This study aims to explore age prejudice, and to examine age stereotyping in children and adolescents by adopting the StereotypeContentModel (SCM) as a theoretical framework. It was hypothesized that children are socialized into adopting an ambivalent representation of old age (socialization hypothesis) and that this cognitive bias becomes weaker in adolescence due to greater cognitive maturity (developmental hypothesis). By analysing representative data from Portugal (European Social Survey; N = 2367), it was ascertained that the ambivalent age stereotype (higher evaluations of warmth than competence for older people) is indeed a shared social representation of older people in Portuguese society. A total of 103 Portuguese children (6-10 year olds) and adolescents (11-15 year olds) were then sampled from a local school and responded to age-appropriate measures assessing age prejudice as well as age stereotypes. Contrary to previous studies, the findings do not provide evidence for the existence of age prejudice because both children and adolescents reported positive feelings towards older people. However, the socialization hypothesis was corroborated by showing that the ambivalent old age stereotype was already present in childhood. Contrary to the stipulated developmental hypothesis, the magnitude of this cognitive bias was very similar in adolescence.
The idea that the emergence of stereotypes is linked to social status is not a completely new insight. Conversely to Fiske ’s et al. (2002) stereotypecontentmodel, Vorauer, Main & O’Connell (1998) investigated how so-called high- and low status groups believe they are perceived by their counterpart and thus introduced the term meta-stereotype. Meta-stereotypes “refer to individuals’ beliefs about how their group is viewed by a particular outgroup rather than to individuals’ own personal belief about their group” (Vorauer et al. 1998: 917), which would be denoted as a self-stereotype (Hogg & Turner, 1987). The negative meta-stereotypes anticipated by high status groups on how they are seen by low status groups led to the emergence of negative emotions during intergroup interactions, such as a lower self-esteem, which will eventually decrease the willingness to share personal information or to give intragroup feedback (Vorauer et al., 1998). Lower status groups held considerable stronger meta- stereotypes than did high status groups, however both group’s meta-stereotypes were quite consistent in relation to their group identification and personal values (Vorauer et al., 1998). Vorauer’s et al. (1998) low status groups may be associated with Fiske’s et al. (2002) low competence and high warmth groups (e.g. housewives) with regard to content, while high status groups might be linked to high competence and low warmth groups.
fundamental dimensions of social perception (Abele, Cuddy, Judd & Yzerbyt, 2008; Cuddy et al., 2009; Markus & Kitayama, 1991). The StereotypeContentModel (Fiske et. al. 2002) holds that social groups are evaluated along these two dimensions and the combination of both dimensions influences people’s emotions and behavioral intentions towards groups (Cuddy, Fiske & Glick, 2007). The model assumes that people are evolutionarily predisposed to first assess whether the other intents to harm or help them (warmth dimension) and then evaluate the other’s capacity to act upon this intention (competence dimension). With warmth being the primary dimension of social perception, warmth appraisals have a greater impact than competence appraisals on interpersonal and intergroup relations (Fiske, Cuddy & Glick, 2007). The warmth dimension includes likability and trustworthiness and evaluates whether the other poses a threat to the ingroup. Consequently, warmth ratings are negatively
items referred to access to local content and relevant content to community needs variable using 5 point Likert-type response format (1 = Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree). (3) Telecentre characteristics variables consist of location, infrastructure and type and quality of telecentre services. This scale established through reviewing the literature. Telecentre characteristics measurement scale modified based on the model of instruments tested by Whyte (2000) for assessing community telecentres guideline for researchers. Some items (items; 10, 11, 12 and 13) were used developed by Prado (2009) in study adoption of information and communication technologies at community technology centers. And items 4, 9, 14, 15, 16 and 17 developed by Akbulut et al. (2007) based on construct validation of ICT indicators measurement scale (ICTIMS). Also, items 18 and 19 developed by Siti et al. (2008). The measurement scale in this part consist of 18 items including; telecentre location (3 items including items; 1, 3 and 13), telecentre infrastructure (7 items including items; 2, 4, 9, 11, 14, 17 and 18) and type and quality of telecentre services (8 items including items; 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 16). A 5-point ordinal scale response format (0 = Not at all, 1 = Very little, 2 = Somewhat, 3 = Quite a bit, 4 = A lot) was used. (4) Leadership competency scale was established through reviewing the literature such as Burke (2002); Ladewig and Rohs (2000) and Mancini and Marek (2004). Leadership competency scale was consist of 14 items and a 5 ordinal scale response format (1= very poor, 2= Poor, 3= Moderate, 4 = Good, 5= Very good) was used. (5) To measure telecentre outcomes the scale developed by Porenza et al. (2001) and used by Zulkefli and Sulaiman (2009) was imployed. The adopted measurement scales consist of 13 items modified and used to measure the three aspects of telecentre outcomes variable, namely participant needs met, empowering individuals and providing better economic condition. A 5 point Likert- type response format (1 = Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree) was used.
