Dyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this processI: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Dur pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spraydryingprocess optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.
The spraydryingprocess of a mixed juice of acerola and seriguela was optimized using a 2 4 full factorial design with 16 factorial points and 3 central points. The independent variables were different levels of inlet temperature (110°, 140° and 170 °C), feed flow (0.36, 0.60 and 0.84 L/h), amount of maltodextrin (14-26%) and maltodextrin dextrose equivalent (DE) (5, 10 and 15 DE). The responses were water activity (Aw), moisture content (MC), hygroscopicity (Hyg), powder recovery (PR) and retention of ascorbic acid (RAA). After optimization, an acceptance test and multiple comparison test were performed. Temperature exerted a great influence on Aw, MC and RAA. The optimal drying conditions to obtain acerola and seriguela juice mix powder were an inlet temperature of 140 °C, a flow rate of 0.60 L/h, 20% maltodextrin 10 DE. There was no significant difference in the acceptance of the quality attributes or in the multiple comparison test between the nectars made with the juice mix powder. Acceptance was approximately 70%. Therefore, this acerola and seriguela mix powder can be considered a good source of ascorbic acid and a potential ingredient for the food industry.
Dyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. On this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Dur pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spraydryingprocess optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.
da gotícula com o ar quente permite a troca térmica e a transferência de massa, causando a evaporação da água contida no produto. A atomização é o processo central para a secagem por spraydrying, pois influencia na forma, estrutura, velocidade e distribuição de tamanho das gotículas, e também na natureza e no tamanho do produto final (ANANDHARAMAKRISHNAN; ISHWARYA, 2015). A relação entre a superfície e o volume da gotícula determina o tempo de secagem e as características das partículas, porque o tempo de secagem é proporcional a dimensão da partícula (CAL; SOLLOHUB, 2010). O princípio de funcionamento dos atomizadores é regido pelo fenômeno da desintegração líquida, no qual um jato de líquido, inicialmente de raio constante, cai verticalmente sob ação da gravidade e decompõem-se em uma corrente de gotículas (ANANDHARAMAKRISHNAN; ISHWARYA, 2015; WISNIEWSKI, 2015). A seleção de um atomizador é uma das etapas mais importantes no projeto de um secador do tipo Spray Dryer. O atomizador determina as características de alimentação, a energia necessária para a formação do jato spray, bem como tamanho, distribuição, velocidade, trajetória da gota e consequentemente a característica final da partícula (BIRCHAL; PASSOS, 2005). Os principais atomizadores que podem ser aplicados para a produção de leite em pó são: (i) atomizador rotativo ou centrífugo: a alimentação ocorre no centro de um disco ou cavidade giratória; (ii) atomizador de bico pressurizado: a alimentação do líquido é forçada a alta pressão (0,07 a 0,3 Mpa); (iii) atomizador de bico de duplo fluido: o ar comprimido gera uma turbulência que atomiza o líquido. A pressão de operação é menor que a pressão do atomizador de bico pressurizado (WISNIEWSKI, 2015).
these substances present a large diversity of structures, including phenols and phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids (Ho, 1992). On grape seed oil, the main phenolic compounds identified are gallic acid, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate (Zhao et al., 2017). Although TPC content decreased after spraydryingprocess, its composition could have been changed due to distinct encapsulation efficiency (Secolin et al., 2017) and thermal stability of each phenolic compound; and interconversion reactions to derived structures (Barcia et al., 2014; Cheynier, 2012). Phenolic compounds are important for human nutrition, since plays the role of biological antioxidant. As consequence of the decrease of TPC content in grape seed oil encapsulated, a reduction in the DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed (Table 2). Some authors have also reported this negative effect of spraydrying on the antioxidant activity of oils due to thermal and oxidative degradation of antioxidant substances (Calva-Estrada et al., 2018; Ferreira et al., 2016). Dn the other hand, although the oils encapsulated presented lower phenolic compound contents, they showed greater iron ion reducing capacity than the control sample (Table 2). This unexpected result was reported by Arana-Sánchez et al. (2010) for oregano oil microencapsulated by spraydrying. The authors attributed this result to compositional changes in the oil during the microencapsulation process. Probably, in the current work, spraydryingprocess could have favored the formation of some compounds possessing iron reducing capacity.
