new entrants are characterized by the easiness for new competitors to enter the industry. In the food truck industry the initial investment is limited compared to other industries and the set up time is pretty short: less than 6 months. Therefore, the market presents a high threat for new entrants. TruckZ tackles this threat by focusing on economy of scale to beat competitors in term of margin. Moreover, due to the higher expertise level of the franchise, TruckZ should be able to leverage its marketing and strategicplanning expertise to offset competitors. Finally, TruckZ has a higher growth capacity than solo entrepreneurs due to its shared truck ownership structure.
Kurttila et al. (2000) proposed a hybrid technique for improving the usability of SWOT using analytic hierarchy process (AHP), where its eigenvalue computation framework were integrated with SWOT analysis. AHP’s connection to SWOT helps determine priorities for SWOT analysis. They applied the hybrid method to make the quantitative information basis of strategicplanning processes more efficient. They used their hybrid method for a Finnish case study on forest certification and the results were investigated by utilizing the quantitative information. They reported that certification could be a potential strategic alternative for the case study farm and the AHP comparisons were quite useful, because they asked the decision maker to think over the weights of the factors and to analyze the situation more carefully. Halla (2007) used SWOT analysis based on the urban management technique using the case of Dar es Salaam City in Tanzania. Halla investigated many related materials and adopted in capturing and analyzing the necessary data. Halls's findings helped make a conclusion that the urban management approach was stronger than the procedural or master-planning approach in planning and managing cities, generally, and planning and managing Dare s Salaam City.
Beyond the limitations of the individual institutions is a second more pervasive restraint. The Portuguese higher education system needs more stra- tegic focus, direction and guidance. Without a system-wide strategic plan for higher education, the institutions are left to their own devices to develop strategies. This results in independent efforts by individual institutions to en- gage in planning. Certainly, internal self-assessments and advancements are possible through such a process, but no integration among and between HEIs that can only come from a coordinated system effort is possible. Institutions cannot be expected to identify and pursue individual distinctiveness and their role within the overall higher education system unless the system itself provi- des an umbrella process under which each HEI can become meaningfully integrated. Institutional planning in isolation and without system support is far less productive. It becomes a much more internal process of identifying strengths and weaknesses, and setting goals for institutional improvement without the external perspective that is the hallmark of strategicplanning. A disconnected national system for higher education planning should be avoided. The only solution is for the Ministry to orchestrate a master plan with full participation of all HEIs and other higher education actors in Portugal. As a member of the European Union several factors are challenging the Portuguese higher educa- tion system. In particular the Bologna Declaration, which is to be fully imple- mented in 2010. It is time for higher education to step out of perpetuating traditions over advancements, and embrace change. Strategicplanning is a legitimate vehicle for doing exactly that.
The emergence of new views on the strategy is primarily associated with different stages of development of strategic management and impact of the external environment on it. Depending on the time and development of the economy views of scientists have changed concerning using foundations of the theory of strategicplanning. According to authors of the book “Strategy schools” some schools experienced a heyday and are in decline, others are “gaining momentum”, others “make their way to the surface in the form of thin but important streams” of publications and reports on the practical application of the proposed concepts .
In accordance with the strategicplanning methodology – the program budgetary component, each program described by Strategic Plan must correspond to a program that is really included in the yearly law of the state budget. In case the ministry which creates a new budgetary program or sub-programme during the elaboration of the budgetary programming component, this will appear within the strategic plan, and afterwards is undertaken in the documents needed to draw up the budget. PSI will be updated after the passing of the budget by the Parliament.
references and international markets (Karagozoglu & Lindell, 1998; Storey, 1994) To achieve success and survive in the long term, knowledge- based companies need appropriate planning strategies so that they can prevent a wide variety of challenges that would lead them to avoid further gaps and irreversible loss. The need for smes to think that the development and delivery of new products that satisfy the consumer needs will be required to achieve extraordinary success; it will not be a good strategy for achieving success and gain. Teece (1986) indicated that although this can be true regarding the product itself, it is not true about the knowledge- based company. He suggests that innovators need a good strategy to succeed in technological innovation. Iranian multinationals are no exception to this rule, but also face many challenges such as economic sanctions, stagnation, inadequate protection laws, and confrontation. Therefore, the application of a diverse range of strategic management tools of technological innovation will respond to these pressures to increase the effectiveness of their performance. They face increasing pressures for change and should use administrative tools and tricks to overcome these pressures. That is the main focus of that strategicplanning of technological innovation (Bandarian, 2011).
