State of Knowledge

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New record of Novocrania (Brachiopoda, Craniida) from Madeira, with notes on Recent brachiopod occurrences in the Macaronesian archipelagos

New record of Novocrania (Brachiopoda, Craniida) from Madeira, with notes on Recent brachiopod occurrences in the Macaronesian archipelagos

Logan (1993) summarized the state of knowledge of the diversity, biogeographic affinities, bathymetric range and life habits of Recent brachiopods from the south-east North Atlantic region (Madeira, Canary-Salvage Islands, Cape Verde Islands, and off the mainland of north-west Africa). The study was based on identifications made by previous investigators, plus specimens identified by Logan (1983, 1988, 1993) from 194 stations from the CANCAP I-VII expeditions between 1976-86. Since then further collections of brachiopods have been identified, mainly by Logan (1998) from 48 stations from seven seamounts to the west of Madeira and south of the Azores (SEAMOUNT 2), by Gaspard (2003)
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Educ. Real.  vol.39 número3 en v39n3a03

Educ. Real. vol.39 número3 en v39n3a03

Under this ethical drive, we propose to establish a dialogue be- tween the graduate students’ academic production and the special edu- cation policies. It is important to stress that most studies about school- ing do not refer to legal and normative documents directly; there are allusions, footnotes and loud silences, especially when the focus is on the teachers’ practice. It is as if the pedagogical practice, the teaching and learning were self-determined. We adopt a different interpretive route by understanding that the letter of the law guides produces and draws important boundaries to the state of knowledge. It is not, how- ever, a case of continuity, direct interdependence or subservience. The policies face the subjects and the institutions with problems. The the- ory and the intellectual efforts allow a different discursivity by unveil- ing, subverting and interrogating naturalizations and objectivations, constructing a degree of alterity with respect to political interests and the short-termism of the practice. The political text gives contours to a reality whose quality is decided in the arena of the disputes, resistances and combats. The letter of the law does not circumscribe completely the possibilities of the event. As letter, it implies reading. And as reading, it implies – no matter how much one wants to sweep away the equivocal in its expression – an opening to the meanings. Reading is never linear, univocal or consensual…
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Rev. esc. enferm. USP  vol.49 número6

Rev. esc. enferm. USP vol.49 número6

Objective: his study aimed at analyzing the current state of knowledge on clinical reasoning in undergraduate nursing education. Methods: A systematic scoping review through a search strategy applied to the MEDLINE database, and an analysis of the material recovered by extracting data done by two independent reviewers. he extracted data were analyzed and synthesized in a narrative manner. Results: From the 1380 citations retrieved in the search, 23 were kept for review and their contents were summarized into ive categories: 1) the experience of developing critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process; 2) teaching strategies related to the development of critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process; 3) measurement of variables related to the critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process; 4) relationship of variables involved in the critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision- making process; and 5) theoretical development models of critical thinking/clinical reasoning/decision-making process for students. Conclusion: he biggest challenge for developing knowledge on teaching clinical reasoning seems to be inding consistency between theoretical perspectives on the development of clinical reasoning and methodologies, methods, and procedures in research initiatives in this ield.
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Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.22 suppl.

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.22 suppl.

Certainly the paper does provide a useful review of the available literature on the subject. Unfortunately however, it does not really do what it says it will do. It essentially provides a descrip- tive review of what the current state of knowledge is with respect to the problems of knowledge transfer, some of the principal barriers to effec- tive transfer, and the use of evidence by policy- makers. It looks at literature that discusses the processes likely to be involved, and at literature that details the importance of understanding the dynamics of the researcher/policy-maker inter- action. It also reviews studies that make recom- mendations as to how to go about trying to ac- complish successful transfer. Finally the paper recognizes the possible importance of knowl- edge in at least improving the debate surround- ing policymaking – even though it may encour- age a greater degree of uncertainty and “chaos” in the dialogue.
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Prostate Cancer: A State of The Heart

Prostate Cancer: A State of The Heart

Prof Alberto Briganti’s presentation began with the case of a 57-year-old male diagnosed with a 4 + 3 bilateral extended prostate cancer. The patient displayed some CV risk factors, including diabetes and obesity. Following staging, the patient appeared to have no systemic disease in the bone or in the abdomen and pelvis; however, a prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a suspicious area of minimal extracapsular extension at the right apex. Prostate-speciic antigen (PSA) levels were 21.6 ng/mL, indicating that he was a high-risk patient. He consequently underwent bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The inal pathological report revealed that the patient had a Gleason score of 8, 2/21 positive lymph nodes, and a positive surgical margin, with complete recovery of urinary continence at 4 weeks after surgery. Post-surgery evaluation showed that the patient had a PSA of 0.07 ng/mL, had no spontaneous erections, and did not require a protective pad at 40 days.
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Knowledge management in the business of knowledge: knowledge reuse at Wyser