In recent years, the chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) has become a product of great commercial interest, especially due to the high oil content, which has its major part composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Omega 3 and 6), that confer several health benefits. However, these compounds are susceptible to oxidation. The aim of this work was to encapsulate chia oil, studying the ultrasonic process variables to obtain single layer (stabilized by whey protein concentrate WPC) and double layer emulsions (stabilized by WPC and pectin), evaluating different energy density levels. As wall materials, maltodextrin and Hi-Cap® 100 were evaluated in different concentrations. The spraydryingprocess was evaluated in the temperatures of 150 and 180 °C. Emulsions were characterized as for stability, size distribution and mean droplet diameter, optical microscopy, surface charge density, rheological behavior and confocal microscopy. Microparticles were evaluated as for moisture content, hygroscopicity, water activity, microstructure, reconstitution and oxidation stability by peroxide index. In the emulsification process with ultrasound were obtained emulsions stabilized by WPC and WPC + pectin stable to phase separation, with drop size between 1,60 – 4,11 µm (WPC) e 0,93 – 1,69 µm (WPC + pectin), monomodal size distribution and Newtonian (WPC) or pseudoplastic flow behavior (WPC + pectin). The process conditions for obtaining the monolayer emulsion were set using low energy density (58.709 kJ/m 3 ) at 100% of power amplitude (128.14 W) and sonication for 2 minutes. For the double-layer emulsion, the process was set as a 2-minute sonication at 75% amplitude (94.37 W), delivering an energy density of 42.718 kJ/m 3 . The occurrence of over-processing was observed when high energy densities were applied to the WPC emulsions. Regarding the microparticles characterization, no difference was observed between drying at 150 or 180 °C. The particles stabilized by WPC with addition of Hi-Cap® 100 presented the best physical characteristics, good reconstitution, and especially good oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil, when compared to the microparticles with addition of any other materials. Furthermore, this formulation was obtained by the process condition that represents the lowest energy expenditure.
This difference in morphology between wall materials may be related to a greater skin rigidity of inulin capsules compared to that of arabic gum, allowing the particles to dry without shrinkage . These results are in agreement with Wilkowska et al.  that used two wall materials for the microencapsulation of different wine fruit by spraydrying and observed that the inulin particles had a smooth spherical shape, while the particles of the other wall material, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, had a spherical shape with wrinkled surfaces. Rocha et al.  in analyzing microcapsules using lycopene as the core material and modified food starch as wall material, also found microcapsules with the rounded outer surface showing teeth formation. The authors reported that the appearance of the teeth formed on the surface was due to the rapid evaporation of the liquid droplets during the spraydryingprocess.
Before the spraydryingprocess, pequi pulp was diluted with distilled water (pulp:water ratio 1:2, w/w) and filtered through a qualitative filter paper. The filtrate presented 12.8% of solids content. The purpose of this procedure was to remove suspended particulates solids, avoiding obstruction of the atomizer nozzle of spray dryer. Maltodextrin and Tween 80 were added directly to the filtered mixture at several concentrations according to the Table 1. The homogenization was carried out in an ultra-turrax homogenizer (Extratur Disperser, Quimis, Brazil) operating at 14,000 g for 10 min. For spraydrying experiments, a laboratory spray dryer was used (model B191, Büchi, Flawil, Switzerland). The equipment was operated concurrently using a spray nozzle with an orifice of 0.7 mm in diameter. The drying chamber had a diameter of 110 mm and a height of 435 mm. The mixture was fed into the drying chamber using a peristaltic pump. The feed mass flow rate and compressed air flow rate were 0.2 kg/h and 0.6 m 3 /h, respectively. The tests were performed under
Although the relative humidity was found particularly useful for production of amorphous materials by spraydrying, the relative humidity was also used as a variable to improve the output of the model. Without information on relative humidity, it remains unknown how much liquid can actually be evaporated. Therefore, the assumption was made that all the liquid fed into the spray dryer was evaporated. This also meant that when the liquid feed flow in the model was set higher than what could in practice be evaporated due to relative humidity limitations at the outlet, the model would simply use this information and return an outlet temperature based on unrealistic circumstances. In other words, the model would predict a combination of liquid feed flow and outlet temperature that would in practice result in a wet product. However, since the relative humidity calculation was added to the model, the assumption that all liquid is evaporated was no longer necessary. Instead, the relative humidity could be coupled to the amount of liquid evaporated to cap the relative humidity at 100%. If the calculated relative humidity would be higher than 100%, the model would simply reduce the amount of evaporated liquid until a relative humidity of 100% is reached. Therefore, the model will no longer predict a relative humidity above 100%, and does not overestimate the amount of liquid evaporated in case too much liquid is sprayed into the modeled spray dryer. Although such conditions are very unlikely to be sought after in a spraydryingprocess, the addition of such calculations does help in reducing the amount of misinformation that could otherwise be obtained by using the model. In addition to the liquid feed flow, knowing the relative humidity also allows one to calculate the adiabatic saturation temperature, which is close to the wet bulb temperature and could be used as an indication of the product temperature during evaporation of the liquid prior to crust formation. However, no experiments have been performed to validate these additions. Besides the relative humidity, extending the model was also found to be quite useful for less common spray dryer configurations. For example, spraydrying is usually performed on a single liquid solution. However, there are many interesting applications in which two separate solutions are introduced into the spray dryer to form a mixture with the use of a 3 or 4-fluid nozzle [31,32]. Therefore, a second liquid stream was added to the model, which enabled the prediction of the outlet conditions depending on the ratio of the two liquid feed flows.