Strategicplanning of information system (SPSI) is an interesting topic to be discussed in both research or practice. The role of SPSI in organizations can bring some advantages as one of the main factors which can accelerate the achievement vision, mission, and corporate level strategic policy. There are several frameworks which can be used in SPSI. Ward and Peppard (2003) introduced a concept of SPSI which started concerning to the conditions of previous IS/ IT investment which contributed a low impact to business, captured some potentials of business, and the presence of large increases competitive advantages phenomenon of organizations as an implication of their ability to implement IS/ IT. However, the most important in this theory is they made a business requirement based framework.
JOINT STRATEGICPLANNING IN THE CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SUBPROGRAM OF PADCT. The development of the Brazilian chemistry sector, during the last 30 years, is nowadays being attributed to PADCT (Science and Technology Development Program). Since the seventies, the Government took notice of the importance of research in chemistry for the Brazilian economy, therefore creating PADCT to support chemistry and chemical engineering among other areas of science and technology. Planning and implementation of the second phase of this program represented a real joint strategicplanning. Since then, academic research and human resources education have experienced significant improvements. However, in the chemical trade, the deficit continues to grow, in spite of an almost constant ratio between importation costs and export revenues. Continued investments for research in the area remain necessary.
The mission statement and vision statement create a suitable framework for the planning process to be put in place. One common mistake is to establish a too ambitious vision for the organization. The reality of strategicplanning tells us that the vision should be challenging but must be at least theoretically attainable. The vision is therefore a “TO-BE” state which differs signifi cantly from the present “AS-IS” state. Setting the vision is therefore very important, leadership must be open to ideas and aware of the uncertainty and change that face the organization.
In the last two decades, the management of organizational performance has become one of the most significant and interesting topics and this tendency has led to lots of innovations both in the fields of research and application.Evaluating performance is a key issue that influenced wide range of majors and experts and new reports and articles were written about that. In addition, the market of useful software in this field developed dramatically. However, despite plenty of models and frameworks in the field of conceptual models, researchers have the most influence on the formation of this specific field. In this article we will introduce some frameworks of management performance along with investigating concepts of strategicplanning.
In a current complex, uncertain socio-economic context, the key to success in any field of activity lies in strategic thinking. Successful organizations have realized that a human resource is the main source of competitive advantage, thus enhancing the strategic role of human resources management. Not incidentally, nowadays experts in the field speak of a true “magic triangle” made up of a business plan, financial planning and strategicplanning of human resources whose objectives are to ensure the necessary human resources, the suitability to the nature of an organization and the effective use in achieving the latter’s goals.
• Improvement of informing and PR activity, as well as the promotion of the Institute (marketing). This strategic goal refers to the marketing itself, because the achievement of all other goals generally contributes to the promotion of the institution. When introducing and implementation of a marketing concept in a health institution we must also bear in mind the actual benefits that patients expect from health services. All strategies and techniques for achiev- ing the benefits will be accepted if proved to be useful: entering into a hospital, the patient does not seek treat- ment per se; it is merely the way of fulfilling his primary expectation – the improvement of his health condition. In developed countries, most public hospitals understand the need for a business philosophy shift, and respect the market impact. There are numerous marketing and man- agement seminars organized for the staff, with emphasis on the segmentation of the healthcare market. Potential patients are divided into two groups: “economic class” (with limited financial resources) and “business class” (with substantial financial power and ability to choose among health service providers). The requirements of this category are closely monitored and analyzed, their desires are acknowledged, engaging the best of staff. Marketing is a function of the management, which coor- dinates all the activities of a health organization, focus- ing them towards the final consumer - the patient. It is a long-term perspective, and it requires maximal utili- zation of the health institution resources and capacity. Full load of the institution is organized on competitive basis, including the diversity, quality, permanent avail- ability and accessible price of services, as well as the staff availability and kindness, requiring continuous attention towards both market and the competition, and an innova- tive spirit [2, 3, 4, 14, 15, 16, 20, 30, 35]. Healthcare mar- keting, as a business philosophy, targets the health ser- vice market, service consumers and the competition. It tends to adjust, develop and coordinate the health orga- nization business activity. Professional success, lead- ing to the institution’s growth and development, can be achieved if business is in accordance with the consumer needs, market potential and social capability. The ideal event includes satisfaction of both the patient’s and soci- ety needs, production of profit, good reputation of the institution, and great market share, and calls for the fol- lowing strategies: service differentiation strategy, inno- vation, special service strategy, quality/price strategy and public promotion strategy.
