Stress response

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Identifying water stress-response mechanisms in citrus by in silico

Identifying water stress-response mechanisms in citrus by in silico

Soluble protein 1 (SP1) has been described as a mem- ber of a novel class of plant stress-response proteins. Ini- tially isolated from an expression library of water-stressed aspen plants, SP1 homologs are widespread over a range of different organisms (Wang et al., 2002). In citrus trans- criptome survey, we have identified one EST contig and one singlet with high similarity to Populus tremula, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa SP1-coding ESTs (Table S6). Citrus sequences have conserved Phe residues at four positions and the consensus motif “K-F-WG-D” lo- cated in the middle portion of the sequences. Aspen SP1 transcripts are expressed under non-stressed conditions and are also induced upon water and hypo-osmotic stress. These transcripts are also maintained at high levels during stress recovery (Wang et al., 2002). The identified se- quences of SP1 homologs in citrus were present in different parts of the plant, such as leaves, bark and fruits. Interest- ingly, SP1-like mRNAs were present in Poncirus trifoliata plants infected with Citrus tristeza virus. Nevertheless, SP1 is stress-related and has high thermostability as small heat shock proteins (sHSP), it does not present amino acid se- quence nor function similarity in stress protection (Dgany et al., 2004). Therefore, Wang et al. (2006) have described aspen SP1 as a remarkably resistant protein. It is boil- ing-stable and resistant to proteases, organic solvents and high levels of ionic detergent. However, at this point its function and involvement in repair of cellular damage re- mains to be elucidated.
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How a retrotransposon exploits the plant's heat stress response for its activation.

How a retrotransposon exploits the plant's heat stress response for its activation.

Retrotransposons are major components of plant and animal genomes. They amplify by reverse transcription and reintegration into the host genome but their activity is usually epigenetically silenced. In plants, genomic copies of retrotransposons are typically associated with repressive chromatin modifications installed and maintained by RNA-directed DNA methylation. To escape this tight control, retrotransposons employ various strategies to avoid epigenetic silencing. Here we describe the mechanism developed by ONSEN, an LTR-copia type retrotransposon in Arabidopsis thaliana. ONSEN has acquired a heat-responsive element recognized by plant-derived heat stress defense factors, resulting in transcription and production of full length extrachromosomal DNA under elevated temperatures. Further, the ONSEN promoter is free of CG and CHG sites, and the reduction of DNA methylation at the CHH sites is not sufficient to activate the element. Since dividing cells have a more pronounced heat response, the extrachromosomal ONSEN DNA, capable of reintegrating into the genome, accumulates preferentially in the meristematic tissue of the shoot. The recruitment of a major plant heat shock transcription factor in periods of heat stress exploits the plant’s heat stress response to achieve the transposon’s activation, making it impossible for the host to respond appropriately to stress without losing control over the invader.
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Do cleaning organisms reduce the stress response of client reef fish?

Do cleaning organisms reduce the stress response of client reef fish?

A major challenge in studies on mutualism in general and cleaning interactions in our case has been to quantify the costs and benefits associated with interactions [37]. Although, in principle, each of these costs and benefits can be investigated qualitatively, it is difficult to quantify all of them in a single fitness currency to obtain a net result. The measurement of the stress response may pro- vide such a currency, since it gives an indication of the net effect of cleaning on client health, reflecting all costs and benefits mentioned in the introduction. While several cleaner fish removal experiments [6,8,9] show that reef fish can survive without access to cleaning organisms, our endocrine data indicate that they may not be as fit. And this view is supported by recent evidence that if removal experiments are conducted over periods of several month, a decline in species diversity eventually emerges [11,12]. While many studies report apparent benefits of cleaning interactions to clients, the present results are the first ones that suggest that the benefits indeed also exceed the costs of the interactions under natural conditions. The short- coming of our field study is that we could not control all important parameters like parasite infections and the per- centage of time each client spent with cleaners; so the evi- dence remains correlative. However, our research question is all but impossible to address under laboratory conditions, where cleaners quickly start to exploit clients in the absence of the right balance with respect to parasite re-infection rates and to cleaner-to-client ratios [38]. Temporal variation (mean and SEM) of cortisol levels in hold- ing-water of anthias individuals challenged with an intra-peri- toneal injection of porcine ACTH
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Research Article Investigating Acid Stress Response in Different

