Abstract The socialsupportnetwork is a health protective factor involving physical, mental and psychological aspects, providing a better quali- ty of life, favoring better adaptation to adverse conditions, promoting resilience and mobilizing resources for a more effective coping with nega- tive life events that can lead to illness. We aimed to analyze the association between physical dis- eases, common mental disorders and the socialsupportnetwork of patients serviced at primary care facilities in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo through a cross-sectional study with 1,466 patients in the 18-65 years age group. We used the SocialNetwork Index (SNI) to assess the supportnetwork through the categories of isola- tion and integration. The doctor/nurse completed the questionnaire to evaluate the physical disease diagnosis, while the Hospital Anxiety and Depres- sion Scale was used to detect mental disorders. We found that the pattern of socialsupport was differ- ent depending on the presence of physical diseases or mental disorders. Negative associations were found between diabetes and isolation; integration and anxiety; integration and depression. Positive associations were identified between isolation and anxiety and isolation and depression.
The support provided by social networks has been a study object for Psychology, due to the influence it has on the development and subjective well-being of people throughout their lives (BRONFENBRENNER, 1979/1996). According to Brito and Koller (1999), the socialsupportnetwork is a “set of systems and significant others, that comprise the received and perceived relationship bonds of the individual”. The affective component was added to this concept, based on the undisputed and recognized value of the bond of affection for the constitution and maintenance of support and protection (BRITO; KOLLER, 1999; TAYLOR, 2002). Socialsupport concerns the relationships that people establish in life that can significantly influence the definition of their personalities and development. The quality of interactions in different social contexts has been the stu- dy object of many researchers that have proven the positive or negative impact of the interactions on the physical and emotional health of people (BRITO; KOLLER, 1999; CYRULNIK, 2004; YUNES; GARCIA; ALBUQUERQUE, 2007). Lasting social bonds are important because they provide help in times of need, allowing coping and the over- coming of moments of crisis (BARUDY; DARTAGNAN, 2007; BRITO; KOLLER, 1999; TAYLOR, 2002). According to Taylor (2002), humans are biologically “designed” to be social and maintain relationships which in turn are also influenced by their biological aspects. Such constitutional aspects associated with environmental aspects can therefore be protectors and promoters of resilience (YUNES, 2003).
Objective: Describe the sociodemographic profile of older people with depressive symptoms and their socialsupport structure regarding the size, composition and degree of the elderly proximity with the network components. Method: Descriptive, transversal and quantitative study, conducted with 88 elderly, being used for data collection the Short Geriatric Depression Scale, Minimum Map of Social Relations and a form composed by sociodemographic questions. Results: Predominated older people the female sex, aged 60 to 69 years, low income and education. 807 people were cited by the elderly to compose their socialsupportnetwork, with prevalence of intimate relationships and family members. Conclusion: The identification of socialsupport enables health professionals to work in a partnership with it in order to promote a better quality of life of elderly. Descriptors: Elderly, Depression, SocialNetwork.
Objective: the study’s purpose has been to know the socialsupportnetwork for breast cancer-bearing women, who were participating in a support group from the Rio Grande do Sul State. Method: it is a descriptive- exploratory study with a qualitative approach, which was performed by the participation of women from a support group. The data analysis carried out according to the technique of Thematic Analysis of Minayo resulted in four themes, as follows: family and friends as socialsupportnetwork providers; therapeutic groups in the supportnetwork framework; healthcare team as members of the supportnetwork; religiosity, faith and spirituality as part of the socialsupportnetwork to relieve suffering. Results: socialsupport is needed during treatment, both for coping with the pathology and for women to recover from it. The results have shown that families, friends, neighbors and the group are all parts of the women network, who is experiencing cancer. Conclusion: providing socialsupport is part of the comprehensive care given by nurses, so recognizing the women’s needs is important to plan nursing care.
Estas hablas permiten reconocer que en parte el fenómeno de desplazamiento se da en un contexto de pocas oportunidades y desigualdad social, caracterizado por situaciones consideradas como abusos a los derechos humanos, con la justificación de mejoramientos urbanísticos, desenvolvimiento de la ciudad y/o fenómenos naturales. Estas situaciones solo refuerzan, como afirma Fernandes (2014) un modelo de desigualdad social que promueve el desplazamiento forzado, dentro de otros problemas sociales como la marginalización de personas y quiebre de los vínculos sociales de las familias. En estas situaciones el desplazamiento no solo fue producto del mal estado del terreno en el que se encontraban estas familias sino también da cuenta de un desplazamiento de poder, en el que no solo se generan más que mudanzas físicas, sino como afirma Sayad (2000 citado en Fazito, 2010) es el poder simbólico que constituye el acto de migrar, el significado de ese evento en la estructura social, lo que da cuenta de una ruptura del tejido social, en el que no solo se generaron movimientos superficiales sino también es un proceso que conlleva otros cambios externos e internos como la reorganización de las familias.
