IoT can be combined with Blockchain to help preserve and maintain logic in all the data collected. One example of it is the traditional fish business, where there is a lot of problems, i.e., fishing practices are illegal, unregulated or unreported; after being caught the fish get label no corresponding to him (Seafood fraud) and when is stored the process may be in improper conditions. All this way of business management has impacts in the consumer’s final product quality and there is no way for the consumer to know, creating a lack of vendor and consumer trust. To prevent these problems, combining IoT, Blockchain and SmartContracts could be the solution. Recording the trip of all sea-food since when it was fished from the sea until it gets to the final consumer. IoT sensors can be attached to any object entrusted to someone else for transport, with trackable ownership, possession, and telemetry parameters such as location, temperature, humidity, motion, shock and tilt. The final buyer can access a complete record of information and trust that the information is accurate and complete.
dar-se-ão a partir de hipóteses legais e doutrinárias dos smartcontracts, em razão da necessária atenção aos aspectos jurídicos consolidados e tão caros às relações contratuais contemporâneas quando implementadas novas tecnologias, buscando-se na referida coleta de dados e teses, mediante um ensaio dialético indutivo, expor a problemática da relativização de cláusulas em sistemas fechados como os da tecnologia blockchain e smartcontracts, alicerçando-se nos registros e na compreensão da automação dos contratos, incorrendo-se obrigatoriamente na compreensão da tecnologia blockchain e smartcontracts, bem como dos princípios contratuais: pacta sunt servanda e cláusula rebus sic stantibus.
Abstract: This paper is the result of a research project that ana- lyzes the possibility of applying the smarts contracts in the labor scope, and starting from this perspective which labor law para- digms would remain and what would be required of the profes- sional operator responsible law. The bibliography on the theme for the construction of the present research was carried out through the logical-deductive methodology. In order to do so, it analyzes the evolution of the technologies and paradigms formed by the 4th industrial revolution. In this sense, the training of smartcontracts was analyzed in the areas in which they are already working and questions the steps for their application in the labor sphere. Afterwards, the conflicts that the insertion of this technology generates in the traditional paradigms of labor law are demonstrated. Finally, the possibilities and tendencies of the contracts of work in a Smartcontracts system are presented and what the requirements for the professional operator of the right are presented.
1. The most notable problem found has already been mentioned in Section 4.2, and relates to the code size and complexity of the total smart contract system. Halfway through implementation, our code started to hit the size limit that smartcontracts are currently constrained to when being launched in the Ethereum blockchain net- work. The solution to this issue lays in separating the smart contract code into chunks and use interfaces instead of inheritance to access each contract’s methods and structures. However for the code complexity of our system, adopting this ap- proach would have required considerable rewriting/ rearrangement of the work done until then. Considering the time frame and goals that had been set out for this dissertation, we decided to first successfully implement all the functionalities that had been envisioned for this smart contract system and eventually, if there was time, refurbish the code into separate contracts that used interfaces and didn’t surpass the code size limit. This feature has in this way been left for future work considerations.
aplicado na venda de caixas tabaco, para que o usuário colocasse uma determinada moeda que ativaria o mecanismo e lhe desse o objetivado; uma das concepções mais importantes criadas nesse período foi a de evitar censura e garantir o anonimato nas vendas de determinados produtos que poderiam ser confiscados pela coroa inglesa. Por ter já ter sido preso anteriormente e visando evitar futuras acusações de rebelião e difamação da corte inglesa e eventuais responsabilidades legais, o britânico Ri- chard Charlie inventou uma vending machine de livros para manter-se no anonimato e impossibilitar a identificação de propriedade do material blasfemo SEEGRAVE, Kerry (2002), apud RASKIN, Max. The Law and Legality of SmartContracts. Georgetown Law Technology Review, vol. 1, n. 2, p. 305-326, 2017. Disponível em: <https://perma.cc/673G-3ANE>. Acesso em: 15 jan. 2018.
