Social Exclusion - Economy

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Breaking the chains of social exclusion?: the influence of affective inequality in education

Breaking the chains of social exclusion?: the influence of affective inequality in education

tion in the sociology of education is very different from critical thought in the 1970s and 1980s, as it challenged «the simple correspondence models of reproduction» and «recognized the importance of non-class forms of social exclusion (gender, ethnicity, race, etc.)» (p. 90). Egalitarian theories challenged it by addressing ethical issues regarding the purpose and value of the research (Lynch, 2006). What Lynch highlights is the importance of affective relations (those of love, care and solidarity) in framing people’s capacities both inside and outside of education. According to Lynch, Lyons, and Cantillon (2007), the distinction between emotions and reason is false, and the «emotional work involved in the reproduction of humanity (…) has been hidden behind a veil of ignorance» (Lynch et al., 2007: 2). Moreover, policy makers and the «care-free» academic world make «care-free» assumptions, based on Cartesian thinking. Lynch et al. (2007) highlight the integral role that dependence and interdependence play in framing capacities and dispositions and argues that the question of what constitutes relevant knowledge has been answered in patriarchal terms, silencing affective issues. In neo-liberal policies, in particular, the model is that of the citizen as a rational economic actor, and know- ledge serves the economy, with no consideration being given to the vulnerability and depen- dency of human beings. In fact, it is dangerous to consider economic autonomy «as a founding principle of education», because many people are excluded from full citizenship by being economically dependent.
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Denationalization production and social exclusion in labor economics globalized

Denationalization production and social exclusion in labor economics globalized

place requirements; a factory in Mexico, an office in Mumbai, a communi- cation center in lower Manhattan – they appear as mere nodules in the global network. Nowadays, towns, cities or countries are concerned that, if they exercise their sovereignty, for example, imposing taxes or restricting summary dismissals, a company can, just as easily, find another island on the network, a factory in Canada rather than in Mexico, an office in Boston instead of Manhattan. For fear of making IBM leave for good, many loca- tions in the Hudson Valley retreated from challenging the company's de- cision of devastating the work lives of citizens such as programmers. The fact that private entities have a key role regarding the economy setting is emphasized, once they can deprive society from its production and reflexes. Hege- monic companies act on a certain area of the territory, the totality of it being the ob- ject of several companies. The problem is that each of them is acting according to their own interests, their own goals being their only concern. And this affects the behavior of other companies and institutions (SANTOS, 2008, p. 86).
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Social exclusion and education

Social exclusion and education

Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities, or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/ accessibility/availability) is one of the factors that signiicantly inluence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation). At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge) and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, devel- opment and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries.
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THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL ECONOMY AND SOCIAL PROTECTION ON POVERTY. STATISTICS AND VIEWPOINTS

THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL ECONOMY AND SOCIAL PROTECTION ON POVERTY. STATISTICS AND VIEWPOINTS

During 2009-2010 (Eurostat, 2012), Romania was EU’s absolute champion at poverty and social exclusion among children (48,7% aged 0-17 years) and working persons (40% of employees were affected by poverty), an increase compared to 2008 (33% of the children and 17% of employees). In addition to the poverty rate, there are many other indicators contributing to wellbeing or poverty: the healthcare system, the education index, the life expectancy, the Human Development Index (HDI), the average income per capita etc. Here we can show that the percentage allocated for the healthcare system was around 3,8% - which places us below the EU average of 7-8% and even below the average registered by African countries - 5,9%; life expectancy is 72,7 years, a 5-year difference from the EU average of 77,5 years; the infant mortality rate is 10 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, twice as much as the European average, while the HDI is 0,8 which places us, starting 2004, among the countries with a high human development (OECD, 2010).
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Networking, Exclusion and Negotiated Visibility:  Feminist and Anti-Racist Social Media Debaters’ Endurance Strategies

Networking, Exclusion and Negotiated Visibility: Feminist and Anti-Racist Social Media Debaters’ Endurance Strategies

