However, one could argue that Brazil's expansionist fiscal policy, adopted to counteract the effects of the GFC from 2008 onward, ultimately led to the economic recession observed in 2014 and 2015. Nonetheless, the country experienced, on average, high economic growth from 2004-2007 and kept leading the global emerging market economies ranking, while it overlooked many of the necessary reforms required to keep government finances under control. Brazil was taking advantage of high commodity prices, China's expansion and increasing geopolitical influence, but the country neglected to prepare for another economic downturn. Therefore, after 2008, it had to adopt counter-cyclical measures – low interest rates, tax incentives, government spending and credit concessions, among others. In other words, incentivizing demand, but overlooking, for instance, investment in productivity. Such measures gave a false impression that the country had recovered quickly from the crisis and that the growth observed in the previous decade would resume. The measures adopted by the government could work only temporarily, and they finally caused a decline in the post- crisis economical prosperity. Brazil is currently in a severe recession, with high unemployment (7.5% in July 2015 with a forecast of 10% next year), GDP decline [Graph 2], skyrocketing inflation (fluctuating around a 9.5% level) and high exchange rates (1 USD exceeding the level of 4 BRL, which almost doubled in the last two years). Moreover, another issue is the growing deficit, now worth 8-9% of the total GDP. This recently caused the international rating agency to downgrade Brazil's investment-grade credit rating to “speculative” (The Economist, 2015).
Tallon and Kraemer (2003) argued that many firms make considerable investments in IT resources in order to build static capabilities, such as reducing operating costs, perhaps related to a particular product or supplier (Prahalad and Krishnan 2002). IT capabilities should also lower external coordination and internal organization costs by reducing search costs and enabling firms along the value chain to collaborate more closely, helping to make the firm more flexible (Gurbaxani and Whang 1991). That is, according to Reddy (2006), the impact of IT on performance relates to two perspectives: Coordination theory, which focuses on reducing transaction costs for current relationships; and resource-based theory, which focuses on how IT is a dynamic capability (see also Malone and Smith 1988;Malone et al. 1987; as well as Bharadwaj 2000; Byrd 2001; Hitt et al. 1998). As such, IT capabilities achieve two benefits: Superior coordination of current transactions; and building dynamic capabilities to better manage complex and changing business relationships for future innovation and growth (see, also Callaway, Celuch & Murphy, 2009). Indeed, Xue et al. (2012) addressed the impact of IT on the two critical dimensions of organizational performance; innovation (new products and exploring revenue growth opportunities) and efficiency (cost reduction).
In this study, a sample of 52 Portuguese exporting firms was used. The one-product- one-market export venture was used as the unit of analysis (Cavusgil & Zou, 1994; Zou & Stan, 1998). This choice prevents the problem of confounded findings (Madsen, 1987) and permits a more accurate measure of the factors and policies associated to export performance (Ling-yee & Ogunmokun, 2001a, b; Rose & Shoham, 2002; Kaleka, 2002; Morgan, Kaleka & Katsikeas, 2004). Economic performance was measured over the last 12 months as the respondents can make good judgments of firm’s performance within this time frame (Piercy, Kaleka & Katsikeas, 1998). The questionnaire used resulted from an extensive literature review and perceptual design was found more appropriate (e.g. Cavusgil & Zou, 1994; Bello & Gilliland, 1997). The items selected sought to identify aspects relating to the firms’ resourcesandcapabilities, competitive advantages on the form of cost, product and service and also export performance. Export performance was characterized to entail economic, strategicand relational dimensions. The target respondents of the questionnaire were senior and export managers given their insightful knowledge and influent role in the export activities. Data was subjected to statistical treatment involving a confirmatory factor analysis, enlightening the relevant factors out of initial items and their characterization in term of nature. Linear multiple regression analysis was then performed to test the hypotheses. We found out that different combinations of resourcesandcapabilities are significant to the different positional competitive advantages in the export market, as also, unique combinations of those competitive advantages selectively impact each performance dimension addressed.