The changes in the organization of life are most evident in the daily lives of families living with a cerebral palsy bearing child. The existence of a childhood illness, in this context cerebral palsy, demands care that can be influenced according to the availability of the social and psychological resources that the family possesses, causing to its members some situations in which they feel vulnerable, mainly in the social component. This concerns the acquisition of infor- mation, the ability of people to synthesize such informa- tion and incorporate it into their daily activities, not only depending on individuals, but also access to the media, schooling, living conditions, health services, material re- sources, confrontation of cultural barriers, among others. 3
Data collection took place between April and September 2012, through interviews that had an average duration of 30 minutes. Among the questions presented to participants in the interview guide, there were the following: “When you have any questions related to breastfeeding, who is the irst person you seek? And, Why are you looking for this person?” Faced with the- se questions, the participants spoke about their experiences and the individuals of their socialsupportnetwork on breastfeeding. The data from this study were analyzed according to the type of content analysis of thematic type 9 , following the stages
One of the coping styles used by mothers in this study was the socialsupportnetwork in which the family is understood as a primary care, and social space where members interact, exchange information, support one another, seek to mediate and efforts to minimize or solve problems. Accordingly, many patients and families end up developing in the hospital so-called “intranets” for the purpose of mutual aid and reducing feelings of loneliness and helplessness .
The strain experienced by daughters while caring for their mothers requires the creation of a socialsupportnetwork in order to help them to care for their elderly mothers; this network is usually represented by their friends, neighbors and family members. The lack of this social sup- port results in daughters becoming overburdened because all tasks and needs are focused on the mothers. On the other hand, the existence of such a network can help the main caregiver (in this case, the daughter) to better care for her elderly mother: I went to my son’s house because I was feeling exhausted, beaten down [...]. I also need my daughters’ help (F4); my sister helps me to bath her [...]. Here, everybody cares for her with so much love and affec- tion. Grandchildren, great-grandchildren, all of them are always around. They help us in caring for her and entertaining her. She loves it! (F5).
Objective: To identify the socialsupport networks for families for the promotion of child development from the perspective of the Family Health Strategy team. Methods: Qualitative, descriptive research. The subjects were twelve health professionals, three from each of the professional categories working in the health centers studied (nurse, doctor, auxiliary nurse, and community health worker). The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed through thematic categorical analysis. Results: The results evidenced three empirical categories: Elements of the socialsupportnetwork; Functions of support for the families; Difficulties and gaps in the socialsupportnetwork for the families. Conclusion: It is considered that the social networks have an important role in the linking of the families, strengthening their potential for healthy child development. It is recommended that health professionals should articulate actions capable of influencing these elements, soas to promote appropriate child development.
This study presented narratives of gay and lesbian adoles- cents and young people in the process of revealing sexual ori- entation to their families. It was observed that the reactions of family members when confronted with the ‘out of the closet’ of the adolescents and young people were violent, with con- trol, surveillance, persecution and even expulsion from home, as well as the repression of expressions of homoerotic experi- ences, often silencing in front of them. Less expressively, there were situations of understanding and acceptance. The family is an important component of the socialsupportnetwork of these adolescents and young people, which can increase vul- nerability or increase resilience through socialsupport.
Objective: To analyse the relationship between the socialsupportnetwork (SSN) and health related quality of life (HRQOL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: The sample comprised 150 consecutive MS patients attending our MS clinic. To assess the socio-demographic data, a specifically designed questionnaire was applied. The HRQOL dimensions were measured with the Short-Form Health Survey Questionnaire-SF36 and the SSN with the Medical Outcomes Study SocialSupport Survey. Spearman’s correlation was used to compare the magnitude of the relationship between the SSN and HRQOL. Results: The mean patient age was 41.7 years (± 10.4; range: 18–70 yr); the mean Expanded Disability Status Score was 2.5 (±2.4; range: 0–9). There was a statistically significant correlation between the structure of the SSN and the HRQOL. Conclusion: The composition of the SSN, social group membership and participation in voluntary work have an important role in the HRQOL of patients with MS.
cial normativa é reflexo do modelo familiar patriarcal, expres- sa desde o período de colonização do Brasil; a estrutura fami- liar composta e liderada pelo “pai” representa prestígio social, e as que diferem desse padrão são renegadas pela sociedade, mediante a influência histórica e cultural heterossexista. Além disso, o baixo apoio social, em especial a ausência do per- tencimento a uma estrutura familiar fortalecida, aumenta as chances de insegurança, a incapacidade de realizar funções e a reclusão, deixando essas mulheres passíveis de suprimir o seu desejo de ser mãe.