When discussing how they build the network, the interviewees’ explanations centered on the following themes: making contact, using applications, and through friends . There are different strategies for building networks, and contact is clearly easier to initiate for those who are extroverted and bold. The rather simple comments and likes that the interviewees use have more significance than might be assumed. Relations are often initiated by commenting and linking on blogs, but this type of communication recently seems to have moved to other platforms; today, such initial conversations and contacts often occur on Twitter, Instagram and Facebook groups/pages. For most of these engaged citizens, the network seemed to develop by itself through active online participation and discussion. The use of multiple platforms, particularly Twitter and Facebook, can help in building such a network. A combination of many media is important for building networks and blogging, and having one’s own site is useful for developing and promoting longer written texts and being visible in the network. A common approach to building the network involved the need to be active in discussions with interesting people, and to initiate and make contact . Such activity could include short pep talks, discussions, or more genuine inquiries about collaboration. After initial contact through more open and public social media, relations could develop. Furthermore, in terms of network building, some applications were recounted and strategies for combining them such as using blogs with Twitter as a means of making more contacts, or actively participating in Facebook groups. Moreover, having one’s own blog or website was important; an individual who had no site of her own might not be noticed by the rest of the sphere, despite being part of the network. A less salient theme involves using friends on social media to be introduced to networks online by tagging or linking into conversations, or by including them in discussions on blogs.
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				The economy as a socially constructed object in the regulationnist and the Social Market Economy analyses

← Return to Article Details The economy as a socially constructed object in the regulationnist and the Social Market Economy analyses

resumo : o artigo discute os argumentos ontológicos em defesa das especificidades dos fenômenos econômicos, comparativamente àqueles encontrados nos sistemas inorgânico e orgânico. sua posição epistemológica é antipositivista e antineoclássica, sustentando que a tentativa de naturalizar os sistemas socioeconômicos, que marca a economia, desde os fisiocratas, tem contribuído para enfraquecer seu potencial heurístico, explicativo e preditivo. A problemática é desenvolvida partindo-se de uma análise comparativa entre a Teoria da regulação e a economia social de mercado, correntes teóricas onde o conceito de instituição e a historicidade inerente às relações de produção e de distribuição são consideradas centrais. Diferentemente dos objetos da natureza, cujas regularidades e processos não foram originalmente criados pela práxis humana, o objeto econômico é social e politicamente construído e precisa ter, portanto, estatuto teórico-metodológico específico. em consequência, a pertinência das teorias em face das regularidades micro e macroeconômicas observadas não pode ser alcançada por uma abordagem axiomática que faz da economia uma ciência essencialmente lógico-dedutiva e a-histórica por construção, tampouco pela pressuposição da existência de leis gerais invariantes, puramente econômicas e inescapáveis.
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Being in or being out: social exclusion and destructive collective behaviour of disadvantaged groups

Being in or being out: social exclusion and destructive collective behaviour of disadvantaged groups

At a first glance, the fact that on the one hand the manipulation did not affect negative emotions although affecting destructive behaviour, but on the other hand correlational data are consistent with the idea that negative emotions serve as a mediator of destructive behaviour seems to be a contradiction. Of course, that the fact that the complete model could only be tested with perceived exclusion rather than with the manipulation of exclusion as the focal predictor limits the possibility of drawing causal conclusions. However, we rather suggest resolving this apparent contradiction by keeping in mind that this study was conducted with a real group, smokers, who probably held relatively established a priori beliefs and attitudes in terms of smokers’ degree of inclusion within the larger society, and also relatively fixed expectations and (lay) theories about their social reality. At the time the study was conducted the new Law for the Prevention of Smoking was still a quite controversial theme, so people had probably strong attitudes regarding this issue. Attempts to change or move such beliefs, attitudes and perceptions may not always be successful, especially if the manipulation is as subtle as it was in the current study. We manipulated exclusion and marginalization by only changing a word (“banished” vs. “kept away”, “banido” vs. “afastado” in Portuguese). That is, participants might differ in their degree of felt exclusion and hold negative emotions, independently of the manipulation we used. These interindividual differences then also predict interindividual differences in destructive behaviour.
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Effectiveness of internal marketing on employee performance in social economy organizations

Effectiveness of internal marketing on employee performance in social economy organizations

Performance standards means the performance of the employees and their productivity, and can be described as good, acceptable or bad. Performance appraisal standards control the reporting of employees without said reporting being influenced by characteristics or other attributes that do not relate to the jobs and tasks that are being signed for, and therefore have no impact on the evaluation of the performance of employees. An employee might have certain qualities, such as generosity, showing obedience to the superiors, shared interests (social, cultural, etc.) with the superiors, but, at the same time, can be unable to adapt to the work at hand, not be interested in quality and improvement of performance or be unable to take responsibility, and, therefore, requires a performance evaluation with the application of objective evaluators.
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Which "place and non-place" do women occupy in social economy organisations?

Which "place and non-place" do women occupy in social economy organisations?

