Social management of water

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A Pedagogical Dimension to the Technocratic Problem of Water Management: Preschool Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Teaching Water Science and Sustainable Management of Water in the Context of Environmental Education

A Pedagogical Dimension to the Technocratic Problem of Water Management: Preschool Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Teaching Water Science and Sustainable Management of Water in the Context of Environmental Education

Future generations are necessary to become conscious of water environmental problems, since preschool age, as they will be forced to manage them in the future. Experiential Environmental Education is a tool for sustainable management of water resources, but the key to this process is teachers and the factors that shape their readiness to fulfill their role. In this research their beliefs and attitudes are being investigated, as they influence the quality of teaching and environmental awareness of children. Specifically, 128 preschool teachers from North Greece were interviewed on how they perceive a) their Willingness to improve their skills and knowledge on the scientific subject of water and its sustainable management, b) their Comfort in teaching these subjects and c) their Familiarity with the content knowledge, pedagogical teaching methods of preschool and environmental education and developmentally appropriate activities for teaching these subjects according to Psychology. In addition, it explores preschool teacher’s beliefs and attitudes d) about whether water science and sustainable management of water could keep Child’s Interest and e) if it contributes to Child Benefit, raising children’s awareness of environmental issues and developing his/her language, art, math, technological and social skills. Correlation Analysis showed that preschool teacher’s beliefs and attitudes towards teaching the subject of water were positive but under certain preconditions (they do not have the Willingness to spend time creating materials, they do not need more scientific knowledge, they do not consider children’s experimentation as the best way of learning, the ‘creative clutter’ caused by experimentation annoys them, they are not willing to engage in children’s experimentation with water, watching what children do, what they say or ask and they do not consider more activities with water necessary). However, these items of the Scale may constitute basic preconditions of Experiential Environmental Education. Following the findings of our research, we propose organizing experiential educational activities for teachers that may enhance preschool Teacher Willingness.
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A água dá, a água tira: gestão social dos extremos da agua (seca e torrencialidade) no Barrocal Algarvio

A água dá, a água tira: gestão social dos extremos da agua (seca e torrencialidade) no Barrocal Algarvio

This text aims to examine and find out how draught and torrential downpour situations are managed according to traditional practices of rainfed and irrigated farming in the Algarvian Barrocal region, which is a typical torrential flow regime area. By examining the social management of the common use of irrigation water, it aims to understand the social dimensions (economic, legal, relational, symbolic and others) of the people of Alto Barrocal in the Querença, Tôr and Salir parishes in the Loulé municipal council, particularly from the viewpoint of the farmer, with reference case studies – the Regadio do Nascente [Spring Irrigation] and the hortas da Ribeira das Mercês [kitchen gardens of Ribera das Mercês] – included in the agricultural use of water with relation to small, family-run subsistence farms. Maintaining an active common use of water in the valley bottoms, which usually have greater water resources, could mean the protection of this essential resource for the people of Barrocal in the uncertain future. Uncertain from the standpoint of the self-subsistence of farm families, uncertain from the standpoint of water resources.
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SOCIAL MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION WATER IN THE SAN JUAN EJIDO, URIREO, SALVATIERRA, GUANAJUATO

SOCIAL MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION WATER IN THE SAN JUAN EJIDO, URIREO, SALVATIERRA, GUANAJUATO

Es necesario conocer y analizar las organizaciones que se encargan de manejar recursos comunes para conocer la forma en que se han podido mantener como organización y han logrado realizar un manejo sustentable de sus recursos naturales, como es el caso, en esta investigación, del grupo de socios que manejan el agua de riego en el Ejido de San Juan y su administración la logran gracias a su propia experiencia y conocimientos. Este tipo de organizaciones han demostrado niveles de eficiencia y productividad competitivos respecto a la gran irrigación. El estudio de este tipo de organizaciones que administran recursos comunes, demuestra la gran variedad de reglas bien adaptadas a cada escenario local y pueden ofrecer alternativas al manejo del recurso y por esto se pueden encontrar en estos sistemas, casos de sustentabilidad ambiental y social.
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Indigenous Practices of Water Management for Sustainable Services

