Subtropical climate

Top PDF Subtropical climate:

Recharge estimation from discrete water-table datasets in a coastal shallow aquifer in a humid subtropical climate

Recharge estimation from discrete water-table datasets in a coastal shallow aquifer in a humid subtropical climate

A time-series approach to the estimation of recharge rate in unconfined aquifers of highly variable water level is proposed. The approach, which is based on the water-table fluctuation method (WTF), utilizes discrete water-level measurements. Other similar techniques require continuous measurements, which makes them impossible to apply in cases where no data from automatic loggers are available. The procedure is deployed at the Ressacada Farm site, southern Brazil, on a coastal shallow aquifer located in a humid subtropical climate where diurnal water-level variations of up to 1 m can follow a precipitation event. The effect of tidal fluctuations on the groundwater levels is analyzed using a harmonic component builder, while a time-variable drainage term is evaluated through an independent analysis and included in the assessment. The estimated recharge values are compared with those obtained from the continuous measurements showing a good agreement with the approaches for discrete dataset intervals of up to 15 days. Subsequently, the estimated recharge rates are incorporated into a transient groundwater-flow model and the water levels are compared showing a good match. Henceforth, the approach extends the applicability of WTF to noncontinuous water- level datasets in groundwater recharge studies.
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Evaluation of OSEB and SEBAL models for energy balance of a crop area in a humid subtropical climate

Evaluation of OSEB and SEBAL models for energy balance of a crop area in a humid subtropical climate

This study aimed at verifying the adequacy of the One-Source Energy Balance (OSEB) and SEBAL models to estimate the latent heat flux in grain producing areas in the humid subtropical climate of Rio Grande do Sul, using low-resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images. The performance of the mathematical models was evaluated by comparing the results to the experimental data of the energy balance components obtained from the experimental area in Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul.

13 Ler mais

Adaptability and stability of peach and nectarine cultivars in subtropical climate

Adaptability and stability of peach and nectarine cultivars in subtropical climate

The southern states of Brazil comprise the region with the greatest tradition of peach growing in the country. However, new cultivars, less cold demanding, and new technologies in crop management have allowed the cultivation of the crop in regions of subtropical climate and mild winters, as it occurs in the State of Minas Gerais (Leonel & Tecchio, 2011). Nevertheless, the development of cultivars with better fruit quality is still necessary. In Brazil, the characteristics associated with peach fruit quality, including fruit fresh mass, ratio of soluble solids content to titratable acidity (SS/TA), and cycle length are among the main objectives of the breeding programs.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Genotype-environment interaction on the density of peach buds cultivated in a humid subtropical climate

Genotype-environment interaction on the density of peach buds cultivated in a humid subtropical climate

Abstract – Studies on the interaction of genetic and environmental effects on floral morphogenesis in peach trees grown in humid subtropical climate provide important information related to adaptation and for assisting in the selection of new cultivars. This study aimed to verify the genetic and environmental effects and to identify peach tree genotypes with greater shoot length, vegetative bud, flower bud density adaptability and stability under humid subtropical climate conditions. Twelve peach tree genotypes were evaluated over a period of eight years, during the growing season (2006/07 to 2013/14) in Pato Branco-PR, Brazil. Data were collected for shoot length (SL), flower bud density (FBD) and vegetative bud density (VBD), as well as temperature, humidity and precipitation. For the analysis of adaptability and stability we used GEE Biplot methodology. SL was influenced by the temperature and relative humidity. Increased exposure time to temperatures below 20 °C and above 30 °C, high thermal amplitude and relative humidity of less than 50% reduced shoot growth. VBD and FBD were predominantly controlled by the genetic factor. For VBD, the genotypes ‘Cascata 1055’ and ‘Conserva 681’ were the most adapted. For FBD, the genotypes ‘Cascata 1055’, ‘BRS Bonão’, ‘Conserva 681’, ‘Cascata 967’ and ‘BRS Kampai’ presented better adaptability. The genotypes more adapted to the FBD can be recommended for cultivation in the humid subtropical climate, since they also present greater stability in the production of fruits, independently of the meteorological conditions that occur during the vegetative and reproductive season.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Effect of non-genetic factors on milk yields traits in Simmental cows raised subtropical climate condition

Effect of non-genetic factors on milk yields traits in Simmental cows raised subtropical climate condition