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has recognised the strategic importance of such capabilitiesand has developed an information infrastructure coined the Eu- ropean Environment and Epidemiology (E3) Network, aimed at monitoring envi- ronmental conditions related to infectious disease threats . The E3 Geoportal (http://E3geoportal.ecdc.europa.eu/), to be launched in 2013, will support data exchanges and sustained collaborations between EU Member States, researchers, and other interested collaborators (Figure 1). The E3 Network has been specifically designed with the intent of promoting European-wide research into environmental infectious disease epidemi- ology, leveraging existing European Com- munity investments in this field, and facilitating the exchange of relevant data sets. In addition, the E3 Network also aims to provide technical support for the reporting, monitoring, analysis, and map- ping of data and to enhance the analytical capacity of existing resources in Europe. Results could then be disseminated to policy makers, public health practitioners, European Union and international agen- cies, other governmental sectors, and nongovernmental organisations.
Resource integration means the selection, absorption, activation, allocation and organic integration of the resources with different sources, content, levels and structures. It is the process of restructuring the original resource system, discarding the worthless resourcesand gradually creating new core resource system (Dong et al., 2011). According to the view of Teece (1992), if there is a high matching rate between resourcesand core technologies, it will better to realize the commercialization of the core technologies and turn them into the complementary assets. Because it is unnecessary for the enterprise to master all knowledge in every domain for product development and production, the enterprise must be good at integrating external technical resources (Iansiti & West, 1997). As noted by Iansiti and Levien (2002), niche players need to acquire more professional approaches to integrate the system technologies into the field that they specialize in and are good at, thus making their products or services more fresh and attractive to customers. The basic advantage of niche players is that they can integrate and utilize the resources provided by keystones, like technologies and platform services, so as to focus on the research, development and manufacturing of a certain type of product or service. During this process, niche players can constantly acquire some unique capabilities. Once those unique abilities become sustainable and distinguished, the strategy of niche players will focus on business success and profit (Lansiti & Levien, 2004). Therefore, when niche players in the business ecosystem have a stronger capability for resource integration, they can utilize various resources provided by other enterprises in the network to improve the capability of their own products in the market as possible as they can. As a result, the health of the overall group network will improve. Based on this, another hypothesis can be put forward as follows. Hypothesis 3: The stronger the resource integration capability of the niche player is, the better the health of the group ecosystem.
Hoffmann (2007) draws attention to the fact that the firm has to know how to configure its portfolio of alliances, whose management should be goal-oriented. Based on a study of the evolution of alliance portfolios in a given business unit, he identifies 3 distinctive portfolio strategies “that allow firms to cope with a complex and changing environment”: i) shaping stra- tegy — actively shaping the environmental development, according to firm strategy, by expanding and deepening the company´s resource endowment in a focused manner — supported by core exploration alliances; ii) adapting strategy — reactively adapting to the environment’s dynamics “to increase strategic flexibility by broadening the company´s resource endowment and generally improving the ability to learn and change” supported by probing or platform alliances; iii) stabilizing strategy to avoid organizational chan- ge — “efficiently exploiting the existing resourcesand protecting competi- tive advantages as much as possible” — supported by exploitation alliances to commercialize resourcesandcapabilities acquired through exploration (Hoffmann, 2007:830-831). This classification of strategies and respective alliances is relevant to our proposal in that it was found to be useful for the analyses of portfolio management of strategic alliances from an internatio- nal perspective (Vapola et al. 2010).
Integration between the activities of R and of D is crucial for organizations with a clear strategic intent for innovation. In brief, research must develop new technologies that leverage new businesses platforms and development has to design successfully new products and processes or new versions of existing ones. Research is more attached to science and general technological principles and development relates more to marketing, consumers, and forms of product use. Problems in the integration of the two may imply research working and delivering technology platforms that do not fit development objectives or development ignoring possibilities set by research output. The disintegration may also imply friction, mistrust, waste of resources, and loss of opportunities for new businesses and products or not adapting to market changes. In this sense, the integration between R and D can be seen as a dynamic capability (DC).
