Human use of material resources, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, alters flows and affects the distribution and local concentrations in the environment . This is illustrated by the Bristol Bay salmon fishery, which is frequently cited as a success story in sustainable fisheries management [20,21]. In three years for which good data are available (2007– 2009), about 70% of the annual wild salmon run was harvested commercially, with one species, sockeye, accounting for about 95% of the catch . From a management perspective, the Bristol Bay sockeye fishery has been sustainable, because annual runs have not declined. Additional implications for sustainability, however, come from considering the effect of human harvest on the flows of energy and materials in the upstream ecosystem (Figure 1). When humans take about 70% of Bristol Bay sockeye runs as commercial catch, this means a 70% reduction in the number of mature salmon returning to their native waters to spawn and complete their life cycles. It also means a concom- itant reduction in the supply of salmon to support populations of predators, such as grizzly bears, bald eagles, and indigenous people, all of which historically relied on salmon for a large proportion of their diet [23,24]. Additionally, a 70% harvest means annual removal of more than 83,000 metric tonnes of salmon biomass, consisting of approximately 12,000, 2,500, and 330 tonnes of carbon, nitrogen, and phospho- rus, respectively (see Text S1 for sources and calculations). These marine-derived materials are no longer deposited inland in the Bristol Bay watershed, where they once provided important nutrient subsidies to stream, lake, riparian, and terrestrial ecosystems [24–27]. So, for example, one apparent consequence is that net primary production in one oligotrophic lake in the Bristol Bay watershed has decreased ‘‘to
Fisheries and aquaculture can be developed in a sustainable manner to generate food and jobs and improve the income and livelihoods of rural and urban populations, thus alleviating hunger and poverty. The engine for economically resilient and sustainable fisheries and aquaculture is the government’s will and resolve to establish sound policies to support and develop the sector. Full employment of productive factors, including human resources, continuous improvements in the legal and regulatory framework for the development of the sector, and scientific breakthroughs in production technologies will strengthen aquaculture and ensure its sustainability. Thereby making it a good contributor to the country’s overall economic growth through the supply of food, employment and foreign exchange and the creation of infrastructure, especially in rural areas.
Fisheries have been analysed in many contexts, considering several frameworks. The context of uncertainty is itself a very interest field to analyse the way fisheries can be organized, considering that marine resources are much exploited, often exploited either in the limits ofsustainability or others beyond these limits. Some works considering chaos in fisheries have been presented. This study intends to have in consideration chaos theory and complexity and intends to present a model to explain the dissipative effect of catches in fish marine systems.
The three types of PV modules are built with the following materials: mono-crystalline silicon(Si), poly-crystalline silicon(p-Si) and amorphous silicon(a-Si). The data provided is obtained from the SUNTECH Datasheets (Table 3). A Standard Temperature Condition (STC) is considered for the exergetic efficiency calculation. The radiative component of heat transfer coefficient was not considered. The convective component is calculated from an empirical expression given by  according to STC. The value obtained was 9,5 / . The exergetic efficiencies (Table 4) are determinated with the expression (3). Using the maximum and minimum values established, the membership function of each cell is obtained and the values are expressed in Table 5.
The first way is largely used by the majority of biologists, economists and environmentalists, scientists and technical experts that conduct studies in marine search and senior technicians from state and transnational agencies in the area offisheries. It treats nature as a system, which has a regular order. But today there are many responsible for fisheries management who also base their decisions on models of chaos. The classical models highlight a particular system and depend on a local analysis, studying several species, age, class, sub-regions of the marine eco-niche, the various ports and their discharges, depending on the account of an even wider range of other factors. Probably, the classic expression of linearity on the dynamics of the population (the principle that nature is orderly, balanced and that has a dynamic balance) is due to Maynard Smith (1968), which argues that the populations either remain relatively constant or regularly vary around an alleged point of balance. In the specific case of commercial fisheries, biologists believe that the fishing effort is often relevant to explain the deviations of actual populations’ values for the model. They say that, specially based on studies made in the last decade, fish stocks sustainability should be ensured by the control made through fisheries regulation.
This paper discusses a set ofsustainability indicators applied to Brazilian Higher Education Institutions (HEINS) to serve as a tool for measuring and disclosing sustainability practices and actions. Methodologically, a qualitative study was carried out with data collected via triangulation (semi-structured interviews, documentary research, and observations) and submitted to content analysis. As a result, it proposes the creation of an academic category consisting of four subcategories – institutional, university management, financial, and social and environmental responsibility. This category and its subcategories include a set ofsustainability indicators that enable the measurement and disclosure of the sustainability practices and actions of HEINS using a mixed-method design (quantitative and qualitative) and complementary evaluation strategies. From a managerial standpoint, research results provide the management of HEINS with tools to assess institutional performance quantitatively and qualitatively based on multiple evaluation criteria. Regarding the social aspect, this set of indicators provides society with means to assess the sustainability practices and actions of HEINS, as well as their economic, social, environmental, and academic implications. The proposal of such indicators is unique in the Brazilian context and it can potentially introduce practices for measurement and disclosure ofsustainability practices and actions of HEINS.