Knowledge management in the business of knowledge: knowledge reuse at Wyser

Regarding the strategic integration of knowledge management in the company, there is no formally defined strategy communicated to employees. Although there is no formal integration of knowledge management into the company's strategy, its importance and necessity are present at the deepest levels of culture. This is noticeable not only by direct mention of the workers but also by the cultural diagnosis, being the clan culture characterized by the value and promotion of sharing, accompanying and helping behaviors among the members. However, this culture is also characterized by greater freedom concerning job performance, which, combined with the flexibility needed to better adjust to business needs, ultimately results in a lack of formalization, standardization and even, in some cases, of activities’ organization. In a scenario where there is no transversal strategy that standardizes the rules under which procedures should be designed, although there is a common goal of sharing, the ease of conducting reuse activities is affected. The mismatch between consultants' individual ways of action, compounded by a disintegrated system and lack of time for administrative procedures, which are time consuming, often results in the avoidance to perform such activities. This leads to incomplete storage and sharing of knowledge. To bypass this situation, the practice of asking colleagues for the needed information or knowledge is a necessity felt by the employees. Being turnover a reality highly present on the day to day life of these employees, when the understanding of the knowledge retained is dependent on the employee who documented and stored it, knowledge loss also becomes a reality.
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Comunicação como ferramenta para divulgar e promover a Declaração Universal sobre Bioética e Direitos Humanos

Comunicação como ferramenta para divulgar e promover a Declaração Universal sobre Bioética e Direitos Humanos

Cellphones do not only fulfill the function of placing two or more people in touch. Today, this de- vice is a media and information converter. Users use them to surf the internet, join in a mobile way of so- cial networking, taking pictures, documenting facts and reproducing information. The wiki platforms with content made from collective participation and the emergence of social networks and virtual spaces such as blogs, Facebook, Orkut, Twitter, MySpace, LinkedIn, Digg, YouTube, Flickr and Second Life pose the challenge of overcoming the communication practice of simply informing in a unique direction. What is observed and stimulated in these channels is interactivity – worldwide segmented virtual com- munities were created that exchange and discuss information on various subjects.
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Cartografia geotécnica: estágio atual do conhecimento - GEOTECHNICAL CARTOGRAPHY: ACTUAL STATE KNOWLEDGE

Cartografia geotécnica: estágio atual do conhecimento - GEOTECHNICAL CARTOGRAPHY: ACTUAL STATE KNOWLEDGE

Apesar das primeiras cartas geotécnicas, destinadas ao planejamento regional e urbano, datarem do início do século XX, só depois da II Guerra Mundial, com a necessidade de reconstrução das cidades, se verificou a implementação de metodologias adequadas e de prática sistemática (NON, 1976 apud ALMEIDA & ALMEIDA, 2002). Em 1968, a IAEG (International Association of Engineering Geology) propôs a criação da Engineering Geological Mapping Comission para desenvolver estudos que permitissem regulamentar a elaboração de mapeamentos geotécnicos e seus produtos, bem como difundir conhecimentos e tendências, cuja atividade desenvolvida levou à preparação de documentação diversa na especialidade, salientando-se um guia preparatório de cartas geotécnicas para a UNESCO (Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura) e confecção de inúmeras cartas para diversos países. Vale ressaltar que a partir da década de 60 surge a cartografia digital geotécnica, mas de forma ainda incipiente, com o desenvolvimento da informática, através da utilização de computadores, revolucionando a cartografia tradicional. Devido a este novo panorama, após a década de 60, surgiram novos conceitos, como os termos CAD (Computer Aided Design), CAM (Computer Aided Mapping) e AM/FM (Automated Mapping/Facility Management), que nada mais são do que sistemas voltados para a transformação do mapa analógico para o meio digital (OLIVEIRA, 1983). Logo, o processo evolutivo da cartografia digital saltou para um patamar superior na medida em que foram desenvolvidos os sistemas de gerenciamento de banco de dados, tornando possível a ligação da base cartográfica digital ao banco de dados descritivo, surgindo assim os Sistemas de Informações Geográficas (SIGs).
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Vertical and horizontal relationships in the process of innovation and learning by interacting: study in an industry cluster