Conforme Szabo, a ideia que possibilita a utilização de smartcontracts é de que muitos padrões de cláusulas contratuais podem ser inclusos no hardware e no software utilizado, permi- tindo que a quebra do contrato se torne onerosa para uma das partes – geralmente, o responsável pela quebra 15 . Para exempli- ficar o conceito, Szabo utiliza o exemplo da máquina de venda automática, que recebe as moedas e, por meio de um sistema simples, devolve a diferença entre o valor devido e o valor pago e o produto solicitado, conforme a solicitação escolhida no dis- play 16 , o que poderia representar uma forma rudimentar da tec-
generalist approach that can be used with any robot as long as the robot allow external commands to perform changes on its’ behaviour, e.g., changes on the speed. The smart- contract is useful because it contains all the logic for the changes to be made and it is not controlled by any party, in the sense that once published into the blockchain, it is impossible to change the code contained in it and it triggers events without the need of human actions. Another important property is the capability for having different smart-contracts with different control logics, meaning that for different environments or tasks, we can allocate one or more smart-contracts to different types of control of the robot or to other aspects that are found important, e.g., communication with other parties. We demonstrate this approach by creating a scenario that simulates a factory environment in which a robotic arm needs to pick a raw material from one conveyor and place it on another one. In the created scenario, the robotic arm is a UR3, the raw material are orange ping-pong balls and the robot needs to pick it from the end of a track-line and place it at the beginning. We have a small motor that blocks the balls from reaching the end of the track for n seconds to represent different arrivals at the robot workspace. This is useful to test how the system performs under different raw material arrival intervals. Denote that the motor that blocks the balls is controlled by an Arduino and it only lets one ball pass each n seconds. This scenario can be seen in Fig. 2 in which there is one ball on the pick zone and two balls ”waiting”. The complete sequence of movements in this task can be seen in Fig. 3, where the robot picks one ball, places it in the beginning of the track and stops the movement because it is informed to do so since there are no more balls to be picked. The final image represents the home position to which the robot returns if there is nothing more to pick.
way. By using a blockchain, we increase the security of the data that is registered in an environment that is susceptible to human interaction. This ensures that if a robotic failure occurs, it gets registered in the blockchain and once there, it can’t be manually altered. By having such a system, we use smart- contracts to store the information about a UR3 robot in the blockchain and created four datasets, one train, one validation, and two test sets to develop, validate and test a method that can leverage the information acquired from the blockchain to detect robotic anomalies. Our method for detecting anomalies was capable of detecting anomalies induced by counteracting the movement of the arm while performing a pick and place repetitive task. This method shows that it’s possible to use the blockchain with robotics and with such a modular system, innovative methods for different purposes can be added by using oracles.
In , the authors describe a blockchain architecture directed at handling device information and registration in IoT environments. The privacy approached at work refers to the user, who can register through smartcontracts their devices, access policies, transactions with other devices, and other features. The authors illustrate an utterly decentralized architecture where, according to them, there is no need for hardware to assist in device-user communication. To be able to exercise communication in a completely decentralized way, the authors report using the Proof-of-Authority consensus algorithm. Data storage is done off-chain through the IPFS protocol. The blockchain used in the tests was the Ethereum blockchain. The main critique regarding this work refers to the use of the Proof-of-Authority consensus algorithm, which is valid only in implementations in which there is a processing node. The authors use more than one processing node in their architecture. The validation of the implementation is not confirmed since no tests are presenting the algorithm.
given exception during the execution of a test case. However, it does not offer any construct to enable a developer to check either a specific exception path occurred during the execution of a test case, or whether a specific handler catches a given exception. Sales et al. , propose an approach to support the definition and test of what they call exception handling contracts. An exception handling contract specifies the elements responsible for signaling exceptions and the elements responsible for handling them. In their approach JUnit tests are partially generated from such contracts. Our proposed approach differs from this previous work as we can specify not only the location where the program throws an exception and where it will be treated. This approach takes into account the fact that the overall effect of an exceptional occurrence should consider the intermediate levels on which the exception may propagated before reaching its handler. Hence, our approach enables the specification on which in- termediate elements should be present on an exception path. Moreover, we added new constructs to JUnit framework in order to allow the definition and checking of the exception path on a test method body.