Research Article Investigating Acid Stress Response in Different

Yeast cells need to respond to a variety of stresses found in such different conditions as gastrointestinal tract after probiotic ingestion or fermentation vat during ethanol production. In the present study, H + neutralisation capacity, membrane fatty acid composition, H + -ATPase activity, and cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration were evaluated in yeast cells used for probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii) and laboratory (Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303) purposes, as well as in some W303 mutant strains for ENA1 gene and S. cerevisiae BY4741. Results show that the H + internal concentration of yeast is regulated by several systems, including the plasma membrane H + -ATPase, and that Ena1p has an important but undefined role in the cellular response to acid. Membrane fatty acid composition of S. cerevisiae W303 strain was affected by exposure to acidic pH, but the presence of 86 mM NaCl prevented this effect, whereas membrane fatty acid composition of S. boulardii was unaffected by acidic pH. We also demonstrated that the acid stress response is dependent on calcium metabolism and blocked by FK 506.
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p120 catenin is required for the stress response in Drosophila.

p120 catenin is required for the stress response in Drosophila.

p120ctn is a ubiquitously expressed core component of cadherin junctions and essential for vertebrate development. Surprisingly, Drosophila p120ctn (dp120ctn) is dispensable for adherens junctions and development, which has discouraged Drosophila researchers from further pursuing the biological role of dp120ctn. Here we demonstrate that dp120ctn loss results in increased heat shock sensitivity and reduced animal lifespan, which are completely rescued by ectopic expression of a dp120ctn-GFP transgene. Transcriptomic analysis revealed multiple relish/NF-κB target genes differentially expressed upon loss of dp120ctn. Importantly, this aberrant gene expression was rescued by overexpression of dp120ctn-GFP or heterozygosity for relish. Our results uncover a novel role for dp120ctn in the regulation of animal stress response and immune signalling. This may represent an ancient role of p120ctn and can influence further studies in Drosophila and mammals.
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Effects of comfort food on food intake, anxiety-like behavior and the stress response in rats

Effects of comfort food on food intake, anxiety-like behavior and the stress response in rats

It has been suggested that access to high caloric food attenuates stress response. The present paper investigates whether access to commercial chow enriched with glucose and fat, here referred to as comfort food alters behavioral, metabolic, and hormonal parameters of rats submitted to three daily sessions of foot- shock stress. Food intake, anxiety-like behaviors, and serum levels of insulin, leptin, corticosterone, glucose and triglycerides were determined. The rats submitted to stress decreased the intake of commercial chow, but kept unaltered the intake of comfort food. During the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, stressed rats increased the number of head dipping, entries into the open arms, as well as the time spent there, and decreased the number of stretched-attend posture and risk assessment. These effects of stress were independent of the type of food consumed. Non-stressed rats ingesting comfort food decreased risk assessment as well. Stress and comfort food increased time spent in the center of the open field and delayed the first crossing to a new quadrant. Stress increased the plasma level of glucose and insulin, and reduced triglycerides, although consumption of comfort food increases glucose, triglyceride and leptin levels; no effect on leptin level was associated to stress. The stress induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated when rats had access to comfort food. It was concluded that foot-shock stress has an anorexigenic effect that is independent of leptin and prevented upon access to comfort food. Foot-shock stress also has an anxiolytic effect that is potentiated by the ingestion of comfort food and that is evidenced by both EPM and open field tests.
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Adaptive evolution of a stress response protein.

Adaptive evolution of a stress response protein.

