "countermeasures"/proposals for potential solution thereof. Therefore, it is understood that the practical and theoretical contributions resulted from this research proved that the methodology and its tools are powerful in all its phases to come up with potential pricing troubleshooting.
The main finding of this study was that the Lean SixSigma methodology, through its processes, helps decrease incorrect entries found in the auditing of accounts, as well as all inpatient procedures, such as drugs, materials and examinations. The processes involved in the auditing of accounts are directly related with efficiency in reducing incorrect entries, ensuring correct costing, ensuring compliance in the rendering of accounts, and accuracy in costs and outcomes, since they all aim at improving costing efficiency of the operational process. Therefore, there is a need for a tool capable of identifying and generating improvement in health services.
The demands of consumers and the growth of competitiveness factor stimulated organizations to improve their processes, product and services to meet the requirements of a dynamic market and increasingly demanding consumers. This differential, in the continuous search for greater market share, manifested it in the implementation of quality programs. This paper aimed to present a study of SixSigma, ISO 14000, and QFD, performed by means of literature review of the respective concepts, considering the dimensions: objective, focus, advantages, and disadvantages. Also, common and divergent points are analyzed and thus verify the possibility of working together these initiatives. The results allowed visualizing the possibility of working with initiatives together, once these have points in common, being that the differentiation of focus can advantage in success of implementation.
An important feature of SixSigma that refers to the ield of project management is its projectized structure. Zu et al. (2008) have shown that the core activities that diferentiate SixSigma from other quality initiatives are its structured procedures for improvement, characterized by disciplined and standardized execution of planned improvement activities through projects. Linderman et al. (2003) highlight the project- based characteristic of SixSigma and its speciic goals to ofer a diferentiated performance facing other improvement initiatives. Snee (2001, p. 66) proposes a deinition of SixSigma projects as “aimed at the problem in which the solution is not known…we also need one or more measurements that quantify the magnitude of the problem and can be used to select the project goals and monitor progress.”
Quality is nowadays the biggest concern in all human activities areas and it could not be different on the information system area, more specifically on software development. During the last years there have been many discussions about poor quality and low productivity in worldwide software industry which reflects on customer dissatisfaction and financial losses of huge proportions. In this context, defining methodologies to discipline the software development process is a critical factor of success. Besides that, process improvement mechanisms are also needed to allow organizational growth and achievement of performance optimization. The goal of this master thesis is to propose a process of quantitative management for process improvement. This proposal aims to contribute to the software engineering area through the specification of an integrated process among BSC, CMMI and SixSigma using a proper tool to define processes. Besides, this study shows new empirical data an also aims to contribute to software engineering through applying qualitative research methods. Empirical data were obtained from a case study conducted in a software development organization located in Brazil.
Pressionada pelo acirramento da concorrência, nos últimos tempos, as empresas industriais conquistaram notáveis ganhos em produtividade e qualidade, mas sabem que não podem arrefecer seus esforços de melhoria contínua e que é preciso melhorá-las ainda mais. Neste esforço de aumento da competitividade, em empresas líderes, a função manufatura tem se sobressaído das demais áreas da organização pela expressiva melhoria de seu desempenho operacional, e pelo seu pioneirismo na introdução de novas abordagens de gestão. Num passado recente, algumas empresas que haviam adotado as metodologias Lean Manufacturing (LM) e SixSigma (SS) impulsionadas por motivações distintas e por meio de programas independentes, embarcaram num esforço de disseminação seguindo uma abordagem mais integrativa, voltada à busca da excelência operacional (SHAH; CHANDRASEKARAN; LINDERMAN, 2008; ABOELMAGED, 2010). Outras que haviam adotado apenas uma destas metodologias têm procurado reforçá-la e/ou ampliar seu escopo incorporando elementos propostos pela outra (BENDELL, 2006).
De acordo com Ballou (2004), a evolução dos mercados, a evolução do setor da logística, a internet, procedimentos operacionais Just-in-Time a reposição continua de stocks, são todos fatores que contribuem para que os clientes esperarem um processamento casa vez mais rápido dos seus pedidos, contar com uma entrega imediata e um alto nível de disponibilidade de um produto. Para realçar esta ideia de agilidade e de resposta rápida às solicitações do mercado os serviços especiais de entrega em 24 horas em quase todos os pontos do mundo recorrendo à via aérea, o uso do correio eletrónico, os sms, etc., que têm criado diversas expectativas nos consumidores para produtos e serviços disponibilizados em prazos cada vez mais curtos. Para Moura (2 006), “Os gestores têm que apostar em estratégias com base no cliente, satisfazendo a grande variedade das chamadas prioridades “de ordem mais elevada”, que não envolvem, necessariamente, melhorias nas características e funcionalidades dos produtos.”