• The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Smart Cities Strategic Advisory Group defines a Smart City as one that ”dramatically increases the pace at which it im- proves its social economic and environmental outcomes, responding to challenges such as cli- mate change, rapid population growth and economic instability, by fundamentally improving how it engages society, how it applies collaborative leadership methods, how it works across disciplines and city systems, and how it uses data information and modern technologies, in order to provide better services and quality of life to those in and involved with the city (resi- dents, businesses, visitors), now and for the foreseeable future, without unfair disadvantage of others or degradation of the natural environment .”
The legislator in Article 910 of the Criminal Code The necessity of intention and satisfaction as the first conditions for the correctness of contracts has been spoken. These two conditions are another interpretation of the necessity (will) for the fulfillment of the contract. The basis for the will for the authenticity of the contract is also very clear and returns to the voluntary nature of the contract. Because the contract is made up of an agreement of wills. However, in spite of the fact that the legislator has benefited from the civil law of France in drafting this section of civil law, he has, in accordance with the jurisprudence of the Imamiyyah, as a result of the arbitrariness of the will, to the two elements of intention and satisfaction. The distinction is also that the importance of the intention and satisfaction is not the same, and therefore the guarantee of their performance is different. Explaining what the contractor is intended to do is writing. Therefore, one of the most valid accepted rules of jurisprudence is the rule of contracting the intention of the intention. In some cases, it may be that the thing is not intended to be in line with the intention and the contracting party does not intend to do so, it should speak of non-formation or invalidation of the contract. This issue is well deduced from the Civil Code, including Article 191 of the Civil Code. Article 191 of the Civil Code states: The contract is realized with the intention of being an essay on the basis of what is meant to mean. Accordingly, the lack of intent results in the absence of an agreement and the absolute void of the contract, while the lack of satisfaction results in its inertia.
Considering that the system shown in Fig. 14 (SFD-3) is initially stabilized, its behavior can be simulated for a new scenario (Test-5). The new scenario would allow the following questions to be answered: What would happen to the System if demand for new projects increased, for example, by 15%? What elements of the system could be adjusted to compensate for that increase? The graph of Fig. 15a shows the behavior of the system considering a demand increase of 15%. Note that this increase had a positive impact on 3 elements of the system: the flow of New Contracts, the flow of Contracts Concluded and the stock of Brazilian Supply Market, however, the increase of these elements directly influence the input and output flows of the Contracts in Progress stock, reducing its level from 10 to 5 contacts over a period of 5 years. One of the possible conclusions for this behavior is that there is a difference between the growth of the inflows and outflows of the stock Contracts in Progress (see graphs of Fig.15a, respectively, curves 4, grey and 2, red). One of the possible solutions to correct that difference and consequently to correct the stock level Contracts in Progress would be to review the distribution of budgets (which directly influence the input and output flows) and also to review the target set for the level of the contracts stock Goal for Contracts in Progress. The graphs of Fig. 15b show the behavior of the system considering an increase in the Budget-1 of 100% (in relation to Budget-2 and 3) and an increase in the Goal for Contracts in Progress of 20% (changing it from 10 to 12 contracts). Note that New Contracts and Contracts Concluded flows continue to grow, which is desirable and in line with the increase in demand, however, the difference between their growths is lower. In these conditions, the Contracts in Progress stock grows and exceeds the object of 12 contracts (after a period of 1.5 years). After that, it increases to the level of 13 contracts (over a period of 5 years) and finally converges to 12 contracts (over a period of 10 years). Again, is important to notice that this is a hypothetical result, but it reflects the potential of dynamic modeling in the analysis of PEB scenarios.