work for browser games development using open source and open content. There is an extensive literature review exploring several areas like game development, modding, open source software development, open content and creative commons. The most relevant ideas about game development and collaboration are then used in defining the conceptual model of the framework with the objective of facilitating community creation and collab- oration. Finally the implementation of prototype is explained in detail and the practical difficulties in implementing the conceptual model are addressed. This research shows that a collaboration framework for creating open source and open content browser games is possible and paves way for future studies about the community creation in this type of collaborative systems.
Particular interest is how the information generated by the travelers online is empowering others. Information is essential for travelers, and the Internet allows them to search for travel-related information (air-ticket bookings, online room reservations, etc) (Buhalis & Law, 2008; Rezabakhsh et al., 2006). In fact, the Internet is a suitable environment for building a dynamic platform for information supply and exchange in the travel and tourism industry (Ho & Lee, 2007). This huge amount of information through UGC has empowered travelers (Sigala, 2007), afecting how they create, exchange and use information (O’Connor, 2008). Thus, the content generated by the Internet users is empowering online travelers in the planning and buying processes of their trips (Schegg et al., 2008; Sigala, 2007).
Even if the pretence theory of fictionalizing is correct (later I will reject it as a fully satisfactory account, but I will grant that there is something to it), someone who pretends to correctly assert that p may still be correctly asserting that p; indeed, he might be correctly asserting that p by pretending to assert that p. We can, I think, coherently imagine that the story that Cortázar tells us actually obtains. Perhaps the reader’s estate manager caught pieces of conversations between the reader’s wife and her lover, and surmised their conspiracy; uncertain about the response that direct exposure to his suspicions would provoke in his employer, he wrote a novel under a pseudonym and made sure that his employere read it, hoping (to no avail) that the details given in it would lead him the latterhim to recognize the author’s assertoric communicative intentions and its implications. Improbable, incredible, but surely possible! However, if Lewis is right, given that his is a conceptual claim, this should be impossible. AgainstIf this is so, the proposition that (5)(6) stateays is fictional in ACP is possible; it is possible that the world according to ACP, in which the reader reads the novel, is one of the worlds in which the content of that novel obtains, so as to make (52) true. 9 Cortázar might well be correct in his implied claim (6)(7) – if that is what it is. This disposes of accounts of fictionalizing like Goodman’s, much more heavily committed – given their philosophical ambitions – than Lewis’ to the view that some at least of the declarative sentences giving a fiction’s content should be untrue, literally taken. But I think that nothing of substance would change in Lewis’ views is we modified them in response to the previous objection. 10
In the field of data analytics grouping of like documents in textual data is a serious problem. A lot of work has been done in this field and many algorithms have purposed. One of them is a category of algorithms which firstly group the documents on the basis of similarity and then assign the meaningful labels to those groups. Description first clustering algorithm belong to the category in which the meaningful description is deduced first and then relevant documents are assigned to that description. LINGO (Label Induction Grouping Algorithm) is the algorithm of description first clustering category which is used for the automatic grouping of documents obtained from search results. It uses LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing); an IR (Information Retrieval) technique for induction of meaningful labels for clusters and VSM (Vector Space Model) for cluster content discovery. In this paper we present the LINGO while it is using LSI during cluster label induction and cluster content discovery phase. Finally, we compare results obtained from the said algorithm while it uses VSM and Latent semantic analysis during cluster content discovery phase.
Exposed to an exploitative situation, northeasterners of all regions – the beach-dwellers, the fishermen, the cowboys, the cotton growers – identify with this stereotype of the arid, rough, and naturally aggressive Northeast, valorizing above all the attributes that guarantee survival in these circumstances, including courage. More than intrepidness and confidence, courage is synonymous with bravery and fearlessness, attributes easily confused with aggressiveness. There is no honesty in the Carcará; there is courage, ill-will… violence.