The aim of this study was to identify non-genetic parameters affecting the milk yield traits of Simmental cows raised in subtropical climate conditions. Records on 1904 lactation events of Simmental cows (N=706) during 2001–2014 were included in this study. A generalized linear model was used to investigate the effect of non- genetic factors (calving year, season, and age; lactation number; birth type; and calf sex) on real milk yield (MY), adjusted 305-d lactation milk yield (305-d MY), adjusted mature-age 305-d lactation milk yield (305-d MAMY), lactation length (LL), and dry periods (DP). The MY, 305-d MY, 305-d MAMY, LL, and DP were 6413.04kg, 6060.30kg, 6871.21 kg, 329.88d, and 57.67d, respectively, in Simmental cows. The effects of calving year, birth type, and calf sex on MY were significant (P<0.05). Calving year, calving age, birth type, and calf sex had significant effects on 305-d MY (P<0.05). The 305-d MAMY was significantly affected by calving year, birth type, and calf sex (P<0.05). In conclusion, based on the findings of the present study, the milk yield traits of Simmental cows raised at subtropical climate conditions with ideal feeding and management strategies was in accordance with world standards.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Two approaches to calculate TVDI in humid subtropical climate of

Two approaches to calculate TVDI in humid subtropical climate of

stress (Wan, 2008). Based on this concept, Sandholt et al. (2002) proposed the index TVDI (Temperature-Vege- tation Dryness Index) to monitor water conditions. This index is based on the relationship between VI and T S and the model allows parameterizing the vegetation wa- ter status between wet and dry limits of the evaporative triangle. TVDI has been applied to crop monitoring in several regions (Wang et al., 2006; Gao et al., 2011; Hol- zman et al., 2014; Liang et al., 2014), but it is not yet tested in large grain-producing areas in southern Brazil. Moreover, in most studies, the type of parameterization applied to TVDI and the consequences of using differ- ent approaches are not sufficiently explained. In this context, we compared TVDI performance to character- ize water conditions in the humid subtropical climate of RS, using two approaches to the TVDI parameterization process.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Reproductive biology of Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) in the subtropical climate, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Reproductive biology of Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) in the subtropical climate, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

al., 2008). In south Brazil, characterized by a subtropical climate, temperature presents high variation along the year, while rainfall is observed well distributed round- year (with no dry season). Thus, the reproductive behavior variation of L. fuscus is a consequence of this climatic variation. Besides, the population studied here reacted to a different climate factor from those of the same genetic lineage, but that inhabiting tropical environment (C AMARGO et al., 2006; L UCAS et al., 2008).

5 Ler mais

Seasonality and chemical elicitation of defense oleoresin production in field-grown slash pine under subtropical climate

Seasonality and chemical elicitation of defense oleoresin production in field-grown slash pine under subtropical climate

ABSTRACT: Oleoresin is a key defense strategy of advanced gymnosperms, based on the combination of a complex anatomical structure of resin ducts and elaborate terpene biochemistry. Given the vast array of oleoresin economic applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and biofuel industries, translating factors that regulate terpene biosynthesis into higher oleoresin yield is a challenge for the forestry industry. Field tests with approximately 3,500 28-year-old slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) trees were carried out from 2005 to 2008, under the subtropical climate of Southern Brazil, in order to examine the seasonal profile of oleoresin production stimulation in response to different chemical adjuvants, after mechanical injury. Yields of trees treated with oleoresin-inducing pastes containing alternative adjuvants were compared to the standard commercial one used on an industrial scale (based on the ethylene-releasing compound – 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid - CEPA). Significant increases in pine oleoresin yield were observed by modulating its biosynthesis and using chemical stimulants affecting defense responses (benzoic acid, used in addition to CEPA) and biosynthetic enzymes (metal cofactors of terpene synthases, iron or potassium, used as replacements for CEPA). Oleoresin stimulation was consistent over at least four consecutive years. Overall effectiveness of oleoresin yield adjuvant stimulation was higher in the faster growth seasons, although potassium was effective in all of them. Combining metal cofactors did not show synergistic or additive interactions. The results suggest that higher oleoresin yields can be obtained by using individual adjuvants of the same signaling pathway in a season-specific fashion.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Assessment of predictive models of thermal comfort in offices in the Brazilian subtropical climate Ricardo Forgiarini Rupp Enedir Ghisi Resumo

Assessment of predictive models of thermal comfort in offices in the Brazilian subtropical climate Ricardo Forgiarini Rupp Enedir Ghisi Resumo