In Bezug auf Datenübertragungstechniken sind Unterabtastungssysteme anwendbar, wenn die Hardware nicht über ausreichende Abtastraten verfügt, um Wellenfrequenzen nach dem Nyquist-Kriterium zu erfassen. Das Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) erklärt, wie eine ganze Zahl aus den Überresten seiner Division durch teilerfremd-Moduln abgeschätzt werden kann. Im Unterabtastungskontext (i) ist das Unbekannte der Frequenzwert eines einzelnen Tonsignals, der geschätzt werden muss; (ii) die Moduln entsprechen den Sensorenabtastraten und (iii) die Reste sind die Werte von jedem Sensor gelesenen DFT-Spitzenwerten. Wir schla- gen eine Technik zur Schätzung von reelen Zahlen mittels CRT vor, bei der einen auf einem Kronecker-Produkt basierenden M-Schätzer (M-Estimator - ME) verwendet wird. Unser Ansatz übertrit den neuesten Stand der CRT-Methoden und kann auf intelligente Zähler (Smart Meters - SM) eines NAN angewendet werden, da diese Messgeräte möglicherweise niedrigere Stichproben aufweisen, die zum Lesen von Einzeltonsignalen erforderlich sind, die von Sendeantennen des Verteilungsnetzbetreibers abgestrahlt werden.
Será o investimento em inovação fundamental para o aumento da competitividade e, consequentemente, para o desenvolvimento sócio-económico? De acordo com o estudo “The Global Innovation 1000” (Booz Allen Hamilton, 2006) que analisa as 1000 empresas globais com maiores investimentos em I&D, só menos de 10% desse universo são de facto empresas eficazes na aplicação desses montantes. Definidas como “Smart Spenders” estas empresas aplicam bem o (relativamente) baixo investimento em inovação. Para os “gastadores inteligentes”, o dinheiro dispendido em inovação significa de facto, inovação eficaz.
The diagram described below aims to show how Health Smart Home contributes to increase the quality of life of patients and how telemedicine allows helping diagnostics of diseases without retardation to detect the minimal deterioration in patient’s status .
Traditional SCADA systems are early smart grid technologies. However the use of SCADA is limited to a few substations and major distribution automation devices. The data management by SCADA plays an important role in any smart grid implementation.
The main goals of the proposed system is to collect pervasive data about the air quality within the urban area. Special attention has been paid on the deployment of the sensors. In order to cover a whole metropolitan area, the quantity of static sensors would be huge, so mobile stations have been preferred. Different vehicles were evaluated: they can be private (i.e. owned and daily used by citizens), or dedicated, (i.e. only used for the monitoring system). Moreover, public transport and sharing vehicles were considered. Focusing on the characteristics of the possible vehicles, the experimentation has been conducted on dedicated bicycles and private bicycles. The private bicycles do not require additional costs or dedicated human labour, and do not produce pollutants. Therefore, they represent a good solution for the air quality monitoring system. The dedicated bicycles are extremely suitable to the experimentation of the system, since they permit the execution of the desired tests and the production of results that can be easily extended to dedicated bicycles and bike sharing. The devices on the smart bicycles collect the data and then may transmit them via WiFi when they are within the communication range of an eligible access point. In order to integrate the hotspots freely available in the urban area, dedicated access points can be mounted at locations frequented by many users, such as schools, hospitals and plants. Other access points can be deployed close to the houses of selected users that transport the sensors on their private vehicles. The quantity of dedicated access points increases the cost of the system, but it improves also the frequency of data refresh. However, a WiFi network does not permit the implementation of a real time system. An alternative to WiFi is represented by 3G, which allows the communication with the central system from the majority of the urban locations. The advantage of this solution is the fast update, but an additional cost due to the use of 3G connection must be considered. Another solution is a Zigbee network. On the one hand, this connection requires dedicated gateways to transmit the collected data to a central server. On the other hand, with a large quantity of devices
One big drawback of using smart antenna systems is the high computing cost. So a powerful processor is necessary. The researchers now focus on either using DSP or FPGA. We compared the advantages and disadvantages of both, and chose FPGA for our implementation, mainly because the consuming time of FPGA-based design is much shorter. It is important for a real time control.