If the purpose of the evaluation is to conduct broader cross-sectional analyzes, involving a large number of production units, the IDEA stands out in relation to MES- MIS, because its standardized and well-structured assessment procedures favor large-scale comparisons and its application is faster, cheaper and more simple. It is also important to consider the availability of data for evaluation, because the IDEA requires predetermined data that, if unavailable, may hinder or even prevent its implementation. The MESMIS approach is very flexible in terms of indicators to be monitored, which, on the one hand, solves the issue of data unavailability, but, on the other, can leave gaps in the assessment, compromising the adhesion between the set of indicators and the concept ofsustainability. However, as noted by Zahm et al. (2008), although certain principles ofsustainability are common to agricultural systems, there is not an evaluation model suitable for all syste- ms. So even the IDEA method requires adaptations to technical, environmental, social, political and economic contexts of the production units to be evaluated, which should be done without losing the scientific principles of indicators construction.
Abstract – Biochar has the potential to make a major contribution to the mitigation of climate change, and enhancement of plant production. However, in order for biochar to fulfill this promise, the industry and regulating bodies must take steps to manage potential environmental threats and address negative perceptions. The potential threats to the sustainabilityof biochar systems, at each stage of the biochar life cycle, were reviewed. We propose that a sustainability framework for biochar could be adapted from existing frameworks developed for bioenergy. Sustainable land use policies, combined with effective regulation of biochar production facilities and incentives for efficient utilization of energy, and improved knowledge of biochar impacts on ecosystem health and productivity could provide a strong framework for the development of a robust sustainable biochar industry. Sustainability certification could be introduced to provide confidence to consumers that sustainable practices have been employed along the production chain, particularly where biochar is traded internationally. Index terms: climate change, life cycle assessment, risk management, sustainable land management.
Alaska’s Halibut allows to study the effect of the existence of ITQs and, additionally, to study the consequences in terms of the “anti-commons” (see Leal, 2002b). In fact, this specie got overexploited and authorities implemented several measures to reduce catches. First, fishing seasons were reduced. At the beginning of 90s, fisheries were opened just for two or three short periods of about 24 hours per year. Consequently, fishing race became the solution for fishers, who tried to get the maximum fish as possible, throughout the available time for fishing. In fact, results got different than the expected ones for worse. However, after the implementation of individual quotas in 1995, fishing seasons became larger and fishers could exploit this resource for around 8 months, per year. Sales increased and prices got higher (see GAO, 2002). Meanwhile, catches got smaller than TACs and fleets excesses were reduced.
Today, many interest groups demand social and environmental aspects to be considered as key variables in understanding the performance and strategic position of companies. Until recently, the concern with these aspects in business activities had involved a small group of companies. Today, however, the significant growth in the number of companies that have begun to adopt the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is evident and noticeable, especially among large organizations and business groups (Moneva, 2005b). As an example, in 2015, 92% of the 250 largest Fortune 500 companies in the world elaborated their reports following the principles of CSR, while in 2005 and 2008, that percentage barely reached 64% and 83%, respectively (KPMG, 2015).
Bank loans are a primary source of funding used by start-ups companies but the risks and uncertainties restrict the lending of spin-out companies. These companies have no history in order to estimate future cash flows and have no assets to provide the guarantees required by credit institutions. For these reasons, even when bank loans are available, the interest rates are very high. Researchers often need small amounts of money, micro credits of 25,000 Euro or less. However there are difficulties even in this case because of information asymmetry and the fact that lenders often perceive micro credit as a high-cost activity.
Ensis siliqua, or pod razor shell, is a thin-shelled commercially targeted bivalve that was banned from being fished and landed in the south coast of Portugal until December 2015 (Portaria 170-A/2014) and has been recommended by IPMA to remain closed until the end of 2016 (Gaspar et al., 2015a). In this region this species is more abundant between 3 and 5 metres (Gaspar et al., 2015a) and usually burrows close to the sediment surface, although it can burrow down to 60 cm when disturbed (Gaspar et al., 1998). E. siliqua suffered very high mortality independently of the dredge used, which is justified by the tooth length of the dredge bar (200 mm) and the maximum burrowing depth of Ensis (60 cm) (Gaspar et al., 1998). Indeed, in a resting situation, without perturbation, this species burrows close to the surface, with its siphon sticking out of the sediment. When it feels any perturbation, such as dredging, it burrows deeper in the sediment in a defensive response. Therefore, when DDredge and SDredge are used most of Ensis individuals are hit by the teeth in the upper and middle portions of the shell, leading to its breakage (Gaspar et al., 1998). Robinson & Richardson (1998) detected higher vulnerability to predation in discarded individuals of Ensis arcuatus due to slow reburial. So, although undetected during this study, even if pod razor shells are discarded alive, their survival is probably very low.