We depart from an adaptation of the concept brought about by Marc Augé, published in 1994, in the work entitled Non-Places, according to which the proposed approach to the role of women in social economy derives from the understanding of their invisibility in Portugal. When we attempt to answer our departure question with the guidance of official data, we are faced with a lack of available information on gender issues. The “Contas Satélite para a Economia Social”, published by the National Institute of Statistics, for the first time in 2013, is the most recent proof that the national official entities are not sensitised with gender issues, even though it is clearly perceived that women constitute an important part of the active population of social economy. We know nothing about women in positions of leadership nor about women who work in social and solidarity economy. We know even less about their political role in the quality of associates and members of boards. However, at an European level, recent studies on social economy also omit this information and despite the concerns entailed in the Europe 2020 strategy with “policies to promote gender equality […] to increase labour force participation thus adding to growth and social cohesion”, we verify that there is a very reduced interest in the topic of gender in social and solidarity economy (Alvarez and Parini, 2005; Hillenkamp et al., 2015), which by these standards should be a priority field of intervention. Adding up to this situation, when focusing on previous empirical work (Martinho, 2011), we come to the conclusion that there are many other cases of distancing between the sector’s ideals and the management practices of paid human resources, namely concerning internal social responsibility and decent work.
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Social welfare analysis in a simple financial economy with risk regulation

Social welfare analysis in a simple financial economy with risk regulation

of regulation for each financiaI institution (the leve! that maximizes its utility) depends on its appetite for risk and some of them can perform better in a regulated economy. In a[r]

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Exclusión social e inteligencia emocional: Las perspectivas de los agentes de la intervención social Social exclusion and emotional intelligence: The perspectives of social intervention agents

Exclusión social e inteligencia emocional: Las perspectivas de los agentes de la intervención social Social exclusion and emotional intelligence: The perspectives of social intervention agents

Podemos afirmar que el concepto de exclusión social es un concepto multidimensional, integrado por dimensiones interrelacionadas entre sí: factores laborales, económicos, sociales, educativos, políticos y culturales, que podemos agrupar en 4 grandes grupos: empleo, educación, vivienda y salud. Por ello, tenemos que tener en cuenta, según Galindo Lucas (2006), 3 factores en el génesis de la exclusión: los factores estructurales, los factores contextuales y los factores motivacionales. Los factores estructurales hacen referencia a nuestro sistema social como una organización excluyente debido a diversos elementos como el consumo, el empleo y la debilidad social. En relación a los contextos sociales (familia, grupos de apoyo, redes cercanas) están sufriendo una disgregación, ya que cada vez hay más personas que están perdiendo sus redes de apoyo y se encuentran solos y sin apoyos sólidos para hacer frente a diversas situaciones que lo avocan a la exclusión social y por ultimo factores motivaciones vinculados con el sentimiento de sentirse excluido, no sentirse útil en la sociedad debido a la pérdida de empleo que les provoca la pérdida de la confianza en sí mismos, su seguridad y su capacidad de lucha, lo que deriva según Galindo Lucas (2006) en una pérdida progresiva de sus propias significaciones vitales y motivacionales.
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Posthumanism and assistive technologies : on the social inclusion/exclusion of low-tech cyborgs

Posthumanism and assistive technologies : on the social inclusion/exclusion of low-tech cyborgs

Este artigo discorre sobre as consequências de uma perspectiva pós-humanista para o problema de deficiência física, abordando o uso de tecnologias assistivas (TA) por pessoas com deficiência como a introdução de um ciborgue low-tech no mundo. Ao fazê-lo, destacamos exemplos de TAs de comunicação e fornecemos analogias entre TAs e línguas na constituição do Self e do contexto social. TAs são informadas ideologicamente, de modo que podem ser vistas tanto como uma maneira de “consertar” uma pessoa “incapacitada”, quanto como uma estratégia para superar um contexto físico e social que incapacita algumas pessoas e torna outras pessoas “capazes”. Argumentamos que tornar-se um ciborgue low-tech pode ser uma forma de inclusão social se entendermos que a deficiência é produzida pelo contexto, e não uma disfuncionalidade inerente ao indivíduo. Com base nesse pressuposto, identificamos duas estratégias de inclusão social do ciborgue low-tech: desincorporação do Self e virtualidade corporificada. Destacamos, no entanto, que ciborgues low-tech podem ser configurados por necessidade ou por escolha e acrescentamos que os mesmos fatores socioeconômicos que produzem desigualdade em geral são ativos na também na sua exclusão/inclusão social. Assim, TAs adotadas por escolha podem se transformar em uma maneira de ampliar o fosso entre ciborgues ricos e pobres, sendo que os dois tipos de ciborgues podem estar cada vez mais sujeitos à exploração cognitiva e afetiva no contexto do Capitalismo Cognitivo. Nós concluímos que uma perspectiva pós-humanista da deficiência não é sobre tornar inteiros “seres humanos com deficiência”, nem sobre tornar “humanos inteiros” mais do que humanos, mas sobre como manter o Self e o outro conectados eticamente, quer em condicoes de desincorporacao do Self, ou de virtualidade incorporada.
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SOCIAL ECONOMY INCUBATORS  IN SFÂNTU GHEORGHE (CV), BACĂU AND CRAIOVA