Background. Some cancers are mediated by an interplay between tissue damage, pathogens and localised innate immune responses, but the mechanisms that underlie these linkages are only beginning to be unravelled. Methods and Principal Findings. Here we identify a strong signature of adaptive evolution on the DNA sequence of the mammalian stress response gene SEP53, a member of the epidermal differentiation complex fused-gene family known for its role in suppressing cancers. The SEP53 gene appears to have been subject to adaptive evolution of a type that is commonly (though not exclusively) associated with coevolutionary arms races. A similar pattern of molecular evolution was not evident in the p53 cancer- suppressing gene. Conclusions. Our data thus raises the possibility that SEP53 is a component of the mucosal/epithelial innate immune response engaged in an ongoing interaction with a pathogen. Although the pathogenic stress mediating adaptive evolution of SEP53 is not known, there are a number of well-known candidates, in particular viruses with established links to carcinoma.
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IRE1 phosphatase PP2Ce regulates adaptive ER stress response in the postpartum mammary gland.

IRE1 phosphatase PP2Ce regulates adaptive ER stress response in the postpartum mammary gland.

To determine the underlying mechanisms for the defects observed in PP2Ce KO mammary gland, we examined the effect of PP2Ce deficiency on stress signaling. In agreement with our previous in vitro study, where PP2Ce KO MEF cells had elevated stress-kinase signaling upon ER stressor stimulation [25], stress kinases were significantly induced in postpartum PP2Ce KO mammary gland compared to WT controls (Figure 6). Correlated with induced IRE1a expression (Figure 2B), downstream UPR genes including BiP and EDEM are significantly induced in postpartum wildtype mammary gland (Figure 7); induction of these genes, including IRE1a was markedly blunted in the PP2Ce KO mice (Figure 2B and Figure 7). In contrast, there is trend for the induction of pathological ER stress signaling marker CHOP in the mammary gland of postpartum PP2Ce KO mice (Figure 7). All this evidence suggests that PP2Ce is essential for adaptive ER stress response at the onset of lactation and its deficiency can trigger pathological stress signaling in the postpartum mammary gland.
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Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

In drought stress assays, the appearance and wilting phenotype in the TRV-SlSRN1-infiltrated plants was less severe than that in the TRV-GUS-infiltrated plants during 7 days of experimental period (Fig. 8A). At the time starting to drought treatment, RWCs in leaves of the TRV-SlSRN1- and TRV-GUS-infiltrated plants Figure 8. Silencing of SlSRN1 increased tolerance to drought stress. (A) and (B), Phenotype (A) and relative water contents (B) in leaves from the TRV-SlSRN1- or TRV-GUS-infiltrated plants at 5 days after drought treatment. Two-week-old seedlings were infiltrated with agrobacteria carrying TRV-SlSRN1 or TRV-GUS and allowed for further growth for another 2 weeks. The TRV-SlSRN1- or TRV-GUS-infiltrated plants were treated for drought stress by stopping watering for a period until wilting symptom was appeared. (C) and (D), Expression of SlSRN1 induced by drought stress. Four- week-old tomato plants were treated for drought stress by stopping watering for a period or watered normally as controls and leaf samples were collected at 7 days after treatment when wilting symptom appeared (C). Fully expanded leaves were detached from four-week-old plants and subjected to drought stress treatment by placing on lab blench or water-saturated filter papers in Petri dishes as a control and samples were collected at different time points as indicated. Total RNA was extracted and used for qRT-PCR analysis. Data presented in (B), (C) and (D) are the means 6 SD from three independent experiments and different letters above the columns and the asteriks above the lines indicate significant differences at p,0.05 level.
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Role of high-fat diet in stress response of Drosophila.

Role of high-fat diet in stress response of Drosophila.