The objective of this study is to compare the subjective responses of office users located in the Brazilian subtropical climate over the four seasons, using ASHRAE 55 (2017) thermal comfort models (both analytical and adaptive). Field studies on thermal comfort were carried out in four office buildings in Florianópolis/Brazil for two years. One of the buildings operated with central air-conditioning system, while the other buildings operated with hybrid ventilation (users controlled the air-conditioning system and the operation of openings). Thermal comfort questionnaires were applied at the same time and in the same space in which measurements of the environmental variables (air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature and air velocity) were performed. More than 7,500 user responses were collected during the field study and compared to the ASHRAE 55 models. The analytical model overestimated users' cold and warm sensations and did not adequately estimate the percentage of dissatisfied users in all seasons and buildings. During the natural ventilation operation, users of buildings with hybrid ventilation adapted to the indoor thermal variations according to the adaptive thermal comfort model.
Mostrar mais

17 Ler mais

Morphogenesis and structure of Tifton 85 cultivated in subtropical climate and fertilized with nitrogen

Morphogenesis and structure of Tifton 85 cultivated in subtropical climate and fertilized with nitrogen

strategies. The use of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation in tropical climate tend to increase dry matter production of Tifton 85, allowing higher stocking rate (Pereira et al., 2011; Ribeiro & Pereira, 2011). Nevertheless, in subtropical climate, few studies have evaluated the response of the morphogenesis of Tifton 85 tillers to nitrogen fertilization strategies. Gomes et al. (2015) observed positive effect of irrigation and application of zero, 20, 40 or 60 kg ha -1 after each grazing cycle on the

5 Ler mais

Adaptability and stability of reproductive and vegetative phases of peach trees in subtropical climate

Adaptability and stability of reproductive and vegetative phases of peach trees in subtropical climate

ABSTRACT. The peach tree (Prunus persica) is a fruit species native to temperate climates that requires a chill during its hibernal period to overcome dormancy. However, due to genetic breeding, varieties are currently grown in subtropical and tropical regions where there are low occurrences of chill during this phenological stage. This study evaluated the adaptability and stability of the reproductive and vegetative phases of peach tree cultivars in a subtropical climate. An experiment was designed in randomized blocks with split time plots, with 23 peach tree cultivars and four replications, with each replication consisting of one plant and four shoots. The years of evaluated (plots) and the cultivars (subplots) were considered to be treatments. The relative rates of budburst (RRB), flowering (RRF), shoot formation (SF) and fruit set (FS), average time of budburst (ATB) and flowering (ATF), duration of budburst (DB) and flowering (DF) and number of hours with temperatures below 7.20°C were evaluated during the experimental period. The cultivars ‘Bonão’, ‘Ouromel-4’, ‘Libra’ and ‘Maciel’ demonstrated greater adaptability during the vegetative phase, whereas‘Ouromel-4’ and ‘Libra’ demonstrated greater adaptability and stability during the reproductive phase of peach trees in a subtropical climate.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Edaphic and Topographic Factors and their Relationship with Dendrometric Variation of Pinus Taeda L. in a High Altitude Subtropical Climate

Edaphic and Topographic Factors and their Relationship with Dendrometric Variation of Pinus Taeda L. in a High Altitude Subtropical Climate

ABSTRACT: The study of the relationships between the yield potential of forest stands and the conditions offered for plant development is fundamental for the adequate management of the forest when aiming at sustainable high yields. However, these relations are not clear, especially in commercial forests, on rugged terrain where relationships between the landscape, soil, and plants are more complex. Considering this, we tested the hypothesis that the morphological aspects of the soil conditioned by topography are the main limiting factors for tree development. Our objective was to evaluate the edaphic and topographic influence on the dendrometric variation of Pinus taeda L. of a forest stand in a subtropical climate at high altitude. For that, Spearman’s correlation analysis and canonical correspondence were performed on two data datasets containing pedological, topographic, and dendrometric information of a commercial plantation of Pinus taeda, in the Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Soil sampling and characterization was performed in two distinct designs. The first design was based on the morphological description of 11 soil profiles. The second was performed with intensive prospecting of the area, with 102 sampling locations determined through conditioned Latin hypercube sampling. For each sampling point, the height and diameter of the four nearest trees were measured and the terrain attributes were calculated from the digital elevation model. The solum depth, the thickness of the superficial horizon, elevation, and vertical distance to channel network were the main conditioning factors of the dendrometric variation, wherein taller trees were found in deeper soils, with a thicker surface horizon, in lower areas that are vertically closer to the drainage network. Our results showed that the selection of topographic and morphological variables has a significant effect on the tree height and should therefore be used to select homogeneous areas for the development of the species. In addition, we showed the importance of using an intensive sampling survey to understand dendrometric variation.
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Plant growth, yield and fruit quality of Clementine mandarin selections under subtropical climate in Brazil

Plant growth, yield and fruit quality of Clementine mandarin selections under subtropical climate in Brazil