SOCIAL ECONOMY INCUBATORS IN SFÂNTU GHEORGHE (CV), BACĂU AND CRAIOVA

The article presents the strategy that served as the foundation of Social Economy )ncubators within the Social Economy Model in Romania project, in three development regions of the country. The article presents the role and the function- ing mechanism of the Social Economy incubators and also the activity carried out by the staff employed by these three Social Economy )ncubators. The three Social Economy incubators were set up in partnership with the Public Local Authorities from Sfântu Gheorghe Center Development Region , Bacău North-East Develop- ment Region and Craiova South-West Oltenia Development Region .
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SOCIAL ECONOMY A SOLUTION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROMA COMMUNITIES IN ROMANIA

SOCIAL ECONOMY A SOLUTION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROMA COMMUNITIES IN ROMANIA

The project „Social Economy a solution for the development of Roma Communities in Romania” contributes to the efforts of Romanian stakeholders to develop and implement of the National Strategy for the Inclusion of Roma Citizens belonging to Roma Minority. Signed by the Management Authority in March 2011, the project provides support for the development of socio-economic interventions within Roma communities and promotes social economy as a social inclusion tool for a group as vulnerable to the insertion on the labor market as that of the Roma. The project helps advance key issues regarding social economy and Roma communities, inter-alia sustainability and how to create a network of professionals that will further develop the concept among Roma groups, social inclusion and equal opportunities as relates especially to Roma women, but also to Roma young people, local and national ownership.
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SOCIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF THE IDENTITY PROFILE OF SOCIAL ECONOMY ENTITIES TIMIŞOARA

SOCIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF THE IDENTITY PROFILE OF SOCIAL ECONOMY ENTITIES TIMIŞOARA

The social economy is an alternative business model, which focuses strictly on maximizing profit, but also has a social component, the labor market integration of persons belonging to vulnerable groups. The theme of this study is to identify the identity profile of social economy organizations in Timisoara, the field size, target groups benefiting from the services, processes and organizational structure, economic performance indicators (economic purpose) social performance indicators (social purpose), partnerships with business, government, community and educational environment. The research is exploratory, empirical and descriptive, the research instrument used was a standardized questionnaire (adapted from -Survey of Social Enterprises in Alberta and British Columbia CANADA, 2010) BC-Alberta Social Economy Research Alliance (Romanian BALTA). Among the main results we include poor self-identification in the self-perception of credit mutual aid unions with social economy, these ones tending to maximize the economic and financial dimension of their work to the detriment of social organizations like bank financial loan.
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Social Entrepreneurship in an Emerging Economy:  A Focus on the Institutional Environment and  Social Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy

Social Entrepreneurship in an Emerging Economy: A Focus on the Institutional Environment and Social Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy

Despite the importance of social entrepreneurship, many individuals in emerging economies may have the desire to pursue entrepreneurial ven- tures but are not engaging because they are lacking in self-belief and requisite entrepreneurial skills (Luthans, Stajkovic, and Ibrayeva 2000). The research conirms this lack of ‘can-do’ attitude is prevalent in South Africa, where there is a sense of entitlement and an expectation that big business, government and others should create jobs, rather than that one creating one’s own employment. Aspiring entrepreneurs also have low levels of self-belief, experience, inadequate education, and lack of access to inance and business-orientated networks (Herrington, Kew, and Kew 2010; Urban 2006). To elucidate further the nature of the institutional environment and its potential inluence on social entrepreneurship, the regulatory, normative, and cognitive dimensions are unpacked in terms of South Africa’s current socio-economic milieu.
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Circular Economy: a review