Indigenous Practices of Water Management for Sustainable Services

According to Arsano (2007), customary laws that have been practiced in isolated communities have proved to main- tain equitable use of water and long-lasting services. Arsano has pointed out that the customary law of Borana’s deep wells has unique features of ownership, custodianship, user access, and management. Moreover, Konso is well known for its soil and water conservation practices, and recently became one of the communities recorded as a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Heritage Site for their landscape management (UNESCO, 2010). The Konso people are well known for their traditional engineering and collective actions. They work together to build attractive terracing landscapes and complex village compounds in addition to construction and protection of water systems. To strengthen their togetherness, they fre- quently use the proverb “Living together means sharing resources” (Garra, 2006). This social cohesion is the basic underlying factor in achieving sustainability even in modern management (Harvey & Reed, 2007).
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Ethics and Sustainability: A Review of Water Policy and Management

Ethics and Sustainability: A Review of Water Policy and Management

In view of the fact that water is vital to the sustainability of life and the ecosystems on this planet, it becomes imperative to embrace ‘water ethics’ in policies and practices regarding water resources management. Water ethics should be looked at from the perspective of environmental ethics that affords an ideational setting to understand the ‘ethical managementof water resources. Although environmental ethics is relatively a new concept compared to social ethics-it offers moral and ethical justifications for a social redress of water issues. Water ethics comprise all aspects of water use-access, utilization, allocation, quality, protection and other aspects of water management. Therefore ‘ethical precepts’ can support the decision options in issues “involving a range of scientific domains (hydrology, groundwater, precipitation and runoff, water quality) and requires simultaneous consideration from different areas of water use, both from the supply and demand side (an integrated approach to water resource management) and their integration with socio- economic aspects (Refsgaard, 2002) Even if the tools and methodologies of the water sector are often technical, the emerging issues are not “restricted to technical problems as they are also challenged by procedural items associated with stakeholder participation, especially at the level of communication with water managers and decision makers (Refsgaard, 2002).
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Sustainability, complexity and water management

Sustainability, complexity and water management

Adaptive management “is a synthesis of science and policy that treats policies as large-scale experiments. Bounded conflict (...) is a combination of politics, negotiation, and other means of promoting uncomfortable change, which provides tools for establishing shared goals and probing the bounds of co- operative effort. Like compass and gyroscope, the two parts of social learning are complementary” (Lee, 1993: 16). It considers the integration of experimentally focused policy design and negotiative political interaction. This combination of adaptive management and the bounded conflict of pluralist democracy is what Lee (1993) understands by “social learning”. For its realization it is necessary to build collaborative and adaptive capacity: individual, organisational, relational and governance capacity (Foster-Fishman et al,. 2001).
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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR AIRLINE COMPANIES IN UAE WITH REFERENCE TO PROFITABILITY, LIQUIDITY, EFFICIENCY, EMPLOYEE STRENGTH AND PRODUCTIVITY

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR AIRLINE COMPANIES IN UAE WITH REFERENCE TO PROFITABILITY, LIQUIDITY, EFFICIENCY, EMPLOYEE STRENGTH AND PRODUCTIVITY

According to its financial results released recently, Emirates Airline, which posted a profit of $1.25 billion, revenue rose 7% to $24.2 billion - employs 56,725 members of staff, a rise of 8% year-on-year. There is a very close correlation between the employee strength and the revenue per employee. Aviation services firm Dnata, which recorded a profit of $247 million, on the back of a 36% rise in revenue to $2.8 billion, employs a total of 27,428 staff, a year-on-year increase of 19.4%.Dnata reported profit earned by increasing the number of employees almost double than the number of staff increased. By increasing the workforce by 37.5% between 2013 and 2014, Etihad airways recorded 52.1% profit growth. 92% of employees indicated they were willing to go beyond the normal requirements in order to help Etihad Airways succeed, no doubt a key measure in the airline's overall winning performance in the market. Employee engagement was measured at 18% above the global average which is considered as a benchmark measure and key indicator of employees’ commitment (Etihad Airways, 2013).Findings reveal that there is a statistically significant relationship between the revenue of the major airline companies in UAE and GDP. As per the regression output R is squared at 90 percent which is a very good fit and significance F is 0.005 at 95% confidence level. The correlation coefficient between the independent variable: revenue of Airline Companies and dependent variable UAE GDP is 0.939 for Emirates Airlines, 0.936 for Air Arabia and 0.946 for Etihad Airways. The correlation coefficient between UAE population and GDP is 0.855.The correlation coefficient between UAE population and the revenue of Airline Companies stands at 0.906 for Emirates Airlines, 0.908 for Air Arabia and 0.87 for Etihad Airways. The statistical analysis show that UAE population has a significant influence on the revenue generated by the airline companies
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EROSÃO HÍDRICA SOB CHUVA SIMULADA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DO SOLO DURANTE O CRESCIMENTO DA SOJA