Unfortunately, lean processes can make jobs highly repetitive while eliminating critical rest time for employees. When ergonomics is not integrated into the process, the repetitive jobs take their toll on employees as stressful postures and high forces are repeated continuously throughout the day. In the long run, the financial savings from the productivity gains and quality improvements may have to be used to fund the higher costs of cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) claims (Wilson, 2005). Nunes & Machado (2007) support by telling that the benefits and advantages of lean manufacturing systems to cope with customer requirements, having in mind optimal use of the resources involved are well recognized. However, the use of just-in-time environments can produce high levels of stress in some time, and adequate ergonomic principles can be missed, eventually. This situation suggests the implementation of an ergonomic monitoring system based in specific tools. The reduction of the number of defects and process variance are the pillars of the SixSigma philosophy, and Ergonomics can also help achieving these goals. Fritzsche, et al. (2014) mentions a study where Eklund (1995) found that quality deficiencies in car assembly lines were three times more likely for jobs with ergonomics issues because employees put less effort in correctly performing the work in order to reduce discomfort and fatigue. Similarly, the study of Lin, Drury and Kim (2001) is mentioned because it showed that time pressure and awkward postures predicted over 50% of the quality variance (i.e. error rates) on cycled assembly lines.
Traditional performance measurement system in supply chain were based on accounting figures such as sales turnover, profit, debt, and ROI which might serve well as warning flags about performance problems, but at the same time they do not convey the reasons for the problems. Shepherd and Gunter (2006) highlighted a range of limitations pertinent to supply chain performance measurement, no long-term performance measurement; no focus on strategic issues; little supply chain context; and lack of systematic approach. Their studies stressed the need for new measurement systems and metrics to address these deficiencies. Recently, some researchers (Bhagwat and Sharma, 2007, 2008, Thakkar et al., 2011) have attempted to respond to the limitation by designing systematic and balanced performance measurement systems and framework for SMEs. Few authors have worked on various SCM dimensions such as supplier partnership, outsourcing, purchasing, supply chain integration, logistics, education, postponement, IT adoption for improving SCM performance. But still key strategic issues, such as top management commitment, leadership, training, cooperation, communication etc. remain unanswered by the authors.
The ERP systems make use of an exclusive database and of different modules that communicate between themselves and exchange information. IT-enabled re-engineering is an important approach used to achieve dramatic improvement in business processes. The development of ERP systems was a result of the increasing demand for re-engineering, combined with the advent of customer/server technologies (Wheelright and Hayes, 1998). ERP systems can be considered as an IT infrastructure able to facilitate the flow of information between all business processes in an organisation (Martin, 1998). In particular, SAP R/3 has emerged as the dominant leader in ERP systems, and is now one of the most used tools to optimize and re-engineer business processes (Cooke and Peterson, 1998). Each module is responsible for each specific task to the system, for example, the production and project control, finances, logistics, maintenance, materials and quality management and other tasks related to industry (Davenport et al., 2003).
Se observa que una de las actividades profesionales del formando en Ingeniería de Producción está íntimamente relacionada con Gestión de la Calidad y, para desarrollar esas actividades, ese profesional necesita conocer y utilizar herramientas de calidad que permitan una gestión de los procesos con eficiencia y eficacia. La metodología SixSigma fue desarrollada con este fin. Este artículo presenta un estudio sobre la formación SixSigma en empresas de formación e instituciones de enseñanza del Valle del Paraíba, estado de São Paulo, a partir de un mapeamiento de los cursos de las instituciones de la región, identificando sus características y contenidos curriculares. El objetivo es identificar cómo están estructurados los cursos para la formación de Green Belts en empresas de entrenamiento e instituciones de enseñanza de la región del Valle del Paraíba, comparando con las recomendaciones propuestas por una reconocida entidad certificadora internacional. Para alcanzar este objetivo, se realizó una investigación de abordaje cualitativo con método de análisis documental y una investigación de campo con las instituciones seleccionadas. Se observó que las instituciones encuestadas presentan diferencias entre cargas horarias, exigencia de evaluación y exigencia de proyectos para certificación, demostrando que no existe un modelo único de curso en el mercado estudiado. En cuanto a las dimensiones de los contenidos programáticos, se constató que la mayoría de las instituciones presentan contenidos muy próximos al estándar de certificación internacional seleccionado, pero con oportunidades de mejora.