Circular Economy: a review

Other countries taking action on Circular Economy are those in the Eu- ropean Union, which has agreed on some strategies to optimize resource use in the scope of the Europe Strategy 2020. EU has also started initiatives approaching base materials safety. Some relevant strategies taken by coun- tries in the organization include the National Program of Resource Efficien- cy in Germany and the material roundabout in the Netherlands (a hub for materials and products recycling). In the United Kingdom, a series of studies about Circular Economy has been produced, focusing on economic instru- ments and raw materials safety, these studies have been produce by the environmental think tank of the country and the Green Alliance 56 .
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Trypan blue exclusion assay by flow cytometry

Trypan blue exclusion assay by flow cytometry

it is common to use washing solutions supplemented with BSA or other Fc blockers, such as normal serum, to saturate Fc receptors on the cell surface. Because TB interacts nonspecifically with proteins, the formation of TB/Fc blocker complexes in the extracellular medium is possible. In the assay proposed herein, 0.002% TB is sufficient to form complexes with soluble proteins, as well as proteins located on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of live and dead cells, respectively. In the data obtained by flow cytometry, all those TB-protein complexes were considered, and the total fluorescence represents the sum of the TB-protein complexes both inside and outside the cells. TB-protein complexes not associated with cells are discarded in the cell population selection step (gated cells). Therefore, the presence of Fc blockers such as BSA in the medium does not interfere with the analysis of live and dead cells. Moreover, our data showed that the use of the washing solution (PBS) containing 0.5% BSA in the TB exclusion assay by flow cytometry did not cause a change in the cell viability analysis when compared to the protocol where BSA-free PBS was used (data not shown). In addition, the cell surface staining using anti-CD3-FITC monoclonal antibodies was also not affected, showing that 0.002% TB did not interfere in the quenching pattern presented in this study, even in the presence of Fc blockers. However, in experiments where cell cultures are treated with specific cytotoxic agents, it is recommended that a preliminary experiment be conducted to evaluate the possible chemical interference of the cytotoxic agent with TB-protein complex formation, as well as to evaluate the ability of the compound to emit fluorescence, such as doxorubicin, a widely used drug in cytotoxic assays that Figure 7. A, Percentage of dead human T-lymphocytes (CD3-FITC + cells) submitted to cell culture at temperatures (T) of 37 6 C (physiologic temperature) or 50 6 C (high-stress temperature) followed by staining with trypan blue (TB) or propidium iodide (PI). B, Dot- plot graph profile between human lymphocytes submitted to pretreatment with high-stress temperature (50 6 C) followed by staining with TB and PI and monoclonal antibody anti-CD3-FITC + . C, Pearson’s correlation test between dead CD3 + lymphocytes using PI and TB
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Knowledge-based economy

Knowledge-based economy

In a situation where everybody benefits from false knowledge, it is not surprising that this false knowledge propagates in society. Politicians benefit. Industry benefits. Media benefit. ‘Scientists’ benefit. There is nobody that makes a loss in this profit-driven society. (We have been racking our brains and cannot come up with any way to make make money with the opposite of the AGW meme, making money on the knowledge we have that AGW is false in this knowledge-based economy. If any of our readers know a way how to take money from the gullible, please contact one of us. For sure it is not “investing in oil [companies]”). Profit for everybody. Well, that is, except for the citizens. They see their spendable income come down through tax and forced consumption. They see their nature around them being destroyed by photo-voltaic and eolic parks. They generally suffer from the greatest insult that one can be submitted to: to be lied to and the liars getting away with it.
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Strategic Management and Social Economy Organizations – a method proposal to analyse its impact

Strategic Management and Social Economy Organizations – a method proposal to analyse its impact

Abstract. The present paper intends to develop an analysis about how strategic management is essential for the sustainability of social economy organizations. In fact, even though those organizations are non-profitable and aim to achieve social goals, it is necessary that they can apply strategic tools to improve their results. Above that, human resources must also be prepared to implement this kind of tools and to manage those organizations as they had profit scope. As we could already understand, most of the social organizations studied only use some of the tools of strategic management by legal imposition or by requirement of the financing entities. This situation results in poor efficiency of these tools and a reduced impact on improving organizational sustainability. In this paper, we intend to present a survey proposal, developed by an applied research for social economy, that can be applied on social organizations to understand the real impact of the use of those tools on their efficiency and sustainability. The analysis survey proposal was already tested on several social organizations, geographically confined to the north of Portugal (in social organizations of 3 municipalities). The adopted methodology fits into the bibliographic exploration, supported by techniques of document and content analysis, being the investigation essentially of descriptive type. The expected results will be presented as a paper review with a survey proposal, emphasizing its importance and how social organizations managers can improve their role in inclusive and socially responsible societies.
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