Sam ple and procedure. The research was carried out during 20 14/ 20 15 academic years. The respondents are selected randomly by a random number tables from Lithuanian cities and districts secondary schools list. According to the earlier research carried out by F. Gresham, S. Elliot & R. Kettler (20 10 ) results that the socialskills also alter with age, senior high school age students were divided into two different age groups. The independent random sample consisted of 244 (15 – 16 years old) students and 258 (17 – 18 years old) students, of which there were 224 boys and 278 girls. The study involved senior high school age students from Kaunas, Klaipeda, Siauliai, Alytus cities, including Kaunas district secondary schools. The survey was conducted during physical education lessons. The survey was conducted in compliance with the ethical principles and applicable legislation, i. e. each respondens was explained the goal of the study and was ensured that the questionnaires were anonymous. The duration of the survey was 20 minutes.
If, on the one hand, the hypotheses of this study were confirmed, on the other hand it is verified that the more traditional (XA%), more conventional and mainly more rigid (X+%), countered socialskills (G1), especially that of assertiveness of confrontation (F2), not confirming one of the hypotheses of this study. In agreement with the literature (WHO, 2015), the authors understand that older people, mainly from Western cultures, due to feelings of fear, despair and insecurity may depart from the conventional, pre-set and judged standards, to meet their rights, desires and opportunities. Allied to this, to adapt to the declines due to the more advanced age, the elderlies often make a shift from negative to positive emotions, which can give them emotions of optimism and well-being, but can also make them more vulnerable to making mistakes (Scheibe & Carstensen, 2010).
O objetivo deste artigo foi comparar teoricamente, a partir de dois estudos já publicados, os indicadores psicométricos das duas versões brasileiras do SocialSkills Rating System (SSRS-BR e SSRS-BR 2 ), cujas evi- dências de validade de construto foram obtidas por diferentes métodos de redução de dados: Componen- tes Principais (SSRS-BR) e Principal Axis Factoring, com posterior Análise Fatorial Conirmatória (SSRS-BR 2 ). Especiicamente, buscou-se: (1) discutir teoricamente os dois processos de validação de construto das esca- las; (2) apresentar e analisar as diferenças e semelhanças entre as duas versões em termos de: (a) métodos de extração e de análise de dados; (b) índices psicométri- cos de estrutura fatorial (número de fatores e de itens retidos, variância explicada, cargas fatoriais obtidas) e de coniabilidade e (c) composição fatorial inal e con- teúdo das escalas. Serão detalhadamente discutidos os possíveis avanços e reinamentos psicométricos advin- dos do SSRS-BR 2 , bem como as implicações da nova versão do instrumento para procedimentos de avaliação de habilidades sociais em crianças.
Consequently, we can deal with social problems through the use of effective educational models or patterns. Social family models help learners learn socialskills to build ef- fective relationships with others and avoid irrational social interactions. When members of society establish a sincere relationship with each other, the results can be a sense of safety, reliability and comfort. 10 The World Health Organi-
Abstract: the present review of the national and international literature aims to identify what researches in the range of (2006 - 2016), found in SCIELO and SCOPUS databases, have ad- dressed on socialskills and people with high skills / giftedness. The results show that there are few studies on the subject and that the researches developed currently use inventories of socialskills that only quantify, in order to number the socialskills emitted in a given environment, thus needing studies that develop qualitatively, in order to intervene with effective activities that favor the de- velopment of socialskills in people with high skills / giftedness.
The project work is a research methodology focused on the solving of relevant real-life problems, which allow the creation of a relationship between both practice and theory, schooling skills and socialskills. This topic is considered to be rather timely and of interest to students. Therefore, the intention of this study was quite focused on the significant learning, being active and of social value. The basis of this study was an observational case study, followed by the identification and subsequent formulation of problems, whose diagnosis is achieved through a SWOT analysis. We then proceeded to the research and production of the study in itself, its presentation, dissemination and final evaluation of the product. In order to collect data we used questionnaires as a privileged research technique. Besides that we used non-participant observation and both individual and formal interviews to the teacher. The data analysis allowed us to achieve certain conclusions which will provide a critical perspective of the above mentioned objective.