In order to assess the socioeconomic conditions of the families, the Graffar scale has been used to identify the families in the following dimensions: profession, level of education, source of the family income, comfort of accom- modation, and aspect of the housing area. At grade 1, it corresponds to score 1; To grade 2, score 2, and so on. The sum of these scores allows the family to be included in one of the following social positions: (i) High class (I) – from 5 to 9; (ii) Upper middle class (II) – from 10 to 13; (iii) Middle Class (III) – from 14 to 17; (iv) Lower middle class (IV) – from 18 to 21; e (v) Low class (V) – from 22 to 25.
Objective: To evaluate the socialnetwork of lesbian mothers, from the social contexts of support or restraint. Method: Descriptive, exploratory study, of qualitative approach, based on the theoretical reference of SocialNetwork, with eight lesbian mothers selected through Snowball technique, using semi-structured interview. Data analysis was performed with IRAMUTEQ software, through Similarity Analysis. Results: The socialnetwork is confi gured as: 1) Emotional distance and non-acceptance of motherhood by the family members – primary network elements; 2) Interference in the socio-cultural medium for the effectiveness of the mother-child bond – secondary network elements. Final considerations: Socialnetwork is grounded on trivialized and negative conceptions that highlight prejudice and disrespect. The discussion of this theme contributes to a greater visibility of those new family arrangements as well as to reduce stigmas e prejudices that pervade the socialnetwork components of these women.
Cultural theories of police corruption suggest that in the policing environment a particular culture develops that tolerates or even promotes misconduct and in some cases corruption. 26 The dominance of this culture effectively socializes new members to accept its norms of behaviour even though they may deviate from social norms. As Ede points out, this affect has been noted by Commissions of Inquiry into police corruption and numerous studies into police attitudes to misconduct after joining the force. 27 Christie, Petrie and Timms found that higher standards of education and training at the police academy had only marginal affect on new recruits. The socializing influence of existing norms from more experienced officers effectively negated such training. 28
The institutional role as a supportnetwork is remarkable. There is an appreciation of the insti- tution and not having to pay for it. The actions of the professionals are focused on learning de- velopment strategies, on the person’s capabilities with VI, and his/her relationship with the world. In addition to all the specific activities that the institution provides, it performs a direct dia- logue with some schools in the teaching network to train educators to work with people with VI, and provides some expanded material. This ac- tion proves essential to the experience of families. The institution itself already makes a linkage with the schools [...] teachers already know when the students are there and they are already treated in a special way (Father 5b) [...] then she’s done swim- ming, acquatic volleyball [ ...] study. The materials for studying gets here punctually (Mother 5-B).
Objective: to know the socialnetwork and support of those who experience the process of kidney disease and transplantation. Methods: a descriptive qualitative study, based on the concept of socialnetwork and socialsupport from Sherbourne and Stewart. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from November 2013 to September 2014, with 12 kidney transplantees, which passed through content analysis. This study had the following selection criteria: the interviewee must have had a transplant five years ago, at most, be at lease 16 years of age and have preserved cognitive and language skills.
The subjects’ statements also report this i- nancial support: my mother helps me and sometimes my stepfather does, too. She helps me with everything, buying things, because she [daughter] was born prema- ture [six months] and had to be put on milk formula, and each can cost R$ 22.00 and lasted three days. So it was dificult. When I didn’t have enough, my mother and my stepfather bought it (Renato, 18); my mother helped me, so did my grandmother and my mother- in- law, to build the house. They helped me; they gave me most of the things (Guilherme, 18).
RESUMEN: La transición para la paternidad es un momento en la vida que requiere de la capacidad de adaptación de un individuo. La calidad del apoyo social que reciben los padres se considera como un elemento importante en la adaptación para su nuevo rol. Estudio correlacional, que abarca cerca de 160 parejas de padres primerizos de Québec, Canadá, el objetivo fue comprender las fuentes de apoyo del padre y la madre durante el período postnatal, así como, sus características. Además, este estudio pretendía examinar la naturaleza de la relación entre las percepciones del apoyo social, la eicacia y la ansiedad de la paternidad. Los análisis multivariados revelaron que, para estos padres, el apoyo social no actúa como un factor de protección de sus percepciones para la eicacia de la paternidad. Sin embargo, las prácticas de ayuda de las enfermeras contribuyeron para las percepciones de apoyo de los padres, como para las percepciones de la misma.