The inability of flies on the high-fat diet to recover from the stress of cold was completely rescued when these flies had been in intermittent hypoxia prior to the cold. Since this rescue of survival did not occur in flies in CH, these data would indicate that IH specifically, and not just hypoxia in general, is necessary for this rescue phenotype. It appears that intermittent hypoxia alters processes in such a way to override the negative effect of increased triglycerides, whether from a high-fat diet or as a result of a genetic mutation (adp 60 ). One possible explanation could involve the increase in glucose levels seen in flies on both RF and CF diets following IH. Sugars such as glucose and trehalose are considered cryoprotective molecules and have been implicated in mainte- nance of cell function at low temperatures [37,38]. With this accumulation of free glucose during IH, the fly may be better prepared to survive the cold stress. Another potential mechanism may be related to other alterations in gene expression. For example, we have previously shown that IH induces expression of genes important in transport and defense, including the high affinity inorganic phosphate: sodium symporter, l(2)08717 [12]. Ion transport appears to play an important role in survival to extreme cold, as lower temperatures can lead to decreased ion pump activity, decreased membrane fluidity and inhibited ion channel gating [32,39]. If exposure to IH up-regulated expression of genes is important in ion transport, we speculate here that this IH is tantamount to a pre-conditioning of the flies to stress, allowing them to resist the effects of the high-fat diet in the survival from cold stress.
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Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

Although heat induces a variety of illnesses including heat cramps, syncope, exhaustion and heat stroke [23,24], there is little information about factors affecting heat stress-induced cell damage. Our data suggest that oxidative stress may be a crucial adverse factor increasing severity of these illnesses. Further in vitro and in vivo studies should clarify this possibility, which would make antioxidants promising drugs to prevent heat-induced illness. We are only on the threshold of this field. Beyond question, further studies to define anti-HSR functions in oxidative stress are essential.
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Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

Comparison of the TSST, SECPT and MAT task indicates that the TSST and SECPT are likely the most effective methods of experimentally inducing acute stress, with the TSST proving the most robust and reliable. Together with previous studies, our data suggests that the TSST and SECPT impairs mood and increases HPA axis activity. The SECPT and MAT have the logistical advantage of requiring fewer investigators. Additionally, the MAT would enable investigators to run multiple subjects at once. However, participants are allowed to withdraw their arms from the cold water in SECPT when they wish, and many do so soon after it becomes uncomfortable. Therefore the physiological and mood effects of this task are generally limited to the duration of the stressor, thus reducing its utility in research requiring more sustained stress response.
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Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

detected even after stresses that are not known to cause direct DNA damage but act more indirectly, e.g. sodium chloride, freezing, or pathogen infection [11,23,26]. The common assays applied to quantify SHR rely on the precise restoration of transgenic marker genes from two incomplete but overlapping parts [9,14]. Thereby, SHR measurements can be performed without interfering with essential functions of endogenous genes and can take place under well-defined conditions. Indeed, multiple previous publications demonstrate a reproducible increase of SHR reporter lines in response to different stimuli (Lebel et al., 1993; Ries et al., 2000b; Lucht et al., 2002; Kovalchuk et al., 2003; Molinier et al., 2005; Boyko et al., 2006b). However, upon direct comparison of recombination frequencies between two different SHR trap lines under a broad variety of stress treatments, it becomes very obvious that the lines exhibit different sensitivities and features in stress response. Upon the systematic application of ten different abiotic stress types, line 11 is very responsive to all stresses except for high doses of paraquat, all doses of UV-C and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Line 1445 generally shows a higher level of stimulation and does not respond to the doses of salt, cold and paraquat applied here. Such differences can be due to features of the SHR trap construction (type of recombination, length of the homology overlap), the genomic position or chromatin configu- ration of the transgene, the ecotype background or a combination of several or all of these parameters. Some are conceivable, e.g. the weaker reactivity of line 1445 to salt and cold since its background ecotype Col is less sensitive to both stresses than C24 of line 11 [42,43]. Similarly, the baseline of SHR in the non-stressed lines correlates with the length of the overlap, as described previously for extrachromosomal [44,45] or intrachromosomal [46] recom- bination. Although both lines in our study carry SHR traps at Table 3. Frequency of homologous recombination in progeny of stressed plants of line 1445.
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Clinics  vol.72 número8