The data found should be analyzed along with the limitations of the present study. Firstly, the cross-sectional design is used. A longitudinal study could be useful to evaluate how the changes in students’ behavior would be in the Final Years of MS. Second, the school average was used, which is a non-standardized measure, obtained in schools to evaluate students’ academic achievement. On the one hand, the use of the final average of the students allowed having a contextualized evaluation of the educational reality of the schools surveyed, but, on the other hand, it limits comparison with other sites. Thus, other performance measurement instruments could be used as the Brazil Test or the School Performance Test, or even measures of academic competence, such as the SocialSkills Assessment System (SSAS), in the teachers’ version. Third, the predictive model indicated that 18% of academic achievement variability was explained by predictor variables. This coefficient of determination is considered small, suggesting that other variables may influence academic achievement, and should be investigated in future studies. Fourth, it should be emphasized that the study was carried out in a small city (approximately 50 thousand inhabitants) and in only three schools of the state network of the municipality. Thus, it is important to note that the data should not be generalized, but contextualized according to the schools that the students were part of. Finally, the statistical analyzes do not allow definitive conclusions nor establish relations of cause and effect, but only correlational inferences.
composto por 125 itens que analisam áreas do desen- volvimento: a) Pessoal-Social: aspectos da sociabi- lidade da criança dentro e fora do ambiente familiar; b) Motor Fino Adaptativo: coordenação viso-manual, manipulação de pequenos objetos; c) Linguagem: emissão de som, capacidade de reconhecer, entender e usar a linguagem e; d) Motor grosseiro: controle motor corporal, sentar, caminhar, pular e os demais movimentos realizados pela musculatura ampla. Na aplicação do Denver II, foram considerados alguns fatores de exclusão temporária que poderiam afetar o desempenho da criança (sono, fadiga, adoeci- mento, febre ou medo). O teste era interrompido caso a criança se cansasse ou precisasse participar de alguma atividade prevista na instituição, sendo retomado em outro momento sem prejuízo para sua validade. O resultado de cada uma das áreas avaliadas foi considerado como normal, de risco ou não testável de acordo com a interpretação do teste de cada item avaliado, seguindo os seguintes critérios: 1) normal, quando não houve atrasos ou no máximo um cuidado; 2) risco de atraso, quando houve dois ou mais cuidados ou um ou mais atrasos e; 3) não testável, quando a criança recusou-se a realizar um ou mais itens.
The relational people network, with whom ado- lescents have social and emotional bonds, expands in adolescence. In this sense, interpersonal relationships among adolescents with family members (Germano & Colaço, 2012), colleagues (Valle, Bravo, & Lopez, 2010) and teachers (Bowers et al., 2014; Sterret, Jones, McKee, & Kincaid, 2011), can be understood as a support network that provides support to deal with negative life events. In addition, the social support net- work can create opportunities for the development of skills and social-skills, especially for the socioeconomi- cally vulnerable ones (Libório & Ungar, 2010). Thus, the network of social support and its perceptions is currently considered as one of the most important protective factors during adolescence (Juliano & Yunes, 2014; Poletto & Koller, 2011).
Purpose: to compare the repertoire of socialskills of students of Journalism and Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences. Methods: 189 students participated this study, 89 students of Journalism (63 women and 26 men), aged between 18 and 28 years , and 100 students of speech, language and hearing sciences (96 women and 4 men) with ages varying between 18 and 31 years. Who have responded to the SocialSkills inventory. Results: students of speech, language and hearing sciences demonstrated socialskills rated as “good above average” for social communication skills (F1), civility (F2), empathic (F4), work (F5) and “very elaborated” to assertive socialskills (F3) and overall score . And the journalism students presented the rating of “ Good below average” for socialskills of civility (F2) and “Good above average “ for social communication skills (F1), assertive (F3), empathic (F4), work (F5) and overall score .The results showed that there was statistically signiicant difference (p = 0,001) in in the socialskills of civility (F2), work (F5) and overall score. Conclusions: It can be concluded that students of speech, language and hearing sciences showed better results than the journalism students to the socialskills of civility (F2), work (F5) and overall score.