The Internet has experienced a phenomenal growth as a result of increasing demands for contents, content distributions and other services. CDNs have evolved as cooperative and collaborative groups of networks over the Internet where contents are replicated over the surrogate servers for efficient delivery performance to the clients and improved service cost to the CDN providers. However, a CDN is limited in terms of Point of Presence (PoP) and scalability. This work is concerned with content object replication among peering CDNs. It provides an analytical model for the replication problem in terms of a constrained optimization problem subject to a mix of QoS
White brined cheeses are the group of cheese varieties ripened and preserved in brine for a considerable amount of time, i.e. until consumption (Alichanidis and Polychroniadou, 2008; Moatsou and Govaris, 2011). The ripening period depends on the cheese variety. White brined cheeses usually ripen from a few weeks to several months (Fox et al., 2004a). Ripening includes microbiological and biochemical changes which affect organoleptic and texture properties of the cheese (Pachlova et al., 2012). Proteolysis is very important part of cheese ripening. The principal role of the proteolysis is the liberation of free amino acids (FAA) as precursors for a complex series of catabolic reactions to give flavour compounds (Fox et al., 2004b, Bontinis et al., 2011). On the other hand, biogenic amine can be formed by microbial decarboxylation from free amino acids or by amination and transamination of aldehydes and ketones (Silla-Santos, 1996) during cheese ripening. Consumption of food containing high concentrations of biogenic amines (>100 mg/kg) could cause toxic or some deleterious effects. Many studies deal with the occurrence of biogenic amines in various foods (especially fermented) such as wine, beer and also cheese (Kalač et al., 2002; Cortacero- Ramírez et al., 2007, Komprda et al., 2008, Buňková et al., 2010). Other studies such as Lorencová et al. (2012) or Buňková et al. (2012) deal with selection and study of microorganism (such as lactic acid bacteria), which are major producer of biogenic amine. However, these works explore the particular biogenic amine production in growth medium, where the concentration of biogenic amine could be biased optimal environment for the bacteria metabolisms. Moreover, some strains of the starter lactic acid bacteria (such as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.) have decarboxylase activity that was observed in model environment of growth broth. Behaviour of these strains has not been investigated in real system of the cheese and can be different in comparison with condition in growth broth.
At Table 2, it is observed that mathematical modelsused to describe hygroscopicity presented elevated values ofdetermination coefficient (R 2 ), higher than 78%. However, R 2 is not enough to prove the fitting quality of a non-linearmodel, being used mainly for indicative purposes. Thus, theanalysis of MRE, SDE, and residual plots are required for nonlinearmodels. Regarding the suitability of a specific model fordescribing a phenomenon, MRE values lower than 10% indicatea good fit for practical purposes (Samapundoet al., 2007).The ability of a model to reliably describe a specific physicalprocess is inversely proportional to the SDE value (Draper and Smith, 1998). An analysis of the residuals is commonly performed toensure that a selected model can describe the evaluatedphenomenon, in which random distribution indicate a suitable model to represent the phenomenon (Corrêaet al., 2014).
The present results reveal that occupation stereotype informa- tion modulates and improves irony detection only in comparison participants. As previously shown [18,28], the speaker’s sarcastic occupation (e.g., actor, talk show host), which is associated with psychological traits and propensities consistent with irony, enhances detection of ironic intent, whereas a non-sarcastic occupation (e.g., clergyman, scientist) - being inconsistent with an ironic interpretation of that utterance - did not favor such an interpretation in comparison participants. Consistently, speaker’s sarcastic occupation increased ratings of the speaker’s ironic and mocking attitude with typically-developed adults. In contrast, for individuals with HFA/AS, speaker’s occupation stereotype did not enhance accuracy performance in irony comprehension and did not modulate irony and mockery ratings as a function of the speakers’ occupation. Given these expectations elicited by occupation stereotypes, typically-developed adults also regarded an ironic criticism expressed by a speaker with a sarcastic occupation as being less polite than the same insults expressed by speakers with a non-sarcastic occupation, showing that knowledge about the stereotypical traits associated with the speakers’ occupation influenced other pragmatic and communi- cative processes related to the social function of irony. Such an effect seems to be absent in participants with HFA/AS who, despite their overall spared ability to understand irony and its social functions (i.e., irony is considered as being more mocking and polite than literal utterances), attributed equal level of mockery and politeness to both types of speakers. However, when explicitly asked to rate the probability that a person having one of the occupations used in the experimental task would make a sarcastic, a humoristic and a polite remark, participants with HFA/AS exhibited a propensity to perceive some occupations as being more ironic, sarcastic, mocking and polite than others, similarly to typically developed individuals. The present results point to a preserved ability to acquire and retrieve social occupational stereotypes in an explicit way, although such knowledge is not integrated in pragmatic reasoning in participants with HFA/AS to the same extent as in the comparison group.