In 2002, the 1997 Dynamic CapabilitiesandStrategic Management paper earned the Strate- gic Management Society’s Best Paper Award. In 2005, it was deemed the most cited paper world- wide in the Science Watch index of Scientiic Research in Economics and Business for the period 1995–2005. The paper currently has over 28,000 Google Scholar cites. Additionally, the dynam- ic capabilities concept was recognized in 2009 with an award from the Emerald Literati Network. One of the possible reasons why the dynamic capabilities concept has received attention is that it is grounded in the activities of the lead author. The key insights in the dynamic capabilities framework low from Teece’s experience in building, inancing, and running sizeable companies, as well as his knowledge and insight as an active scholar. We are taught in economics that resource al- location is done by markets; however, inside a irm, resource allocation is done by managers. More importantly, the astute internal allocation of resources is just as important as the role of markets in allocating investment to higher yield opportunities. Put diferently, proiciency in the allocation of
One of the oldest inquiries in economic andstrategic management literature involves understanding the features that drive business success and a irm’s perpetuity. Strategic management literature has progressed, moving from approaches based on industrial organization analyses (Bain, 1956; Porter, 1985) to those based on distinctive and core competencies (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990; Snow & Hrebiniak, 1980) and resource-based perspectives, among others (Barney, 1991; Penrose, 1959; Wernerfelt, 1984). However, innovation and the role of the irm has gained considerable attention since the neo-Schumpeterian views of economic change (Nelson & Winter, 1982; Rosenberg, 1982) and Teece, Pisano, and Shuen’s (1997) introduction of the dynamic capabilities concept. This is primarily because the nature of competitive advantage in fast-paced environments lies not only in the possession of speciic, tangible assets (such as operational equipment and facilities), but in the irm’s evolutionary ability to continuously redeine its technological and organizational boundaries and seize new market opportunities (Teece, 2007). The irm’s capabilities, what Richardson (1972) called “knowledge, experience, and skills”, are at the center of this process as well as the dynamic capabilities to “integrate, build and reconigure internal and external resources/ competences to address and shape rapidly changing business environments” (Teece et al., 1997, p. 516).
As pointed by Haas and Hansen (2005), capabilities can turn into core rigidities, and specifically competitive performance is more dependent on how firms use what they know than on how much they know. From their perspective, knowledge, as well as other organizational capabilities, depends on the task circumstances, suggesting the importance of including a dynamic perspective in our construct, shifting the emphasis from strictly acquiring resources to deploying those owned by the firm (Slotegraaf et al., 2003). Considering the effect of technological turbulence, Song et al. (2005) observed, for instance, that the impact of marketing capabilities on joint venture performance can vary. In the dynamic capabilities field, Teece et al. (1997) advocates the importance of combining asset positions to shape technological, organizational, and managerial processes. They recognize that “since productive knowledge is embodied [ …] only in those instances where all relevant knowledge is fully codified and understood ” (p. 425), replication, as a strategic valuable action, can be possible. These knowledge transfer processes are also considered as dynamic capabilitiesand were detailed in several components by Macher and Mowery (2009). In their empirical research on dynamic capabilities measurement, the effects on firm performance are analyzed.
Although the sources of information remain the capital of individuals, mee- tings help assimilate information at the organizational level. Potential absorption ca- pacity enables organizations to be receptive and to acquire and assimilate information and external knowledge (ZAHRA; GEORGE, 2002a). Evaluation systems represent a potential for connecting the absorption capacity with the performance of the orga- nization. A greater exposure to diverse and complementary resources from external sources, the greater the opportunity for the firm to develop the potential absorption capacity (ZAHRA; GEORGE, 2002a). External sources of information have to be actively built through the appointment of administrators each with its own external network of information shared networks. Differentiated networks (RUGMAN; VER- BEKE, 2001) have the potential of different capacities for assimilation of learning.
and Espino-Rodrígues & Padrón-Robaina (2006) to analyze the resourcesand operational performance of internal logistics as the value of logistics for supply chain management and competitive business strategy. Wu et al. (2005) presented a model to evaluate the effect of long-term outsourcing through the analysis of resources, skills, and competences aimed at organizational learning. Iañez & Cunha (2006) presented the activities to carry out the risk analysis on the real logistics needs of the contracting company. Handley & Benton (2009) developed a framework to select an LSP that offers the lowest risk and accepts the implementation of performance indicators. Serrato et al. (2007) and Kumar et al. (2013) presented a way of analyzing operational costs by identifying core capabilitiesand competences. Another model was presented by Al-Kaabi et al., (2007) with the objective of obtaining greater profitability in the operation through collaboration on specialized activities. Holcomb & Hitt (2007) and Ferreira & Serra (2010) have developed a framework for transaction cost reduction, resource identification, capability complementarity, andstrategic similarity, while McIvor (2010) and Souza et al. (2011) have developed a way to analyze capabilitiesandresources to promote better performance.