menos recursos, menos custos e menos mão de obra. Reside ai a base para a existência de todas iniciativas de otimização, nas quais o nível tático há de participar com grande afinco e, consequentemente, os engenheiros também. Assim, quando um projeto lean sixsigma, que visa reduzir a variabilidade de algum processo ou encontrar oportunidades de otimização, os quais em sua maioria são gerenciados por engenheiros ou possuem engenheiros na equipe do projeto, é desenvolvido, espera-se que algum retorno competitivo seja apresentado. Para este projeto em específico, os ganhos em competitividade ficaram evidentes. Além disto, como projetos lean sixsigma requerem, no mínimo, dedicação parcial, os engenheiros podem, ainda, desenvolver outras atividades dentro das organizações. iii. Os benefícios da adoção de uma metodologia de trabalho formal percorre
· Research Case : The garment industries are labour intensive and are subjected to pollution in terms of dust and dyes. This is causing allergy and other huge amount health related issues. As employees are focused on stitching operations they tend to get injured when there is a lapse in attention. In India, garment industries are generally dominated by female workforce. There is a disparity in the male to female ratio. Most of the managers and supervisors are male and there is an increasing case of harassment towards the female workforce .
Immediately after treatments, guanidine thiocyanate (4M, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) was added to treated and untreated MAP cultures. The solution was allowed to stand at room temperature for 30 min prior to centrifugation (3,026 ×g for 10 min at 4°C). The pellet was resuspended in 600 l of TriReagent (Sigma, USA) and homogenised with 0.1 mm Zirconia beads (BioSpec Inc., Bartlesville, OK, USA) using the MagnaLyser instrument (Roche Molecular Diagnostic, Penzberg, Germany) at 6,500 rpm for 15 s. The sample was homogenised a further three times with cooling on ice for 2 min between each step. Homogenised samples were transferred into a new tube, 100 l of chloroform was added, gently mixed and centrifuged (10,000 ×g for 10 min at RT). The upper phase was transferred into a new tube and 350 l of RLT buffer was added (RNeasy kit, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Subsequently, the RNeasy kit (Qiagen, Germany) was used for RNA isolation with these modifications: 250 l of 98% ethanol was added to the mixture with RLT buffer and all centrifugation steps were carried out at 8,000 ×g for 20 s. RNA was eluted using 50 l of RNase, DNase free water. The elution was repeated with the same filtrate again (RNA isolation according to Dr. Tim Bull, St. George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UK; personal communication).
Alguns autores definem a metodologia Seis Sigma como uma estratégia gerencial de mudanças, visando à melhoria de processos, produtos e serviços organizacionais, amplamente direcionada à satisfação dos clientes. Alguns dos conceitos do modelo Seis Sigma remetem ao Total Quality Managment (TQM), quais sejam: a importância do conhecimento das necessidades dos clientes para a realização dos estudos; a utilização disciplinada de fatos reais, dados e verificações estatísticas; o apoio incondicional da direção da empresa; e a melhoria contínua. O Seis Sigma não considera a qualidade em seu sentido tradicional, isto é, a conformidade com as normas e os requisitos internos da empresa, mas define qualidade como sendo o valor agregado por um amplo esforço produtivo, buscando atingir os objetivos estratégicos planejados por estudos realizados pela companhia (PANDE et al., 2001; PEREZ- WILSON, 2000; PYZDEK, 2003; ROTONDARO, 2002).
The gathering of data is essential. The success of a 6-Sigma project depends on the authenticity and quality of that data. This study conclusively demonstrates that it is extremely important to know the capability of the subject matter being measured, whether it is a human or a machine. This dissertation using a practical case demonstrates the benefits of applying the 6-Sigma methodology, at the quality and financial levels as well as in terms of employee motivation. On a soldering (welding) reflow process where the quality ratings present values superior to those of the 4 sigma (less than 6500 failures per 1.000.000 radios), it is not possible to take secure steps toward 6 sigma without a continuous improvement culture across the whole company and without a strong investment in training. This training cannot be limited to key elements of the organization but rather to all employees.
sendo MTBM o Mean Time Between Maintenance (Tempo Médio Entre Acções de Manutenção), e MDT o Mean Maintenance Down Time (Tempo ou Duração Média das Acções de Manutenção). Atendendo a que existem, em termos gerais, várias linhas de produção com diversos equipamentos, esta disponibilidade deve corresponder à disponibilidade média da totalidade desses equipamentos. Na prática, sucede que, por vezes, existem equipamentos com índices de criticidade bastante desfavoráveis e, consequentemente, com elevadas probabilidades de imobilizações não planeadas, o que lhes confere potencialmente uma disponibilidade operacional reduzida. Nessas situações, compete aos serviços de manutenção optarem por políticas de manutenção preventivas e, sobretudo, melhorativas, associadas a um planeamento rigoroso de intervenções, no sentido de se melhorar a sua disponibilidade e, por acréscimo, o nível Seis Sigma global.