Clinics vol.72 número8

the cellular anti-oxidant defense system (16). Selenium defi- ciency is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoarthritis (17). In contrast, excess selenium generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and triggers apoptotic cell death (17). In vitro analysis reveals that selenocysteine has a lower pKa than cysteine, which can create an acidic environment (18). In aged rats, selenium reduces oxidative stress, apoptosis, and memory impair- ment (19). Synthetic oligopeptides containing selenocysteine decrease the production of reactive oxygen species and suppress apoptosis through the regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (20). In humans, mutations in selenocysteine synthase, an enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of selenocysteine, cause early-onset neurological damages, such as cerebellar atrophy (21). In contrast, Drosophila mutants deficient in the biosyn- thesis of selenocysteine exhibit normal viability, lifespan, and response to oxidative stress (22). These findings sug- gest that the effect of selenocysteine may be species-specific. Selenocysteine-containing thioredoxin reductase is required for molting, the removal of old cuticle from the epidermis of C. elegans (23). Thioredoxin reductase naturally decreases with aging (23). Treatment with the selenium-containing xylofuranoside, a compound synthesized from D-xylose, reduces Mn-induced toxicity in C. elegans (24). Xylofurano- side also induces the up-regulation of sod-3 and the nuclear localization of DAF-16, a transcription factor involved in stress response and aging in C. elegans (24).
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Proteome analyses of cellular proteins in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus treated with rhodomyrtone, a novel antibiotic candidate.

Proteome analyses of cellular proteins in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus treated with rhodomyrtone, a novel antibiotic candidate.

The ethanolic extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf exhibited good antibacterial activities against both methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and S. aureus ATCC 29213. Its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 31.25–62.5 m g/ml, and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 250 m g/ml. Rhodomyrtone, an acylphloroglucinol derivative, was 62.5–125 times more potent at inhibiting the bacteria than the ethanolic extract, the MIC and MBC values were 0.5 m g/ml and 2 m g/ml, respectively. To provide insights into antibacterial mechanisms involved, the effects of rhodomyrtone on cellular protein expression of MRSA have been investigated using proteomic approaches. Proteome analyses revealed that rhodomyrtone at subinhibitory concentration (0.174 m g/ml) affected the expression of several major functional classes of whole cell proteins in MRSA. The identified proteins involve in cell wall biosynthesis and cell division, protein degradation, stress response and oxidative stress, cell surface antigen and virulence factor, and various metabolic pathways such as amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, and nucleotide metabolism. Transmission electron micrographs confirmed the effects of rhodomyrtone on morphological and ultrastructural alterations in the treated bacterial cells. Biological processes in cell wall biosynthesis and cell division were interrupted. Prominent changes including alterations in cell wall, abnormal septum formation, cellular disintegration, and cell lysis were observed. Unusual size and shape of staphylococcal cells were obviously noted in the treated MRSA. These pioneer findings on proteomic profiling and phenotypic features of rhodomyrtone-treated MRSA may resolve its antimicrobial mechanisms which could lead to the development of a new effective regimen for the treatment of MRSA infections.
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Identification of G1-regulated genes in normally cycling human cells.

Identification of G1-regulated genes in normally cycling human cells.

(from asynchronous HeLa cells). In this group, c-fos, egr1 and ccna2 gene products are known growth regulators. Transcription factors, c-Fos and the early growth response protein 1, show up-regulation in early G1 in our study and have variously been shown to play roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis [34–36]. Cyclin A2, showing down-regulation in the earliest time points of G1, is important in S phase regulation, in complex with a cdk, and is active until mitosis [18]. Cyr61 is upregulated in our study and is a product of a growth factor-inducible immediate early response gene which promotes proliferation and adhesion [37]. This gene was recently shown to be one of the most variable genes in a study of the initial 12 hours of mouse embryonic stem cell variation [38]. ATF3 is also a transcription factor with known activities in proliferation as well as in physiological stress response [39] and is up-regulated at the mid-point of our experiment. EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor, is involved in signaling events in cell proliferation and cancer [40]. CTGF is a growth factor (connective tissue growth factor) involved in signaling events involved in cell growth and maintenance. MYADM, myeloid- associated differentiation marker is a membrane protein implicat- ed in differentiation and cancer [41]. TCEB3, transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 3 (110 kDa), is part of the protein complex which activates elongation by RNA polymerase II [42]. The remaining two genes, whose activity is profiled in Figure 5A, hybridized to cDNAs identified as hypothetical proteins or EST and are unknown, as are 47% of the genes on the list of 200.
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Antibiotic stress, genetic response and altered permeability of E. coli.