Vertical and horizontal relationships in the process of innovation and learning by interacting: study in an industry cluster

The ability to generate innovations is facilitated through the specialization of socioeconomic environments and intensified as they generate interdependence between the various actors, producers, and users of goods, services, and technologies (Cassiolato & Szapiro, 2002; Carpinetti et al., 2007). Consequently, companies in a cluster are able to acquire components and services faster, which facilitate innovation due to the lower cost of experimentation and the reduced financial cost of innovation. However, as pointed out by Porter (2000), innovation can also lead to problems in a cluster in situations where competition between the companies is reduced and when innovations are so radical, they invalidate a part of the cluster or even the entire cluster. In this case, we can cite the case of new products that result in the discontinuation of old products.
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Interfaces em arquitetura : permeabilidades entre o humano e o digital

Interfaces em arquitetura : permeabilidades entre o humano e o digital

físico  Otto  Roessler  (professor  do  Institut  für  Physikalische  und  Theoretische  Chemie,  Tübingen,   Alemanha.   Roessler   é   uma   das   principais   referências   mundiais   para   assuntos   relativos   a   Atratores   Caóticos,   Endofísica   e   Microrrelatividade),   por   ocasião   de   uma   de   suas   visitas   a   Berlim,   em   2002,   ele   sugeriu   que   eu   investigasse   o   conceito   de   interface,   ou   Schnittstelle   (“interface”   em   alemão;   esse   conceito   será   abordado   no   capítulo   II.),   elaborado   por   Siegfried   Zielinski.  Roessler  me  disse  que  eu  havia  chegado  a  algumas  questões  que  se  aproximavam  do   conceito  de  interface  de  Zielinski,  e  que  seria  interessante  saber  qual  seria  minha  leitura  sobre   isso   e   como   eu   retroalimentaria   meu   trabalho   posteriormente.   Em   2004,   recebi   uma   carta   de   Roessler   onde   ele   perguntava   se   eu   havia   lido   Zielinski.   Nessa   carta,   ele   ainda   escreveu   suas   impressões   sobre   o   trabalho   VOID:   "This   is   a   most   intriguing   gadget+tool   at   the   frontier   of   modern   interface   science   and   technology.   It   could   profoundly   affect   our   sense   of   self   in   physics,   philosophy  and  art.”  Em  vez  de  me  sentir  lisonjeado,  esse  elogio  gerou  em  mim  uma  frustração:   mais  uma  vez  não  pude  compartilhar  a  admiração  de  alguém  que  possui  uma  compreensão  de   VOID  diferente  da  minha.  Como  não  consigo  compartilhar  essa  outra  admiração  e  compreensão,   fica   sempre   a   impressão   de   não   ter   atingido   a   realização   da   promessa   contida   em   VOID.   De   qualquer  modo,  esta  tese  é  uma  retroalimentação  tardia  à  indicação  de  Roessler...  É  a  entrada   final  na  esfera.  Entrar  na  esfera,  no  entanto,  vai  representar  não  apenas  o  atravessar  do  espelho   e  a  contínua  retroalimentação  entre  conceitos  e  materialização  da  interface.  Entrar  na  esfera  é   reconstruir  essa  esfera  desde  o  seu  início.    
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Juízo e discurso : uma aproximação preliminar entre o De Anima e a Retórica de Aristóteles

Juízo e discurso : uma aproximação preliminar entre o De Anima e a Retórica de Aristóteles

qualitatively distinct: the sole difference between opinion and knowledge is the degree of justification with which a proposition (about an objective state of affairs) is held.. Obviame[r]

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Fighting disease and epidemics: Ricardo Jorge and the internationalization of Portuguese science

Fighting disease and epidemics: Ricardo Jorge and the internationalization of Portuguese science

2 1897) 5 , L. Câmara Pestana (Funchal, Madeira, 28 October 1863 — Lisbon, 15 November 1899) 6 , A. Almeida Garrett (Oporto, 22 September 1884 – Oporto, 19 November 1961) 7 and F. Silva Correia (Sabugal, 20 May 1893 – Lisbon, 19 December 1966) 8 , he was part of a group of specialized doctors who put in place the most important measures in controlling endemic diseases and epidemics, which scourged the western world and, more specifically, the city of Oporto between the middle of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. Their professional training and academic and scientific performances reveal the value of these protagonists in Portuguese science, who demonstrated their worth in periods of grave epidemic crisis. Their capacities were confirmed by the emergency of the sanitary situations with which they were confronted and by the authorities’ confidence in them, by putting them in charge of the disease control and elimination process. It was in the most critic times that Portuguese scientists were confronted with the state of the art of international knowledge and proved that medical science in Portugal was levelled with the most scientifically advanced countries of the time, whose specialists kept a close dialogue with Portuguese doctors, both by travelling to Portugal to study epidemics and then publishing scientific works praising the Portuguese professionals and the measures taken, and in international sanitary conferences where the most important scientist were sent by their governments to represent them and discuss the necessary measures to jointly fight epidemics.
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Braz. J. Phys. Ther.  vol.19 número4