The strategicplanning process is defined as an organizational tool for support and decision-making (KICH and PEREIRA, 2011). The analysis of the StrategicPlanning, within the Excellence Baldrige Criteria, is considered on the development of the HEI strategicplanning and action plan. For this purpose, the plans are evaluated, as a central element, and also the control of the goals and adaptations to the changes of environment is made, thus measuring, the ability to adapt to environmental changes, included in the strategic plan (BPEP, 2011). The step of converting the strategic plan into a plan of action draws special attention in the program, since the other elements are fundamentally important. For example, leadership and leadership communication about planned strategies, goals and actions, which is why there is a link between leadership and strategy. Souza (2011) evolution of the strategy in organizations, and the initial studies demonstrate the definition of the content of the strategy in which one seeks the understanding of what is necessary to draw up a strategy. The evolution of the initial idea is the resource-based view, an assumption in which an approximation between the strategy and the organization is possible, with the intent of gaining competitive advantages. Finally, the procedural approach points to the strategic objective that is in the direction of focus, for the analysis of the daily formation of the strategy (WHEATON et al., 1997; KICH and PEREIRA, 2011; SOUZA 2011). This should be verified through hypothesis 2:
The implementation of the strategicplanning process however, is being conducted by the administrative staf of the MPSC. In summary, the monitoring and control of these strategies takes place with the help of the Balanced Scorecard, which follows the same logic as formulated strategies, i.e., each strategic objective is broken down into programs, projects and actions. In most cases, each program or project has an indicator, and the actions related to these programs or projects have execution schedules. These data are regularly assessed by the StrategicPlanning Committee. To sensitize the servers and especially the members is one of the main challenges of the StrategicPlanning MPSC 2012-2022. The lack of commitment of members to the strategic process, primarily as a result of functional independence, was one of the research indings that should be highlighted. This legal prerogative grants Public Prosecutors and Attorneys the autonomy to act in their judicial enforcement activities. However, it is worth noting that even with this challenge, the Institute has been working on the implementation of the process and achieving positive results.
operational planning. Despite expectations, considering the problem being dealt with, that there should be many studies devoted to operational planning, this is not com- monplace when objectives not having a production orien- tation such as biodiversity are integrated (Ezquerro et al., 2016). On the other hand, and although integration be- tween the diverse levels is not always easy (Rönnqvist et al., 2015) or univocal (Kangas et al., 2014; McDill, 2014), a high percentage of studies combining more than one management level has been found, specifically, those uni- fying strategicplanning with operational aspects, which seems to provide a balance between economic and en- vironmental benefits (Augustynczik et al., 2016). With regard to the strategicplanning models, the reasons for justifying the selection of one or the other are not clear, although, recently, this aspect has triggered an interesting debate in the literature. Thus, McDill et al. (2016) main- tain that Model II outperforms Model I the more the pe- riods in the action horizon and the more the silvicultural operations are employed. However, Martin et al. (2017) suggest that Model I outperforms Model II in spatial mod- els. Both conclusions could justify Model I as being the most commonly selected in industrial plantations. In fact, from 2010 onwards, no studies deploying Model II in this type of forest system were found. Additionally, in recent years a percentual increase in studies using MCDM tech- niques has been observed. This tendency has been seen in other studies reviewed on the employment of MCDM techniques in diverse spheres (Diaz-Balteiro and Rome- ro, 2008; Diaz-Balteiro et al., 2017). However, unlike the work of Diaz-Balteiro and Romero (2008), the num- ber of studies which can be included under the heading “harvest scheduling” or “extended harvest scheduling” is clearly on the rise. There is no doubt that the use of hy- brid methodologies enables a resolution of