O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o índice de sustentabilidade do Município de Touros-RN através da metodologia “Barometer ofSustainability”, no ano de 2010. A coleta de dados foi embasada em levantamentos secundários aos bancos de dados do IBGE, da Confederação Nacional de Municípios e do Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Norte no período correspondente a outubro de 2010 e julho de 2011. Para efeito de estudo a escolha dos indicadores envolvidos foram tomados a partir da disponibilidade destes para subsistema humano (HWI) e ecológico (EWI), sendo eles: expectativa de vida, mortalidade infantil, desnutrição, taxa de fertilidade, abastecimento de água, esgoto sanitário, alfabetização, taxa de escolaridade,
The recent years has arisen a global discussion in relation with how to incorporate sustainability at a business level. Corporate sustainability is a multidimensional concept, is the translation of Sustainable Development concept at a business level. Sustainability in organizations must be managed and assessed by decision makers, for that reason a multi-criteria sustainability performance measurement is necessary. The aim of this paper is combine different important tools that helps to make operative corporate sustainability and sustainability performance measurement in Cuban organizations. The combination ofSustainability Balanced Scorecard, multi-criteria decisions models like: Analytic Network Process, and Matrix of Sustainable Strategic Alignment, can help managers in sustainability performance measurement and assessment. The result of this paper focus in a Corporate Sustainability Measurement Network design as a first approach for further sustainability performance measurement systems development emphasizing in multi-criteria analysis.
Germplasm cryopreservation also assist the ex situ conservation for preserving the genomes of threatened and endangered species. The establishment of germplasm banks using cryopreservation can contribute to conservation and extant populations in the future. Since the first successful cryopreservation of bull semen (Polge et al. 1949), cryopreserved bull semen has been used to propagate the rare and endangered species using assisted reproduction techniques. Every year, more than 25 million cows are artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed bull semen (Foote 1975) and many bovine calves have been produced using the transfer of cryopreserved embryos into cow (Mapletoft and Hasler 2005). Tissues, cultured cell lines, DNA and serum samples could be frozen and store in cryogene bank. For example, mice and sheep have been generated from frozen-thawed pieces of ovary that have been replaced in a female and stimulated to ovulation. (Gosden et al. 1994; Candy et al. 2000; Sapundzhiev 2008). The principle of testicular cell freezing and transplantation has been demonstrated and is currently used for human male infertility (Clouthier et al. 1996). Significant efforts are being made on non-mammalian species using cryobiology techniques. In fish aquaculture, the successful cryopreservation of gametes and embryos could offer new commercial possibilities, allowing the unlimited production of fry and potentially healthier and better conditioned fish as required. Cryopreservation of reproductive products of many aquatic species has been successfully achieved. Cryopreservation of aquatic sperm is relatively common in the breeding and management of fish species, including salmonid, cyprinids, silurids, and Acipenseridae (família) is well documented (Magyary et al. 1996; Tsvetkova et al. 1996). However, cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes of aquatic species have not been successful, except for eastern oyster eggs (Crassostrea virginica) (Tervit et al. 2005), larvae of eastern oyster (Paniagua-Chavez and Tiersch 2001) and larvae of the sea urchin (Adams et al. 2006).
variables, we applied two-stage OLS and GMM. For regressions with OLS in two stages and GMM, we reduced the number of independent variables and selected the most appropriate instrumental variables. In GMM, we applied the Kernel- Barlett spectral estimation method, with a fixed bandwidth equal to the number of instrumental variables included in the equations tested; this number varied between 5 and 6 in tests carried out. Also as to the equations tested by GMM, statistic J values presented were always small and close to zero, revealing the quality of instrumental variables applied and indicating no overidentification, proving the quality of models’ estimation.
These two Roman stucco relief panels from the Art Institute of Chicago are visually compelling (Figs. 1-2). The stark white igures hover in the abstracted space of the blue background, a format typical to the sacro-idyllic genre. Their subject matter, unfortunately, is far from typical. Since their original indspot is unknown, the museum lacks much of the information which might help one reach a deeper understanding of them as “art works.” The goal of this article is to ill in these gaps by opening a dialogue about the current state of research on these images and situate them within the larger context of maenad imagery in imperial Roman visual culture. Through an exploration of the processes by which objects such as these are torn from their original contexts of display, it further considers both what is lost by and what is gained from displaying objects like these reliefs in a museum setting.
Volume 2 of Chronika contains articles from graduate students in departments of Anthropology, Classics and Visual Studies that demonstrate the beneits of interdisciplinary research in concrete terms. Each article incorporates themes that supersede disciplinary boundaries and invite multidimensional interpretations of the past. Prominent themes in this volume include technological choice, landscape studies, monumentality, power, and ritual practice. By studying how these themes are manifest in a number of different archaeological contexts across time and space, we can experience the tangible beneits of interdisciplinary research.