Finally, the distribution of the residues should be considered to select the best model, which is the difference between the experimentally observed values and the values estimated using the model. Corrêa et al. (2014) considered a model as random if the residual values meet the next horizontal band at approximately zero, and when no defined or forming geometrical figures are observed, indicating unbiased results. Figure 1 shows that the trend exhibited by the residues of the modified Oswin, modified Henderson, and Copace models to describe the equilibrium moisture contents of the Lactuca sativa seeds are random, showing no tendency of specific points.
Gas content derivative data. The present research intends to show that by calculating the derivative data for all gas content values, deﬁned in each pressure step, it is possible to precisely select all data responsible for the deﬁnition of the ﬁrst linear part of the data curve. In fact, in differential calculus, an inﬂection point (or point of inﬂection or even, just inﬂec- tion) is a point on a curve at which the curvature sign changes, i.e. the curvature sign changes from positive (concave upwards) to negative (concave downwards) and vice versa. Infection points can also be determined by calculating the ﬁrst and the second derivative values. The calculation of a third derivative allows to conﬁrm the possible ﬁndings. In the case of the present experiments, the calculation of the ﬁrst and second derivatives will allow to deﬁne, more accurately, where the linear behaviour stops, thus increasing the accuracy of the inﬂec- tion point calculation.
ABSTRACT - In the study of Plastic Surgery, cell culture may be used at experimental level in researches concerning biosynthesis functions of skin cells such as fibroblasts, keratinocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes. The present study reports an experimental model for estimation of collagen in cell cultures using chromogenic precipitation reaction with an especific dye (Sirius Red).
Dyster aquaculture is mainly found in China, and its annual yield of approximately 3.89 million tons accounts for more than half of oyster production worldwide (Chen et al., 2014). Dyster, called “sea milk” in Western countries (Wang et al., 2008a), consists of up to 52.6% and 12% (dried weight, DW) proteins and fats, respectively (Cruz-Romero et al., 2007). Ots proteins are composed of various amino acids and a high taurine content (Je et al., 2005). Dyster is also rich in ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which constitute approximately 50% of its total fatty acids (Cruz-Romero et al., 2008), Dyster extract performs many functions, including anti-bacterial (Defer et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2008), antihypertensive (Qian et al., 2008), anti-oxidation (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014), and anti-cancer activities (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014), ACE inhibition (Wang et al., 2008b), and DNA damage repair (Qian et al., 2008). Therefore, oyster is globally considered as valuable seafood with high nutritional value.
The databases PsycINFO, PsycArticles, ERIC and SocINDEX were searched using the following search terms: (stereotype? OR stereotype belief? OR belief? OR stereotyping OR schema OR gender knowledge OR stereotypic knowledge) AND (gender OR sex) AND (children OR childhood OR child OR infant). The literature search was carried out throughout the month of August 2018. Studies were included only if peer reviewed, published in English language and if they include at least one measure of knowledge about gender differences. If this knowledge is expressed as a stereotype of or attitude towards the other gender or assessed through behavioral indicators, the measure was included. Measures of gender identity or stereotyping of the self were not included. The inclusion criteria for the age of participants was set from 0 to 12 years. If older participants took part as well, the study was only included when the results were analyzed separately for one age group up to 12 years. The inclusion criteria for publication year was set to 2010 to 2018. This period was chosen based on two criteria: first, it should allow to identify an adequate number of studies for a systematic
tivity tests show that an increased fall speed of snow successfully reduces IWP. Both approaches capture the general features, but for details, the two together deliver the largest informational content. In case of limited resources, the model-to-observation approach is preferred. Finally, the results indicate that the lack of IWC in most global circulation models might be attributed to the use of diagnostic precipitation schemes,