Braz. J. Phys. Ther. vol.19 número4

ABSTRACT | Background: Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has been widely used by health professionals. However, no study in Brazil has investigated the data regarding the knowledge and dificulties related to EBP from a representative sample of physical therapists. Objective: To identify behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from the state of São Paulo regarding EBP. Method: A customized questionnaire about behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers regarding EBP was sent by email to a sample of 490 physical therapists registered by the Registration Board of São Paulo, Brazil. Physical therapists who did not respond to the questionnaire were contacted by telephone and/or letter. The data were analyzed descriptively. Results: The inal response rate was 64.4% (316/490). Because 60 physical therapists were no longer practicing, 256 answers were analyzed. The physical therapists reported that they routinely read scientiic papers (89.5%) as a resource for professional development, followed by continuing education courses (88.3%) and books (86.3%). Approximately 35% of the respondents reported a clear understanding of the implementation of research indings in their practice; approximately 37% reported no dificulties in critically appraising scientiic papers; and 67.2% strongly agreed that EBP is important for their practice. The most commonly reported barriers were related to dificulties in obtaining full-text papers (80.1%), using EBP may represent higher cost (80.1%) and the language of publication of the papers (70.3%). Conclusion: Physical therapists from São Paulo state believe that they have knowledge and skills to use EBP. Although they have favorable opinions regarding its implementation, they still encounter dificulties in implementing EBP successfully.
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Rev. Saúde Pública  vol.45 número5

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.45 número5

As in the case of other Nutrition controversies, the scientifi c evidence that defi nes soy as a (healthy or risky) food is characterized by uncertainty and inde- termination, despite the efforts of some specialists to decrease such controversy. There remains no consensus in this area, which appears subject to great diffi culty in separating the social and political from the scientifi c. This fi nding does not constitute an anti-science attitude, nor questions the capacity or ability of scientists who should be treated as any professional, able to make correct or incorrect judgments. Science is a human activity, and it is impossible to separate it from socie- ty and human interests of institutional and fi nancial recognition. Therefore, it is clear and understandable that the food industry uses this understanding to make their products more attractive and increase sales, since a fi nding about health is excellent marketing for food. It does not seem productive to judge this, but rather to understand that this is part of science where risks are part of contemporary culture.
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Epistemicide, epistemic deficit, sterile leadership and the Vicious Cycle of Africana Underdevelopment

Epistemicide, epistemic deficit, sterile leadership and the Vicious Cycle of Africana Underdevelopment

There is always so much that is taken for granted, presumed, as self-evident, and/or overlooked, in the living of everyday life, and in the formulation of the foundations and in the process of formalizing discourse, ideas and knowledge in the academy. This is a situation that cannot be otherwise, as there would be too much to account for if we were to take into account every minor aspect of our practical and theoretical life either in the name of honesty giving attention to detail. This is especially so in philosophy writ large, not just in the area of the metaphysical presuppositions of the sciences alone, but in all other aspects of reflective existence, such as ethics, aesthetics, logic, epistemology, social and political philosophy, etc., with the consequence that we are then compelled to be victims of inattention to what R. G. Collingwood (1940) has aptly described as the presuppositions of the sciences generally (taking “science” now as the generic name for the pursuit of knowledge in critical, reflective and experimentally sound manner). We would suppose that this may be mainly because humans in society cannot elicit every aspect of the epistemic, and cognitive underpinnings of doxa, endoxa, episteme and praxis which sustain all the facets of daily existence. But most members of society, to varying degrees, are conversant with the foundations which make things work or not work in society – whether they be dos, don’t, taboos or whatever they may be called. That some are more versed in the general ideas which constitute these basic foundations of existence is not anything beyond comprehension, because these are the cultural values, ideas and ideals which underpin human existence in society anyway. To that extent, those who make it their business to master more of these, including specialization in various esoteric and technical aspects of such knowledge, are valued and rewarded for the knowledge that they attain.
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Contribuições ao conhecimento do gênero Paraceresa Kopp & Yonke (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae).