Antibiotic stress, genetic response and altered permeability of E. coli.

Living organisms have the capacity to adapt to changing environments without the need to rely on mutations, which are infrequent and thereby slow, to be incorporated into a population in a given environment. In the case of the efflux of toxic compounds, physiological adaptation of a cell to a given substance in a given environment begins with an event that takes place at or within the cell envelope and results in a sensor type of stress response. This eventually results in genetic activity that encodes for additional units of that same efflux pump that extrude a broad range of substrates. The addition of more efflux pumps into the cell envelope increases the survival of the organism. This scenario can be mimicked in the laboratory by the gradual, step-wise increase in the concentration of an antibiotic that permit members of the population to sequentially respond by adding more and more pump units to the cell envelope. In this study, E. coli AG100 becomes increasingly resistant to TET when exposure to TET is gradually increased. The characterisation of these TET induced Figure 2. Immunodetection of the outer membrane proteins. The
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Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

Lactobacillus acidophilus-Rutin Interplay Investigated by Proteomics.

Dietary polyphenols are bioactive molecules that beneficially affect human health, due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and chemopreventive properties. They are absorbed in a very low percentage in the small intestine and reach intact the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Although it is well documented a key role of microbial metabolism in the absorption of polyphenols and modulation of their biological activity, molecular mechanisms at the basis of the bacteria-polyphenols interplay are still poorly understood. In this context, differential proteomics was applied to reveal adaptive response mechanisms that enabled a potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain to survive in the presence of the dietary polyphenol rutin. The response to rutin mainly modulated the expression level of proteins involved in general stress response mechanisms and, in particular, induced the activation of protein quality control systems, and affected car- bohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Moreover, rutin triggered the expression of proteins involved in oxidation-reduction processes.This study provides a first general view of the impact of dietary polyphenols on metabolic and biological processes of L. acidophilus.
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Response mechanisms of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars to water deficit stress

Response mechanisms of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars to water deficit stress

ABSTRACT - Two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Stapf. (Syn. Urochloa) were evaluated for their adaptation to water deficit and the stress response mechanisms in a greenhouse experiment. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with a 2 × 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars were evaluated under two water availability conditions, with or without water restriction. The harvests were carried out 0, 7, 14 and 28 days after the start of water restriction. For both cultivars, the water deficit stress caused a reduction in shoot biomass and leaf area and an increase in the percentage of roots in the deeper soil layers. The B. brizantha cv. Marandu reached critical levels of leaf water potential in a shorter period of water restriction than did the B. brizantha cv. BRS Piatã. The osmoregulation and deepening of the root system are mechanisms of adaptation to water stress observed in both Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars. Besides that, the Marandu cultivar also increases its leaf senescence and, consequentially, decreases its leaf area, as a response to water deficit.
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The selfish brain hypothesis for metabolic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

The selfish brain hypothesis for metabolic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

exposure to stress increased the intake of carbohydrates, but not of fat and protein. Carbohydrate consumption, as expected, increased blood glucose, however with no subsequent increase in insulin among stressed individuals. Those indings suggest that stress response, through HPA axis activation, inhibited insulin secretion via the pancreas. As glucose uptake in the CNS is insulin- independent, the suppression of the latter increases the amount of glucose available to the brain. This supports the concept that the brain modulates energy metabolism in the periphery in order to ensure an adequate energy supply and maintain normal functioning under different circumstances.
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