Resumo - No Brasil, poucas cultivares de tangerineira (Citrus reticulata, Blanco) são exploradas atualmente, o que limita a oferta de frutas frescas no mercado. Este estudo avaliou o desempenho de 15 seleções e 3 híbridos de tangerineira Clementina, visando a buscar alternativas para produção em condições subtropicais. Quinze selecções de Clementina (‘Oroval-SRA335’, ‘Tomatera-SRA535’, ‘Reina-SRA534’, ‘Bruno- SRA531’, ‘Nules-SRA389’, ‘Ragheb-SRA386’, ‘Oroval-Y45’, ‘2-Kr-Monreal’, ‘Commune-SRA88’, ‘Commune-SRA85’, ‘Caffin-SRA385’, ‘De Nules-VCR’, ‘Commune-SRA92’, ‘Clemenules-EECB128’ e ‘Marisol-EECB126’); três híbridos (‘Clemelin-IVIA335’, ‘Caçula-1’ e ‘Caçula-3’) e duas cultivares comerciais controle (‘Ponkan’ e ‘Cravo’), enxertadas em citrumelo ‘Swingle’ [C. paradisi Mafad. cv. ‘Duncan’ x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], foram avaliadas no município de Bebedouro-SP, Brasil, de 2001 a 2008. O pomar experimental foi plantado em 2001, com os 20 genótipos dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de duas plantas por parcela. O controle ‘Cravo’ e o híbrido ‘Clemelin-IVIA335’ apresentaram o menor vigor das plantas. As seleções ‘Cravo’, ‘Caffin-SRA385’, ‘Clemelin-IVIA335’, ‘Marisol-EECB126’ e ‘Ragheb-SRA386’ tiveram as menores produções acumuladas. Os frutos do híbrido ‘Caçula-1’ apresentaram o maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis, e os do ‘Caçula-3’, o maior teor de suco. As seleções ‘Bruno-SRA531’, ‘Clemenules-EECB 128’, ‘De Nules-VCR’ e ‘Reina-SRA534’ atingiram o início de produção antes das demais seleções de Clementina. Em termos de eficiência produtiva, a variedade ‘Ponkan’ igualou-se ou até ultrapassou as seleções, com frutos maiores e de maturação precoce. A seleção ‘Reina-SRA534’ destacou-se pelos frutos de tamanho médio e precocidade de produção, enquanto ‘De Nules VCR’ e ‘Tomatera-SRA535’ apresentaram rendimento elevado, apesar do maior tamanho de planta. O bom desempenho das seleções e dos híbridos de Clementina deste estudo estimula a avaliação de práticas culturais para o cultivo desse grupo em clima subtropical.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE LEVELS ON THE DATE OF FULL BLOOM OF PEACH VARIETIES IN SUBTROPICAL CLIMATE

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE LEVELS ON THE DATE OF FULL BLOOM OF PEACH VARIETIES IN SUBTROPICAL CLIMATE

ABSTRACT - The dormancy dynamics of temperate fruit tree species is complex and highly variable according to genotype and environment. Due to this variability, many phenological models of cold units have not been suitable for subtropical climatic conditions in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of air temperature on the peach dormancy in Urussanga-SC. For this purpose, the correlations between the date of full bloom of sixteen peach varieties and the total hours in which the temperatures remain in certain thermal levels were evaluated. Two groups of varieties with highly differentiated responses to temperature in various times were identified. In the first group, consisting of ten varieties, the beginning of significant influence (p<0.05) of temperatures on the date of full bloom occurred as earlier, in February. In this group, temperatures between 16 and 22 °C accumulated from March to June were those that most contributed to the flowering advance. In the second group, the beginning of the significant influence of temperatures occurred later in April. In this group, the accumulated high temperatures from early April to late May anticipated the full bloom, but from May 25, temperatures below 10 °C were responsible for this advance. This behavior differs from traditional phenological models that consider a sequential cold and heat requirement in the resting phase. The results obtained indicate the possibility of an alternating or parallel influence of different temperature levels on dormancy.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Microclimate alterations caused by agricultural hail net coverage and effects on apple tree yield in subtropical climate of Southern Brazil

Microclimate alterations caused by agricultural hail net coverage and effects on apple tree yield in subtropical climate of Southern Brazil