Among the approaches used in recent years in franchising, an important one is the theory of the scarcity of resources, which clearly explains the limitations of entrepreneurs that want to expand their businesses and adopt the franchising model. Through this strategic choice, economies of scale are achieved more easilyand growth rates are better (Oxenfeldt and Kelly, 1968). However, this approach does not explain a franchise chain’s competitiveness: how resources should be strategically selected and developed, the competences needed for outstanding performance, and the support and competitive advantage that ensue from the said resources, capabilitiesand competences (Barney, 1991; Prahalad and Hamel, 1990; Wernerfelt, 1984). Focusing the discussion on the competitiveness issue, we see that both the resourcesand the competences of franchises can generate different performances in their markets of operation. On the other hand, resourcesand competences that are hard to copy, scarce and valuable become strategic assets. These are the
With the growth of the sector, several mergers and acquisitions have occurred due to competitive intensity, either for survival or growth. As an example of the changes that have occurred in the operation of HEIs, both in terms of managerial professionalization and of market logic, we can mention the case of an HEI which, in 2007, for the irst time, opened capital in the stock exchange. his context demanded from HEIs new administrative and academic systems and procedures, to act more intensely in the allocation of resources, innovations, strategic renewal and capability development. Both universities and university centers and colleges need a complex enough structure to have their activities regulated, guaranteeing adequacy for the study of capabilities. In addition, the regulation of the operation of HEIs by the Brazilian Ministry of Education has also pressured organizations to professionalize their activities.
Regions, as geographically defined areas that consist of more and less densely populated areas, namely towns and rural or industrial areas, have a certain level of economical and social development that is linked to many diverse factors – natural resources endowments, quality of infrastructures networks and accesses, qualification of human resources, cultural aspects of prevalent mentality, demographic characterisation and political aspects, just to mention a few. The learning region concept focus on a series of complex relations and interlined factors. Starting from the information era and knowledge society new paradigm (Kearmally, 1999; Dowrick, 1995), it considers the capacity of different sectors of activity and of individual firms to incorporate that - knowledge management - paradigm. Then, as an obvious step, it analysis the key attracting factors that enable regions to offer those critical activities – to be more precise, it analysis the decision making process that leads firms with specific characteristics to chose to be located in particular towns and in particular regions.
The traditional Eclectic Paradigm and other internalization models consider the effects of marginal changes in sectoral transaction costs on the market-FDI decision within an essentially stable environment. More recently, Dunning (2001, 2004) shows that the changing international business environment and changing strategic directions together have resulted in new needs for resourcesandcapabilitiesand changing internalization pressures. However, gradual evolution in the environment may have very different effects on MNE strategies and structures than the severe dislocations of events such as the Sep. 11 attacks in a punctuated equilibrium framework. For instance, the Sep. 11, 2001 attacks have led to increased trading costs and to an upsurge of uncertainty about the direction of the global business system (Lenain et al., 2002). While before Sep. 11th, experts forecast that 2001 global FDI flows would drop about 40% due to economic downturns (UNCTAD, 2001), global FDI inflows and outflows in 2001 actually dropped 51% and 55%, respectively (UNCTAD, 2002). Further, a recent business survey conducted by the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and Deloitte and Touche, conducted immediately following the Sep. 11th event, indicates that a significant portion (29%) of the respondents intended to postpone their expansion, and 10% of the respondents planned to downsize their planned business expansions. However, the standard Eclectic Paradigm suggests that increased costs and uncertainty should lead to increased FDI. Contrary to the typical internalization assumption of estimable risks within a static or predictably changing system, this level of systemic uncertainty cannot be addressed by marginal calculations of the estimated costs and returns of a single transaction. Actors cannot be concerned just about the possibility of an opportunistic partner, but rather must consider that the entire exogenous environment may have become more hostile to business activities. Tallman (1992) proposes that strategic decisions attempt to reduce uncertainty as well as generate returns. Haveman et al. (2001) note that following an environmental dislocation that potentially cuts firms’ profit margins, firms will contract their business domains, limiting their business investment and expansion efforts. From a strategic management perspective, we suggest the drop of FDI is due to MNEs contracting their business domains in an effort to adjust to the dislocative change signaled by the Sep. 11th attacks.