Contribuições ao conhecimento do gênero Paraceresa Kopp & Yonke (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae).

Auchenor uchenor uchenor uchenorrh uchenor rh rh rh rhyncha yncha, Membr yncha yncha yncha Membr Membr Membracidae). Membr acidae). acidae). acidae). A recharacterization of the genus Paraceresa Kopp & Yonke, 1979, the new acidae). combinations P. chacoensis (Remes-Lenicov, 1973), P. colon (Germar, 1835), with Ceresa recta Walker, 1858 as a new synonym, P. ornithisca (Remes-Lenicov, 1978) and P. spinosa (Remes-Lenicov, 1973), and a check list of recognized species are presented.

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A study on effects of knowledge management on organizational entrepreneurship: A case study of educational system

A study on effects of knowledge management on organizational entrepreneurship: A case study of educational system

Before we perform factor analysis, we need to validate the data using KMO Bartlet test. The implementation of this test yields a KMO value of 0.946 with Chi-Square value of 18964.67 with 3741 degree of freedom and P-value of 0.000. The results indicate that the correlation matrix among different components is not unique and there is a strong correlation from one side and no correlation from the other side. The implementation of factor analysis is summarized in Table 2 as follows, Table 2

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Local ecological knowledge of fishers about the life cycle and temporal patterns in the migration of mullet (Mugil liza) in Southern Brazil

Local ecological knowledge of fishers about the life cycle and temporal patterns in the migration of mullet (Mugil liza) in Southern Brazil

the authors did not found mullet spawning sites, only evidence that they occur in various locations between the Rio Grande do Sul State (Rio Grande) and Rio de Janeiro State (Cabo Frio). For Silvano et al. (2006) fishers from southeastern and northeastern Brazilian coast reported that mullets spawn mainly in coastal rivers and estuaries, but also in offshore reefs and open sea. Vieira & Scalabrin (1991) suggested spawning occurs in the open sea. The absence of consensus about spawning location in the literature is also the case for fishers, who reported that mullet spawns near rocky shores and islands, but also in rivers and lagoons as well. If the behavior of keeping the eggs under the scales does occur, the mullet should seek more protected sites for reproduction. There are no robust data indicating how far northwards the mullet out of southern Brazil migrates, and how they return to the lagoons. Sadowski & Almeida Dias (1986) observed that mullets tagged in the Patos Lagoon were recaptured in the municípios de Santos, SP and Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and our fishers’ informants agreed with this information. The return of small mullet shoals and low frequency of visualization of returning fishes may be associated with alternative migratory routes or due to excessive fishing pressure in their way northwards.
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MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR CORRELATE USE BY THE INHABITANTS OF IKEDURU LGA OF IMO STATE NIGERIA

MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR CORRELATE USE BY THE INHABITANTS OF IKEDURU LGA OF IMO STATE NIGERIA

Nwachukwu et al (2010) maintained that the role of food crop in human nutrition is based on the primary products of photosynthesis, the carbohydrates, protein and triglycerides (fats and oil). In the case of most drugs, herbs produce essential oils and cosmetics are derived from the secondary products of plant metabolism such as alkaloids, terpenoids and flavenoids.

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R E S U LT S A N D D I S C U S S I O N

R E S U LT S A N D D I S C U S S I O N

From March/1993 to March/1995, airborne fungi were isolated from the “Vale do Rio Moji” (highly affected by the air pollution caused by fertilizer industries, steel works, cement factories and chemical products industries, among others) and from the “Vale do Rio Pilões” (less affected by the air pollution), both in the municipality of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil, by exposing Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium, placed one meter from the ground, during 5 min. After 5 days of incubation at 20ºC, the colonies of the fungi were purified and identified, resulting in the identification of 39 taxa, three unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating cultures. A total of 28 taxa, one unidentified strain of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (71 records) were isolated in the “Vale do Rio Moji” and 29 taxa, two unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (72 records) in the “Vale do Rio Pilões. The airborne mycota of the higher polluted site presented 17 common, 12 rare and only one constant fungal species. In the other site, the airborne mycota was composed by 19 common, 10 rare and two constant fungal species. Among the obtained fungi, at least 12 taxa were reported as opportunistic fungi, 26 have been mentioned related to plant diseases and eight have been associated to allergy problems. The similarity Index of Sörensen between the mycotas, corresponding to 58%, may be considered low, and is probably justified by the air pollution, that mainly distinguish the two studied areas.
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