The process of spraydrying cheese whey can present some problems which are circumvented with the use of encapsulating agents, facilitating the drying and improving various characteristics of the product. Therefore, the aim of this work was to obtain whey powder from mozzarella cheese whey, using the spraydryingprocess with two different encapsulating agents, maltodextrin (17,0 ≤ DE ≤ 19,9) and gum arabic. 10 treatments were performed in which 4 for cheese whey with maltodextrin and 4 with gum arabic, varying the concentration of the encapsulating agent (10 and 20 %) and temperature (80 and 100 °C), the other 2 treatments went cheese whey without encapsulating agent with a variation of temperature (80 and 100 ° C). The evaluated characteristics of the powder obtained were yield, water activity, moisture, hygroscopicity, solubility, bulk density and instrumental color. Results showed that the yield was strongly influenced by the increase in the concentration of maltodextrin and increased temperature; water activity and moisture in turn suffered strong influence of temperature, whose values were smaller with use of higher temperature; hygroscopicity decreases with increase in the concentration of encapsulating agents, and increased with increasing drying temperature; the solubility was negatively influenced by increasing temperature, while the bulk density had a positive effect by concentration of encapsulating agents; and finally, the color was predominantly influenced by encapsulating agents used. Therefore, the spraydrying of cheese whey with use of maltodextrin and gum arabic was an appropriate technique to obtain the powder of this product, showing satisfactory results, with the best drying conditions at 100 °C with use of maltodextrin in a concentration of 20 %.
The spraydryingprocess is a drying method that contributes to the conservation of liquid foods by reducing moisture and converting them into powder. Sensory analysis is an ideal tool to evaluate the acceptance of products resulting from drying. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics of pineapple juice with fresh and powdered mint and reconstituted, being the juice powder acquired by dehydration in spray dryer dryer with drying air temperature of 100 ° C and without the addition of carrier agents. For the juice in natura and reconstituted, color analysis was performed, representing the parameters of luminosity (L *), intensity of green color (-a *) and intensity of yellow color (-b *), water activity (aw) and humidity. The powdered samples of pineapple juice with mint were submitted to the same analysis, besides hygroscopicity and solubility. The results showed that the powder had low water activity around 0.1. Because there was no carrier agent during drying, the solubility of the powder was low, about 78%. The sensory acceptance test of the reconstituted juice showed that the color and taste taxes did not have good acceptance, but the overall impression attribute did. The intent of purchase test allowed to conclude that more than 50% of the testers would buy the product. The control difference test revealed that there was a significant difference in flavor between the reconstituted juice and the juice in natura, and between the latter and the juice made from the commercial pulp. Even so, pineapple juice with mint powder can be an interesting product to be used commercially or as an ingredient for other products.
range 31.73 to 67.62 %. It was observed that h was significantly positively dependent on air flow rate in the linear term and negatively dependent on interaction coffee leaf extract concentration and air flow rate. Increasing air flow rate, the relation air/wet particles were increased and the drying is improved and it is easier to obtain the dried particles. According to Wang and Langrish (2009), the collection efficiency of a spray-dryingprocess is highly affected by loss of material that adheres to the walls of the spray equipment. Besides the studied variables, collection efficiency is still function of the type of the formulation, dimensions of the chamber and the operational properties (solid content, viscosity and inlet air temperature) (tRuoNG; BHANDARI; HoWES, 2005). Vardin and Yasar (2012), in spraydrying of pomegranate juice with maltodextrin, obtained collection efficiency from 2.3 to 76.3 % and observed that materials with great sugar content like fruits could be adhered to the dryer walls, with lower collection efficiency. The tests 9 and 14 presented the higher collection efficiency (67.62 and 65.87 %, respectively). In test 9, maltodextrin concentration was low (7.5 %), what means lower production cost and higher proportion coffee leaf extract/maltodextrin in the dried product.