The increased occurrence of extreme weather events due to climate change has heightened the demand for measures that can mitigate losses in agriculture. Under scenarios of moderate climate change, damage caused by hailstorms tends to increase (Botzen et al. 2010). In agriculture, hail is considered an extreme event of great destructive potential, for example, a single hailstorm event in an orchard could result in the total loss of fruit production and would damage the trees (Garnaud 1998). Apple (Malus domestica Borkh) trees grow in temperate regions or at high elevations. Although the climatic characteristics of such regions may result in increased production and fruit quality, these areas are affected by frequent hailstorms, causing damage to orchards and adversely affecting growers. In Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the highest incidence of hailstorms occurs in regions of higher elevation and continentality, with four or more events per year (Berlato et al. 2000).
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Productivity and chemical quality of grapevines cultivated in agroecological system under subtropical climate

Productivity and chemical quality of grapevines cultivated in agroecological system under subtropical climate

A grapevine can adapt to different regions. However, the meteorological conditions influence the development, the productivity and the quality of the grapes, becoming a very important factor in defining the potentialities of grapevine cultivation in a certain region (TONNIETTO and MANDELLI, 2003). This fact justifies the studies on soil and climate adaptation of the conditions of humid subtropical climates (Cfa) from the southwest of Paraná, especially for varieties newly released to the market, which still lack information.

7 Ler mais

TVDI spatiotemporal pattern of a soybean growing area in humid subtropical climate

TVDI spatiotemporal pattern of a soybean growing area in humid subtropical climate

is characterized by high crop yield and is, currently, the third leading soybean producer in the country. Therefore, agriculture is very important to the economy of the region. Because agriculture is highly dependent on variable weather parameters, the present study aimed to test the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) as a regional indicator of water status under the climate and soybean crop management conditions that predominate in northwestern Rio Grande do Sul. For this, soybean crop seasons with contrasting yields were selected: 2004 – 2005 (yield 0.5 t·ha –1 ) and 2009 – 2010 (2.7 t·ha –1 ). TVDI was
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Severidade da mancha-das-folhas (Isariopsis clavispora) em videiras cultivadas em clima subtropical/  Severity of leaf spots (Isariopsis clavispora) on grapevines cultivated in a subtropical climate

Severidade da mancha-das-folhas (Isariopsis clavispora) em videiras cultivadas em clima subtropical/ Severity of leaf spots (Isariopsis clavispora) on grapevines cultivated in a subtropical climate

The study was conducted in the Federal Technological University of Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, Paraná State, Brazil (25°45'00" latitude, 53°03'25"W longitude). The climate of the region is humid subtropical (Cfa), according to the Köppen classification, with average annual temperature of 22°C in warmest months, and less than 18°C in colder months, showing average precipitation of 2,025 mm per year (ALVAREZ et al. 2013).

10 Ler mais

Seleção de clones de batata para processamento industrial em condições de clima subtropical e temperado.

Seleção de clones de batata para processamento industrial em condições de clima subtropical e temperado.

Abstract – The objective of this work was to select potato clones for industrial processing, cultivated under subtropical and temperate conditions in Southern Brazil. Thirty advanced clones and three cultivars (control) were evaluated in the Spring of 2007 and 2008, and in the Autumn of 2008, in Júlio de Castilhos, RS (subtropical climate condition), and in the Summer of 2008 and 2009, in São Joaquim, SC (temperate climate condition). It was used a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement (33 clones in 5 environments), with two or three replicates of ten hill plots. Yield, appearance, chip color, dry matter and reducing sugar contents of tubers were evaluated. There was a significant interaction between clones and environments for all the evaluated traits, except for chip color. The yield and dry matter of tubers were higher in the summer crop. Environmental conditions affected all the evaluated traits. Growing conditions in Southern Brazil allow for the selection of potato clones with enough content of dry matter to meet the potato processing industry requirements.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

MICROMORPHOLOGY AND PEDOGENESIS OF MOUNTAINOUS INCEPTISOLS IN THE MANTIQUEIRA RANGE (MG)

MICROMORPHOLOGY AND PEDOGENESIS OF MOUNTAINOUS INCEPTISOLS IN THE MANTIQUEIRA RANGE (MG)

Understanding soil formation processes across different landscapes is needed to predict how soil properties will respond to land use change. This study aimed to characterize mountainous Inceptisols (Cambisols) under high altitude subtropical climate in southeastern Brazil, by soil physical, chemical and micromorphological analyses, under native forest and pasture. The soil under pasture had a greater bulk density than under forest, resulting in a severe reduction of macroporosity. At two depths, coarse quartz grains are angular, suggesting absence of transportational processes, thus confirming an autochthonous pedogenesis from the underlying gneissic rock. Most feldspars were weathered beyond recognition, but mineral alteration was commonly seen across cleavage plans and edges of micas. The micromorphological results suggest an intermediate stage of mineral weathering and soil development, which is in accordance with properties expected to be found in Inceptisols.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Show all 1867 documents...

temas relacionados