EROSÃO HÍDRICA SOB CHUVA SIMULADA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DO SOLO DURANTE O CRESCIMENTO DA SOJA

ABSTRACT: Soil management influences soil cover by crop residues and plant canopy, affecting water erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify water and soil losses by water erosion under different soil tillage systems applied on a typical aluminic Hapludox soil, in an experiment carried out from April 2003 to May 2004, in the Santa Catarina highland region, Lages, southern Brazil. Simulated rainfall was applied during five soybean cropstages, at the constant intensity of 64.0 mm h -1 . Treatments were replicated twice and consisted of: i) conventional tillage on bare soil – control treatment (CTBS), ii) conventional tillage on cultivated soil (CTCS), iii) no-tillage on non tilled soil with burned crop residue (NTRB), iv) no-tillage in non tilled soil with crop residue desiccated (NTRD), and v) no-tillage on four- years interrupted soil tillage with crop residue desiccated – “traditional no tillage” (NTRT). Regardless of soybean cropstages, water losses were the highest for the CTCS than for the untilled soils, while soil losses were considerably higher in the CTCS treatment only until cropstage 3, in cultivated soil treatments. The NTRT was most effective treatment in terms of both water and soil loss reduction. Water infiltration should also be considered, when considering the soil erosion process caused by rainfall and its associated runoff, due to the management systems usually adopted in cultivated fields.
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Cad. EBAPE.BR  vol.15 número2

Cad. EBAPE.BR vol.15 número2

He also argues that modern science, with its modern criique, based on Marxism and its theoreical ramiicaions (structuralism, existenialism, phenomenology and psychoanalysis), explains very litle social reality. The reason for this lies in the fact that modern criical theory conceives society as a totality and thereby proposes a standard model of economics, science, manage- ment, and development, a regulated and culturally homogeneous society. When, in fact, there is a mulicultural society that exercises a constant hermeneuic of suspicion against supposed universalisms and / or standardisms. And he goes on to say that “one of the weaknesses of modern criical theory has been the failure to recognize that the reason it criicizes can not be the same as it thinks, constructs, and legiimizes what is objecionable,” since another form of knowledge, Understanding and inimacy that does not separate us from the object we studied (SOUSA SANTOS, 1999, p. 204). In short, it is necessary to construct an emancipatory knowledge, capable of promoing the shit from monoculturalism to muliculturalism, from stan- dardizaion to diversiicaion, from dichotomy to integraion. By this concepion, only through a systemic and broad vision of the concept of science can we advance in the complexiies of the contemporary world.
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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING IN CHINA

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING IN CHINA

The supervisory board of a company limited by share must consist of at least three members and has the duty to evaluate and oversee the board of directors and the management. It must include representatives of the shareholders and at least one third of the members must be democratic elected representatives of the staff and workers. Though, different regulations exist for SOEs (China Securities Regulatory Commission, 2005). The literature doubts the effectiveness of Chinese supervisory boards in monitoring the directors and management for various reasons (Dahya et al. 2002, 2003; Xiao et al. 2004); the supervisory board has an inferior position within the corporate governance framework or better said a lack of legal power and responsibilities, is therefore not taken seriously by the board of directors and the management, shows a lack of independence and technical incompetence, may have a shortage on information and a lack of incentives. This is even worse for state owned companies, due to a strong influence through personal control, as for example article number 71 in the Companies Law shows. It should be added, that the above stated sources are relatively old. It can be possible, that significant changes were made in regard to the supervisory board and thus the position strengthened. Recent research in this direction could maybe show interesting results and insightful conclusions in hindsight to the corporate governance development in China.
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EXPANDING FRONTIERS OF CUSTOMER KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TO SUSTAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS

EXPANDING FRONTIERS OF CUSTOMER KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TO SUSTAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS

The processes of converting customer data to information and knowledge is already taking place within the companies (Rowley, 2006), yet some data offers little insights, e.g. sales receipts data (Lesser et al. 2000), what triggers companies to take a deep look for more interactive strategies of gaining an understanding of the customers in extended dialogs. However, customers might not be able to properly articulate their needs (von Hippel, 2005) or might not be willing to share their knowledge (Desouza et al. 2008). However, in e-business the processes of managing customer knowledge, its sources and mediators significantly differ from traditional ways of collecting customer knowledge through traditional market research (Rowley, 2002b). The online interactions foster the generation of data which indicates various customer behavior. Respective activities in the field of Big Data analysis, lack abroad scale of success and significant business improvements (Rowley, 2002a) despite the rocketing debates on the potential of Big Data (La Valle et al. 2011). To overcome this gap, (Rowley, 2002b) suggests that certain techniques, e.g. data mining, have a great potential of converting data into knowledge. Taking this elaboration as a starting point, we assume that predictive analytics - as an analytical tool based on data mining techniques - has a potential to unveil the hidden potential in customer behavioral data.
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Introducing Union Representation and Its Complexities – A Case Study of the Royal Thai Civil Service

Introducing Union Representation and Its Complexities – A Case Study of the Royal Thai Civil Service

The historical decision to grant the freedom of association and allow civil servants to be able to form and join their trade unions is a new concept for the Royal Thai Civil Service and equally the process of consultation with a representative body. This above mentioned context is a highly significant factor in the analysis and prospective approach to the process of consultation, following the formation of Unions. By the very nature of the initiation into the process of consultation, the OCSC and the Royal Thai Government have started to define their values, which need to be further explored in conjunction with the context and the concept of consultation. But what is this concept of consultation, typically referred to as employee voice? As Gollan and Wilkinson (2007) argue, “employee voice through participative forms can differ in the scope of decisions, the amount of power workers can exercise over management and the organizational level at which the decisions are made. Some forms are purposely designed to give workers a very modest role in decision-making, while others are intended to give the workforce a substantial amount of power in organizational governance, ” (p.1133). As the above indicates, consultation refers to the process of getting employees’ views and the ability for employees’ to influence the managerial decision making process.
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERSONALITY OF URBANITES AND CITY BRAND PERSONALITY - AN APPLICATION IN TURKEY

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERSONALITY OF URBANITES AND CITY BRAND PERSONALITY - AN APPLICATION IN TURKEY

In this descriptive study, data has been collected through face-to-face questionnaire application, one browsing method. The questionnaire consists of four different types of questions. The first item is about the respondent’s duration of stay in Kayseri. Considering the probability that those living in Kayseri less than six months would not know it, this item has been included. In the second question, the respondents have been asked to answer the question “If Kayseri were a human being, how would you assess it?” using the five grade scale (I definitely disagree; I agree; I have no idea; I agree; and I definitely agree). The adjectives in this question have been selected based on the studies by Aaker (1997), Pereira et al. (2014), Mathews (2015), Aksoy and Ozsomer (2007), George and Anandkumar (2014). In this question, a total of 50 adjectives have been given place. The third question includes 35 expressions designed for five factors. In his study on the qualities of the brand and personality of the consumer, Mathews (2015) has used the five factor model. Similarly, this study is also based on this model. However, in view of the excessiveness of the questions regarding the five factors in the model, one dimension only (extroversion) has been chosen, which another limitation of the study is. Expressions related to extroversion are those related to identifying individuals’ own personalities. Extroverts turn outwards to start action and focus on people and things. These active individuals use the trial and error method confidently as well as judging those in their surrounding as excitement. Introvert individuals, on the other hand, scan internal stimuli by turning to their internal worlds, focusing on and reflecting the ideas and more internal impressions, thinking deeply before acting. Expressions about extroversion have
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THE EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SINGAPORE REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS

THE EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SINGAPORE REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS

One of the other things Singapore did was to introduce the Singapore Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). REIT is a trust that pooled money from many investors to purchase and manage income property (Keke and Emoh, 2015). When the Asian Financial crisis hit, Singapore’s private property prices was reduced to 40% within the year among other things (Jin, 2000). The introduction of REIT would bring more liquidity and new capital needed to reawaken her real estate sector that was severely affected by the Asian Financial Crisis. It is also established to widen the range of financial products available to investors, strengthening Singapore’s position as a global financial hub further (Ooi et al. 2006). There are many benefits of REITs: they serve as a vehicle for international funds who are looking to diversify into Asia’s real estate assets (Newell et al. 2005), provide steady income in the form of dividends while having the potential of capital gain in the future (especially ideal for pensioner), provide a hedge against inflation, offer tax benefits as REITs enjoy corporate tax and exempted from paying Goods and Service Tax and capital gain tax, a more secure form of investment as they are subjected to more stringent regulation in areas of corporate governance, leverage, and financial reporting (Keke and Emoh, 2015), as well as having a lower transaction fees than real estate transaction whereby investors have to pay for GST, trading tax, broker fee and stamp duties.
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Estud. av.  vol.22 número63 en v22n63a09

Estud. av. vol.22 número63 en v22n63a09

These factors, associated with high water costs, have led industry to assess the possibility of internal reuse and to consider offers from the sanitation corporation to buy treated effluent at lower prices than the potable water available through the public supply system. “Utility water”, produced by the treatment of secondary effluents and distributed through mains serving large clusters of companies, has now become a very attractive option for industrial supply at a reasonable price. In Metropolitan São Paulo, for example, the water normally made available to industry costs US$5.70 per cubic meter, while utility water represents a marginal cost of under US$1.20. This rate varies depending on local conditions, both in terms of levels of necessary additional treatment and the distribution network. The presence of sewage treatment stations in the environs of industrial zones contributed to the implantation of reuse programs, as it made utility water distribution systems compatible with industrial demand a much more viable prospect.
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THE IMPACT OF LOGISTICS INDUSTRY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN APPLICATION IN OECD COUNTRIES

THE IMPACT OF LOGISTICS INDUSTRY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN APPLICATION IN OECD COUNTRIES

that logistics industry played a significant role in economic growth. Yuan and Kuang (2010) investigated eastern, central and western regions in China. They used panel data analysis. It was determined that logistics industry had important effects on economic growth; however these effects were in different magnitudes in different regions. It was found that logistic infrastructure investments played a significant role in economic growth in more developed regions; however this effect was less significant in less developed regions. Hu et al. (2012) investigated correlation between logistic infrastructure investments and regional economic growth was scrutinized in central China. They used times series analysis. Based on cointegration analysis conducted in the study, three cointegration correlations were found between the variables. Based on Granger causality analysis results, it was observed that there was a one-way causality from logistic infrastructure investments to GDP and two-way causality between logistic infrastructure investments and acceleration value of logistics. Banerjee et al. (2012) investigated China for 1995-2010 with Granger causality test. It was found that proximity to transportation networks had an average, significant and causal effect on GDP. Furthermore, it was found that per capita GDP and income inequality were the highest in regions that are close to historical transportation networks and where more number of corporations is active and the revenues of these corporations were high as well. Cheng and Peng (2006) investigated Anhui province China for 1990-2004 with Granger causality test and VAR. Freight turnover was used to represent logistics industry and correlation between logistics and economic growth was analyzed. A positive correlation was determined between the logistics industry and regional economic growth. Fan and Chan-Kang (2008) investigated China for 1982-1999. They used random effects model. It was determined that railroad, highway and communications investments that were used to represent logistics had a significant contribution to economic growth. Studies in the literature have found that growth in the logistics sector supports economic growth.
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OPTEXPLOR – new application for water resources management for private water supply utilities

OPTEXPLOR – new application for water resources management for private water supply utilities

The project started by evaluating inter-annual water availability (drinking water consumptions and water availability). Surface and groundwater models were built to simulate annual water volumes at six dams (Arade, Bravura, Beliche, Funcho, Odeleite, Odelouca), and two aquifers (Almádena-Odiáxere, and Querença-Silves). In the surface models, the monthly natural runoff included in the water balance of reservoirs was calculated by the Temez (1977) model for each basin (Nunes et al. 2009). The monthly minimum discharges for downstream ecosystem were set to 15% of the monthly natural runoff, considered the appropriate value by Alves and Bernardo (2003). Groundwater was modeled in transitory conditions by the finite element method, with 14533 elements and 7494 node in the first aquifer, and 22409 elements and 11663 nodes in the second. All models were calibrated and validated against real series. Groundwater models also allowed the establishment of minimum sustainable piezometric heads, i.e., the minimum water level that did not affect negatively other groundwater functions (for irrigation, and preservation of ecosystems). On the other four aquifers, where hydrogeologic information was not enough to build numerical models, minimum piezometric heads were established by expert judgment based on historic piezometric head series. An exhaustive analysis of all municipal wells used for public consumption (340 wells) to identify if water quality fulfilled water quality criteria was made. Water was considered of good quality if water had been classified as of good quality according to Portuguese legislation in all historic records, and if yield was higher than 15 l/s. Only 18 wells fulfilled both criteria and therefore included in a list of possible water sources. Water demand was determined by a second team and incorporated in the project. Average annual demand was estimated to be 72.5 million cubic meters, highly concentrated during summer months from July to September.
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Water Safety Plan for drinking water risk management: the case study of Mortara (Pavia, Italy)