(HUFFMAN, 1996). No entanto, apesar do seu valor nutricional, grande parte do soro de leite produzido ainda é descartada indevidamente no solo e em rios, causando sérios problemas de poluição ambiental, devido a sua alta Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio (DBO) (SILVA; BOLINI, 2006). Portanto, alternativas tecnológicas para o seu adequado aproveitamento são fundamentais. As proteínas do soro na forma de concentrado protéico de soro (CPS) ou ainda isolado protéico de soro (IPS) têm sido usadas na microencapsulação de probióticos (PICOT; LACROIX, 2004; REID et al., 2007; RODRÍGUEZ-HUEZO et al., 2007; DOHERTY et al., 2011; GBASSI et al., 2011). No entanto, o uso de soro de leite na forma líquida foi estudado somente por Pimentel- González et al. (2009) que empregaram o soro doce concentrado como emulsificante na microencapsulação de L. rhamnosus por emulsificação. Até o momento, não existem publicações sobre o uso de soro de leite líquido como agente encapsulante de probióticos por spraydrying. Visando a ampliação da utilização deste subproduto na indústria de alimentos, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial do soro de leite líquido como agente encapsulante de Bifidobacterium BB-12 por spraydrying, comparando-o com a goma arábica, a qual é tradicionalmente utilizada na tecnologia de microencapsulação.
With this study, it was developed a functional orange juice powder by spraydrying. The biggest challenge was to ensure the maximum survival of probiotics, assuring that they remained in large numbers at the end of processing and during storage. The first step was the selection of probiotic cultures. These must be safe and have functional, technological and physiological properties. So, commercial probiotic L. plantarum 299v, with probiotic characteristics already recognized, and P. acidilactici HA-6111-2, isolated from a food matrix and previously characterized by our research group were selected,. It was found that both P. acidilactici and commercial probiotic i) did no present any of the virulence factors investigated or important resistances to antibiotics, ii) were functional, with minimal loss of viability after the passage through the simulated GIT conditions and iii) also had technological properties, as both were able to survive during the dryingprocess and remain viable for 60 days of storage.
emulsion was evaluated in all treatments (WPI – Whey protein isolate; WPIM – Whey protein isolate and maltodextrin; WPIM1C – Whey protein isolate, maltodextrin and 1% chitosan and WPIM2C – Whey protein isolate, maltodextrin and 2% chitosan) using the Herschel Bulkley model. A third experiment was done to evaluate the WIP material in different blends of encapsulants (WIPM, WIPM1C and WIPM2C).In the microencapsulation of the thyme essential oil, the treatment with WIPM presented better characteristics for the resulting product: 9.24 g/100g for hygroscopicity, 60.62 g/100g for solubility and its morphology presented spherical surfaces. We verified that the efficiency of the microencapsulation process of treatment WIPM presented high oil retention (29.50%), when compared to treatment WIP (28.62%) and WIPM1Q (23.75%). The evaluation studied for the principal components indicated that thymol was characterized as major constituent of the thyme essential oil, with contents above 40% of the normalized area, being this important characteristic to exert antioxidant activity.
A CP2 foi associada negativamente à FC e positivamente ao método ABTS e à variável suplementar tempo de estocagem (Figura 4b). Não se observou discriminação entre o controle e as amostras microencapsuladas com diferentes materiais de parede com relação a esse componente, indicando capacidade antioxidante similar. Na literatura, não se constataram informações para microencapsulados produzidos com derivados de okara, mas Sarabandi et al. (2018) reportaram que a microencapsulação por spraydrying de hidrolisados de caseína produzidos com variadas condições de processo levou à produção de partículas com distintas características físico-químicas, mas pouca diversidade na atividade antioxidante avaliada por diferentes metodologias. Resultado similar foi descrito por Akbarbaglu et al. (2019) para hidrolisados de semente de linhaça microencapsulados por spraydrying em diferentes condições.