Various studies have found signiicant positive associations between a sound set of socialskills and the well-being of adolescents from different types of family (Sá, 2012; Sarkova et al., 2013). According to Z. Del Prette and A. Del Prette (2010), socialskills refers to the diverse set of behaviors of a person that can contribute to social competence, which results in healthy, productive relationships. For A. Del Prette and Z. Del Prette (2009), refusing requests without jeopardizing the relationship and establishing loving relationships are examples of the socialskills required in the new interpersonal and academic tasks that are presented to the adolescent. Among these skills, according to Falcone et al. (2008), empathy has received prominence in the literature because it is believed to be a social communication skill that involves a subjective process in which the individual experiences and shares positive and negative emotions. Thus, empathy would be an important interpersonal skill in the lives of adolescents who experience changes in family coniguration and require a better understanding of the needs of family members. Similarly, the empathy of others toward the adolescents who experience changes in family conigurations is important. Regarding family transitions, various studies have indicated that the separation and/or remarriage of parents can negatively inluence the socialskills of children (Hamama & Ronen-Shenhav, 2012; Hetherington, 2003). However, Ruschena, Prior, Sanson, and Smart (2005) found no negative associations between family transitions and the socialskills of adolescents. This result suggests that a rich repertoire of socialskills could foster resilience in the adolescent faced with family disruptions and other dificult life situations or related to their own development processes. Thus, the literature suggests that it is necessary to further investigate the inluence of separation/remarriage of parents on the socialskills of children during adolescence.
Importantly, Buyse et al. (2008) found positive effects of emotional support for children with internalizing and externalizing behavior. Similarly, moderating effects of emotional support were found for prosocial behaviors of children with caregivers with depressive symptoms (Johnson, Seidenfeld, Izard, & Kobak, 2013). Furthermore, experiencing high levels of emotional support seems to improve socialskills and adjusted behavior of children from families who are experiencing poverty (Burchinal, Vandergrift, Pianta, & Mashburn, 2010). Interestingly, moderate-to-low emotional support does not predict social competence but positively predicts problem behaviors (Burchinal et al., 2010). Mikami, Griggs, Reuland, and Gregory (2012) reported low social preference stability for children attending classrooms with higher levels of emotional support, which may translate into increased opportunities for children with initial lower social preference.
The mental health variable did not serve as a predictor of academic performance but, in the univariate analyses, it was veriied that the college students who did not graduate presented higher anxiety scores. This relation between mental health problems and academic performance was also veriied in other comparative studies on different mental health problems (Castaño-Perez & Calderon-Vallejo, 2014; Gonçalves et. al., 2012; Hernández-Pozo et al., 2008). The result found in this study in terms of prediction differed from the result observed in the literature, which predominantly indicates that good mental health conditions predict good academic performance (Bajwa et al., 2013; Costa et al., 2012; Costales & Neira, 2011; Turner et al., 2012). As veriied for socialskills, the studies cited were not longitudinal like this research, which can explain the different results. The current study also suggests that both mental health and socialskills may have interfered in the students’ initial academic performance, which in turn predicted the graduation. This suggests that future studies should investigate the relations between socialskills and mental health at the start of the course.
Instead of assembling a new MBA program from existing courses, we chose to first develop a concep- tual foundation that tries to integrate these components based on a common vision and a common set of methods and models. Parallel to the ‘Enterprise Engineer’ approach by Martin (1995), Business Engi- neering was been proposed initially in the mid 1990s as a holistic methodology for the conceptualiza- tion, design, and implementation of IT-enabled business transformation. ‘Holistic’ means that method- ology support is not restricted to informa tion systems development, but that issues like corporate strat- egy-making, quality management and organizational development as well as organizational psychology are incorporated (Österle, 1995). In addition, a holistic approach requires covering not only technical aspects, but also cultural and political issues that are crucial for the successful impleme ntation of change. Business Engineers must apply technical competencies as well as socialskills to envision, de- sign, communicate, lead and implement change projects.