Water Safety Plan for drinking water risk management: the case study of Mortara (Pavia, Italy)

After identifying new control measures, a monitoring plan was developed, establishing what will be monitored, how it will be monitored, the frequency of monitoring, where it will be monitored and who will do the monitoring. Moreover, critical limits and related corrective actions were established (Table 7). The critical limit of each water quality parameter was conservatively fixed just below the regulation limit defined by Italian regulation (Legislative Decree n. 31, 2 February 2001). The critical limit values were defined for each parameter after a discussion within the WSP team based on the DWSS manager’s experience. The exceedance of critical limits requires urgent corrective actions, defined to ensure safe water to users. Therefore, corrective actions were discussed within the team for each hazardous event, and might involve immediate notification to the local health authority and/or the application of a contingency plan for an alternative water supply.
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CONTACTS AND INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE AS INTEGRATED SOCIAL VALUES

CONTACTS AND INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE AS INTEGRATED SOCIAL VALUES

Cultural constructive interactivity must resolve conflicts of harsh cultural and ideological shape. It should be an open and respectful, base and value of equal partnership in terms of any positive change. It includes everything related to ways of life, beliefs, creeds and other things. It is a world perception based on values and way of thinking. When considering the amount of learning that Balkans perceives about the values and ways of thinking of Europe and as well of world, it can be equalized to negligible. So Balkans is what we see and judge, it deserves to exist. Spirit of interculturalism and multi culturalization aims to establish cultural dialogue among coexisting cultures. Cultural differences should eliminate conflicts and achieve harmonious relations among people. The dialogue bounds coexistence of different cultures. Dialogue opens doors of cultural cooperation. Balkans cultural diversity should follow the dichotomy of majority and minorities. Intercultural dialogue explores and requires equality human dignity and sense of joint goals. To what extent is it exploring the sense of multiculturalism, ethnic groups, nations, states and people in Balkans?
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Practitioners' viewpoints on citizen science in water management: a case study in Dutch regional water resource management

Practitioners' viewpoints on citizen science in water management: a case study in Dutch regional water resource management

In Stage 3, the P-set (i.e. the group of participants) was sampled using both a structured approach with three criteria and snowball sampling. Flood risk was a first criterion, as water authorities with a high flood risk face different chal- lenges than water authorities with a lower flood risk. Age (expressed in years since the last reform or merger with an- other water authority) was a second criterion, as a recent re- form suggests the organization may be more susceptible to innovation, such as citizen science. Location (within or out- side the urban conglomerate Randstad) was a third criterion, because interviewees in the semi-structured interviews held to define the discourse suggested a different relationship be- tween water authority and population in rural and urban ar- eas. The structured approach resulted in eight water authori- ties representing a combination of these criteria. In each wa- ter authority we approached the ecologists because we ex- pected them to be more familiar with the concept of citizen science and we had access to a list of ecologists per wa- ter authority. Additionally we used snowball sampling. We asked the participating ecologists to recruit colleagues with a similar opinion, to enhance overlap between individual opin- ions, and, with different opinions, to increase the diversity of opinions. Also, we asked participants to recommend some- one with an opposing opinion, in order to discover as many viewpoints as possible. Participants 20, 24, 25, 30 and 31 out of 33 were recruited with this strategy, with the aim that they would belong to different (new) viewpoints. Two to six people with different positions were interviewed per water authority, which resulted in interviews with 1 politician, 20 policy advisors, 10 ecologists/hydrologists and 2 field staff members.
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