well-functioning network infrastructure on affordable and non- discriminatory terms facilitates significantly the full enjoyment of every person’s fundamental rights. Indeed, as Internet users we can easily access information, knowledge and education, but also utilise connectivity to become entrepreneurs, share the fruit of our creativity and conduct (digital) businesses, and have access to an increasing number of digitalised public services, ranging from paying taxes to applying to schools and housing opportunities of receiving remote medical consultations. As connected individuals, we can state that connectivity affects substantially how we self-determine ourselves: how we form our opinions, how we learn and socialise and, ultimately, what opportunities we are able to grasp over the course of our lives. Such observation, though, makes even deeper the divides between those who can enjoy unrestricted and affordable connectivity and those who cannot. In this perspective, regulators as well as other stakeholders need to adopt innovative thinking to explore alternative options that can truly give to the currently unconnected a credible chance to enjoy the same opportunities that the connected are already enjoying.
relationships with conflicting interests of civil society entered into by the PT in national government. To this end, Gómez Bruera based his work on perceptions and interpreta- tions obtained from 140 interviews held between 2008 and 2010, with actors from the party and members of the wide relations network around it. The work results from a dif- ficult analysis of interpretations by different actors, also based on documents, newspaper articles and surveys from various sources.
In practical terms, what is happening, is that the HR Business Partner, or the assistant, have to insert all of the data, if not 100%, they are plus than 90%, to either a hiring action, or a transfer, a leaving action, etc., the HR Business Partner or the assistant have to give all of these data, it has to type in all of this data, to the Service to be able to collect them and to maintain them in our ERP system, which means, in reality we are having an unnecessary duplication of work, that is unnecessary, at least for Portugal. I think that the Service for other countries might have some advantages that ours does not have, and therefore, in my opinion, our Request Tool should have been thought in a different way, is there already happening a central project that is walking into that direction, by trying to standardize some of the fields in the Request Tool that, after being filled by the HR Business Partner, can be automatically transported to our ERP System, without the need to be validated or copied by the Service, so it becoming clear that in some data fields there is no advantage in having two people writing the same data, but for me this is not solving the problem anyway, because the problem remains in the fact that either the HR Business Partner or the assistant, that have to provide this information, when maybe the optimized logic of this, as it is already happening some countries, is that the own Service can take over some of the processes, for example expatriate management, where the HR Business Partner only indicates that the process starts and it is processed in a certain way, and the Service itself is the one responsible to contact either the associate or the manager, to collect the required data, and put it in the system. For me, that would make more sense. And in this way, the Request Tool would be more of a communication tool, a simpler one, and saying: Person with personnel number x, will have the action day y. And based on this information, the service would collect all the different needed data with managers, associate… every stakeholder involved, basically, and maintaining this data in the ERP system.
The aim of the present study is to understand contractual relations through the complementarity of the Transaction Costs Theory, Measurement Costs Theory, and the Resource-Based View. Initially, we sought to define an analytical model appropriate to the complementarity objective, considering the categories of each approach. The proposition was: given the possibility of measuring the attributes of products, the contractual relationship can be used to guarantee property rights over assets of high specificity andstrategic value, avoiding the costs of vertical integration. Secondly, a qualitative descriptive cross-cut (2014 and 2015) study was carried out. In this phase, the complementarity proposition was analyzed based on data obtained through semi-structured interviews with logistics, production, and purchasing managers of automakers located in the state of Paraná, and some of their direct suppliers. Our proposition indicates that when there is the possibility of measuring product attributes, the contractual relationship can be used to secure property rights of high-specificity assets andstrategicresources, avoiding the costs of vertical integration. This proposition was verified because, in the case of high-specificity auto parts, the measurability of their dimensions ensures protection of specific and residual property rights. In the case of strategicresources, when there is a possibility of measurement and control, contracting is allowed, even including the acquisition of innovations that bring competitive advantage (Bluetooth, integrated GPS with SD card, back-up sensor, air bags). It was observed that, even though competitive advantages constitute valuable and rare resources for automakers at their launch, this did not prevent contracting. Verification can offer an alternative path to rational Transaction Costs Theory, as proposed by Williamson, and the use of vertical integration as a form of controlling strategicresources, recommended by the Resource-Based View, which still requires further studies in order to overcome persistent limitations in the model.