SocialSkills Inventory for Adolescents (SSIA-Del-Prette). Developed by Del Prette and Del Prette (2009) to evaluate the socialskills of adolescents from their self-reports about every- day situations. It presents 38 items that cover different socialskills. The responses are given on a Likert type scale of ﬁ ve points (0 = never to 4 = always) and it is divided into six factors, with the following internal consistency indices in this study: (1) Empathy (“When noticing a (a) colleague is sad or having some difﬁ culty in school, offering support or help”, α= 0.81); (2) Self-control (“When criticized by parents and teachers can calm down and control the irrita- tion”, α= 0.77); (3) Civility (“When someone does something good can praise them and give thanks when receiving praise”, α = 0.83); (4) Assertiveness (“If feeling that it is wrong to do something, even when pressured by colleagues, not doing what the colleagues want”, α = 0.71); (5) Affective approach (“When wanting to make friends, inviting the person to an event or activ- ity”, α = 0.61); (6) Social Resourcefulness (“In school making oral presentations in groups when requested”, α = 0.57); total of the instrument α = 0.91.
The 20 “internal” resources include: Com- mitment to learning (being motivated to suc- ceed in school, and doing at least one hour of homework at home during school days); Positive values (helping other people, showing integrity and responsibility, and valuing equality); Socialskills (knowing how to plan and make decisions, having interpersonal skills, such as empathy and friendship skills, and resisting pressure faced with risk situations); Positive identity (having a sense of control, purpose in life, optimism and high self-esteem). According to Santrock (2014), in studies conducted at the Search In- stitute, young people with more developmental resources engaged in less risky situations (such as alcohol and tobacco use). The author exem- pliﬁ ed this question based on data from a sur- vey of more than 12,000 high school students, indicating that 53% of the students with 0 to 10 resources reported having used alcohol three or more times in the previous month or drunk more than once in the previous two weeks, compared with only 16% of the students with 21 to 30 re- sources, or 4% of the students with 31 to 40 re- sources. It is thought that the greater the number of resources available, the greater the chances of preventing risky behaviors and promoting so- cially valued behaviors such as success in school and good health.
Professional SocialSkills Observation System – PSSOS. This is a version of A. Del Prette’s and Pereira’s (2008) instrument, adapted for people with physical disabilities. It is composed of three video recorded structured situa- tions (SS), analized in accordance with the guidance of the Record of the Observations of Professional SocialSkills (ROPSS). The structured situations present demands for the following professional socialskills: (a) Facing a job interview: greet, present oneself to another person, answer questions, carry out self promotion, ask questions and bid farewell; (b) Offering a colleague some help: commence conversation, expressing comprehension and opinions; and (c) Dealing with a superior’s fair criticism: apologize, admit mistakes, express the intention to change behavior and express agreement. In order to conduct these situations, a previously trained assistant was included in order to perform role-playing among the participants who
socialskills differ per sex, with women being normally more skillful than men in these aspects (Bartholomeu, Carvalho, et al., 2011; Bartholomeu, Montiel, et al., 2011; Gifford-Smith & Brownell, 2003; Ferreira & Z.A.P. Del Prette, 2013). The literature also suggests differences in the associations between socialskills and social acceptance and rejection per sex (Bartholomeu, Carvalho, et al., 2011; Bartholomeu, Montiel, et al., 2011). Nevertheless, it was unknown whether these effects actually differed, and the data indicate that the effects of these associations between socialskills and acceptance and rejection to go out only differed for assertiveness. Hence, caution is due when interpreting the relations between socialskills and acceptance/rejection in the group, as the existing sex differences in the socialskills do not affect group cohesion similarly per sex. This information is relevant, as socially skillful behavior should be a way to improve the individual’s social performance in the group, favoring his/her acceptance in the group to some extent. Hence, the sociometric measure would be a measure of the individual’s social efficacy and knowing the impact the sex can exert in this relation implies the supposition of differential treatments for these skills during the training, which demands further research in other studies.